44 Works

Data from: Projecting consequences of global warming for the functional diversity of fleshy-fruited plants and frugivorous birds along a tropical elevational gradient

Larissa Nowak, W. Daniel Kissling, Irene M. A. Bender, D. Matthias Dehling, Till Töpfer, Katrin Böhning-Gaese & Matthias Schleuning
Aim: Species in ecological communities are linked by biotic interactions. It is therefore important to simultaneously study the impacts of global warming on interdependent taxa from different trophic levels. Here, we quantify current and potential future associations of functional diversity (based on multiple traits) and functional identity (based on individual traits) between interacting taxa using projection models under climate change. Location: A tropical elevational gradient (500–3500 m a.s.l.) in the Manú biosphere reserve, southeast Peru...

Data from: Non-native species spread in a complex network: the interaction of global transport and local population dynamics determines invasion success

Hanno Seebens, Elizabeta Briski, Sara Ghabooli, Tamara Shiganova, Hugh MacIsaac & Bernd Blasius
The number of released individuals, which is a component of propagule pressure, is considered to be a major driver for the establishment success of non-native species. However, propagule pressure is often assumed to result from single or few release events, which does not necessarily apply to the frequent releases of invertebrates or other taxa through global transport. For instance, the high intensity of global shipping may result in frequent releases of large numbers of individuals,...

Diurnal timing of nonmigratory movement by birds: the importance of foraging spatial scales

Julie Mallon, Marlee Tucker, Annalea Beard, , Keith Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, John Brzorad, Evan Buechley, Javier Bustamante, Carlos Carrapato, José Castillo-Guerrero, Elizabeth Clingham, Mark Desholm, Christopher DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Hayley Douglas, Olivier Duriez, Peter Enggist, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Anna Gagliardo, Clara García-Ripollés, Juan Antonio Gil, Morgan Gilmour, Roi Harel … & Bill Fagan
Timing of activity can reveal an organism’s efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of timing of movement activity among species using six temporal variables: start of activity relative to sunrise, end of activity relative to...

Mammal population densities at a global scale are higher in human-modified areas

Marlee A. Tucker, Luca Santini, Chris Carbone & Thomas Mueller
Global landscapes are changing due to human activities with consequences for both biodiversity and ecosystems. For single species, terrestrial mammal population densities have shown mixed responses to human pressure, with both increasing and decreasing densities reported in the literature. How the impacts of human activities on mammal populations translates into altered global density patterns remains unclear. Here we aim to disentangle the effect of human impacts on large-scale patterns of mammal population densities using a...

The influence of biogeographical and evolutionary histories on morphological trait-matching and resource specialization in mutualistic hummingbird-plant networks

Bo Dalsgaard, Pietro Maruyama, Jesper Sonne, Katrine Hansen, Thais Zanata, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Ruben Alarcon, Andréa Araujo, Francielle Araújo, Silvana Buzato, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline Coelho, Pete Cotton, Román Díaz-Valenzuela, Maria Dufke, Paula Enríquez, Manoel Martins Dias Filho, Erich Fischer, Glauco Kohler, Carlos Lara, Flor Maria Las-Casas, Liliana Rosero Lasprilla, Adriana Machado, Caio Machado, Maria Maglianesi … & Ana M. Martín González
Functional traits can determine pairwise species interactions, such as those between plants and pollinators. However, the effects of biogeography and evolutionary history on trait-matching and trait-mediated resource specialization remain poorly understood. We compiled a database of 93 mutualistic hummingbird-plant networks (including 181 hummingbird and 1,256 plant species), complemented by morphological measures of hummingbird bill and floral corolla length. We divided the hummingbirds into their principal clades and used knowledge on hummingbird biogeography to divide the...

Data from: Observing frugivores or collecting scats: A method comparison to construct quantitative seed dispersal networks

Jan Schlautmann, Finn Rehling, Jörg Albrecht, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Dana G. Schabo & Nina Farwig
Mutualistic interactions form the basis for many ecological processes and are often analyzed within the framework of ecological networks. These interactions can be sampled with a range of methods and first analyses of pollination networks sampled with different methods showed differences in common network metrics. However, it is yet unknown if metrics of seed dispersal networks are similarly affected by the sampling method and if different methods detect a complementary set of frugivores. This is...

Data from: Comparing methods for mapping global parasite diversity

Paula Pappalardo, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Andrew Park, Shan Huang, John Schmidt & Patrick Stephens
Aim Parasites are a major component of global ecosystems, yet spatial variation in parasite diversity is poorly known, largely because their occurrence data are limited and thus difficult to interpret. Using a recently compiled database of parasite occurrences, we compare different models which we use to infer parasite geographic ranges and parasite species richness across the globe. Innovation To date, most studies exploring spatial patterns of parasite diversity assumed, with little validation, that the geographic...

Agricultural intensification and land use change: assessing country-level induced intensification, land sparing and rebound effect

Virginia Rodriguez Garcia, Patrick Meyfroidt, Frédéric Gaspart & Thomas Kastner
In the context of growing societal demands for land based products, crop production can be increased through expanding cropland or intensifying production on cultivated land. Intensification can allow sparing land for nature, but it can also drive further expansion of cropland, i.e. a rebound effect. Conversely, constraints on cropland expansion may induce intensification. We tested those hypotheses by investigating the bidirectional relations between changes in cropland area and intensity, using a global cross-country panel dataset...

Data from: Global vegetation patterns of the past 140,000 years

Judy Allen, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Joy Singarayer, Paul Valdes & Brian Huntley
Aim Insight into global biome responses to climatic and other environmental changes is essential to address key questions about past and future impacts of such changes. By simulating global biome patterns 140 ka to present we aimed to address important questions about biome changes during this interval. Location Global. Taxon Plantae. Methods Using the LPJ-GUESS dynamic global vegetation model, we made 89 simulations driven using ice-core atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Earth’s obliquity, and outputs from a...

Data from: Positive selection in development and growth rate regulation genes involved in species divergence of the genus Radix

Barbara Feldmeyer, Bastian Greshake, Elisabeth Funke, Simit Patel, Ingo Ebersberger & Markus Pfenninger
Background: Life history traits like developmental time, age and size at maturity are directly related to fitness in all organisms and play a major role in adaptive evolution and speciation processes. Comparative genomic or transcriptomic approaches to identify positively selected genes involved in species divergence can help to generate hypotheses on the driving forces behind speciation. Here we use a bottom-up approach to investigate this hypothesis by comparative analysis of orthologous transcripts of four closely...

Data from: Disentangling the effects of multiple environmental drivers on population changes within communities

Diana E. Bowler, Henning Heldbjerg, Anthony D. Fox, Robert B. O'Hara & Katrin Böhning-Gaese
1. The effects of different environmental drivers on the changes in species’ population abundances can be difficult to disentangle since they often act simultaneously. Researchers have built statistical models that include environmental variables (such as annual temperature), or species attributes (such as a species’ temperature preference), which are assumed to detect the impacts of specific drivers (such as climate change). However, these approaches are often applied separately or, if combined, not explicitly compared. 2. We...

Data from: Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the mechanisms underpinning ageing and fecundity in social insects

Judith Korb, Karen Meusemann, Denise Aumer, Abel Bernadou, Daniel Elsner, Barbara Feldmeyer, Susanne Foitzik, Jürgen Heinze, Romain Libbrecht, Silu Lin, Megha Majoe, José Manuel Monroy Kuhn, Volker Nehring, Matteo A. Negroni, Robert J. Paxton, Alice C. Séguret, Marah Stoldt & Thomas Flatt
Exceptional longevity of social insect queens despite their lifelong high fecundity remains poorly understood in ageing biology. To gain insights into the mechanisms that might underlie ageing in social insects, we compared gene expression patterns between young and old castes (both queens and workers) across different lineages of social insects (two termite, two bee and two ant species). After global analyses, we paid particular attention to genes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling (IIS)/target...

Data from: Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems

Adam Tomasovych, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Tristan J. Betzner, Nicole Bitler Kuehnle, Stewart Edie, Sora Kim, K. Supriya, Alexander E. White, Carsten Rahbek, Shan Huang, Trevor D. Price & David Jablonski
Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size—on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level...

Data from: Evolutionary processes, dispersal limitation and climatic history shape current diversity patterns of European dragonflies

Stefan Pinkert, Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra, Dirk Zeuss, Christoph Reudenbach, Roland Brandl & Christian Hof
We investigated the effects of contemporary and historical factors on the spatial variation of European dragonfly diversity. Specifically, we tested to what extent patterns of endemism and phylogenetic diversity of European dragonfly assemblages are structured by (i) phylogenetic conservatism of thermal adaptations and (ii) differences in the ability of post-glacial recolonization by species adapted to running waters (lotic) and still waters (lentic). We investigated patterns of dragonfly diversity using digital distribution maps and a phylogeny...

Data from: Effects of hummingbird morphology on specialization in pollination networks vary with resource availability

Boris A. Tinoco, Catherine H. Graham, Juan M. Aguilar & Matthias Schleuning
Specialization of species in interaction networks influences network stability and ecosystem functioning. Spatial and temporal variation in resource availability may provide insight into how ecological factors, such as resource abundance, and evolutionary factors, such as phylogenetically conserved morphological traits, influence specialization within mutualistic networks. We used independent measures of hummingbird abundance and resources (nectar), information on hummingbird traits and plant–hummingbird interactions to examine how resource availability and species' morphology influence the specialization of hummingbirds in...

Data from: Unique evolutionary trajectories in repeated adaptation to hydrogen sulphide-toxic habitats of a neotropical fish (Poecilia mexicana)

Markus Pfenninger, Simit Patel, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Barbara Feldmeyer, Rüdiger Riesch & Martin Plath
Replicated ecological gradients are prime systems to study processes of molecular evolution underlying ecological divergence. Here, we investigated the repeated adaptation of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to habitats containing toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and compared two population pairs of sulphide-adapted and ancestral fish by sequencing population pools of >200 individuals (Pool-Seq). We inferred the evolutionary processes shaping divergence and tested the hypothesis of increase of parallelism from SNPs to molecular pathways. Coalescence analyses showed...

Data from: Quantifying the climatic niche of symbiont partners in a lichen symbiosis indicates mutualist-mediated niche expansions

Gregor Rolshausen, Francesco Dal Grande, Anna Sadowska-Deś, Juergen Otte & Imke Schmitt
The large distributional areas and ecological niches of many lichenized fungi may in part be due to the plasticity in interactions between the fungus (mycobiont) and its algal or cyanobacterial partners (photobionts). On the one hand, broad-scale phylogenetic analyses show that partner compatibility in lichens is rather constrained and shaped by reciprocal selection pressures and codiversification independent of ecological drivers. On the other hand, sub-species-level associations among lichen symbionts appear to be environmentally structured rather...

Data from: How ants acclimate: impact of climatic conditions on the cuticular hydrocarbon profile

Florian Menzel, Miriam Zumbusch & Barbara Feldmeyer
1. Organisms from temperate zones are exposed to seasonal changes and must be able to cope with a wide range of climatic conditions. Especially ectotherms, including insects, are at risk to desiccate under dry and warm conditions, the more so given the changing climate. 2. To adjust to current conditions, organisms acclimate through changes in physiology, morphology and/or behaviour. Insects protect themselves against desiccation through a layer of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) on their body surface....

Data from: Cross-taxa generalities in the relationship between population abundance and ambient temperatures

Diana E. Bowler, Peter Haase, Christian Hof, Ingrid Kröncke, Léon Baert, Wouter Dekoninck, Sami Domisch, Frederik Hendrickx, Thomas Hickler, Hermann Neumann, Robert B. O'Hara, Anne F. Sell, Moritz Sonnewald, Stefan Stoll, Michael Türkay, Roel Van Klink, Oliver Schweiger, Rikjan Vermeulen & Katrin Boehning-Gaese
Identifying patterns in the effects of temperature on species' population abundances could help develop a general framework for predicting the consequences of climate change across different communities and realms. We used long-term population time series data from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species communities within central Europe to compare the effects of temperature on abundance across a broad range of taxonomic groups. We asked whether there was an average relationship between temperatures in different seasons and...

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