311 Works

Data from: Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore

Jill T. Anderson, Tim Nuttle, Joe S. Saldaña Rojas, Thomas H. Pendergast & Alexander S. Flecker
Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the largebodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive...

Data from: Analysis of inbreeding depression in mixed-mating plants provides evidence for selective interference and stable mixed mating

Alice A Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Susan Kalisz, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G Eckert, Carol Goodwillie, Mark O. Johnston, David A Moeller, Richard H Ree, Risa D Sargent & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Hermaphroditic individuals can produce both selfed and outcrossed progeny, termed mixed mating. General theory predicts that mixed-mating populations should evolve quickly toward high rates of selfing, driven by rapid purging of genetic load and loss of inbreeding depression (ID), but the substantial number of mixed-mating species observed in nature calls this prediction into question. Greater average ID reported for selfing than for outcrossing populations is consistent with purging and suggests that mixed-mating taxa in evolutionary...

Data from: Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Rickey D. Cothran, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Cindy Murray, Beverly J. French, Paul W. Bradley, Jenny Urbina, Andrew R. Blaustein & Rick A. Relyea
Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival...

Data from: Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans

Stephen J. D. O’Keefe, Jia V. Li, Leo Lahti, Junhai Ou, Franck Carbonero, Mohammed Khaled, Joram M. Posma, James Kinross, Elaine Wahl, Elizabeth Ruder, Kishore Vipperla, Vasudevan Naidoo, Lungile Mtshali, Sebastian Tims, Philippe G. B. Puylaert, James DeLany, Alyssa Krasinskas, Ann C. Benefiel, Hatem O. Kaseb, Keith Newton, Jeremy K. Nicholson, Willem M. De Vos, H. Rex Gaskins & Erwin G. Zoetendal
Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in...

Data from: Sensory limitations and the maintenance of color polymorphisms: viewing the ‘alba’ female polymorphism through the visual system of male Colias butterflies

Lisa B. Limeri & Nathan I. Morehouse
Although color polymorphisms are a widespread and conspicuous component of extant biodiversity, the selective pressures that act to maintain multiple morphs within populations remain poorly understood in most cases. In particular, the role that visual system limitations may play in maintaining multiple color morphs is not well explored. We used a female-limited color polymorphism common to the butterfly genus Colias, called the ‘alba’ polymorphism, to investigate the hypotheses that mate-searching males may struggle to discriminate...

Data from: The Achilles' heel hypothesis: misinformed keystone individuals impair collective learning and reduce group success

Jonathan Pruitt, Colin Wright, Carl Keiser, Alexander DeMarco, Matt Grobis, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Matthew M. Grobis, Alex E. DeMarco, Carl N. Keiser, Jonathan N. Pruitt & Colin M. Wright
Many animal societies rely on highly influential keystone individuals for proper functioning. When information quality is important for group success, such keystone individuals have the potential to diminish group performance if they possess inaccurate information. Here we test whether information quality (accurate or inaccurate) influences collective outcomes when keystone individuals are the first to acquire it. We trained keystone or generic individuals to attack or avoid novel stimuli and implanted these seed individuals within groups...

Data from: Discovery of metabolic biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy within a natural history study

Simina M. Boca, Maki Nishida, Michael Harris, Shruti Rao, Amrita K. Cheema, Kirandeep Gill, Haeri Seol, Lauren P. Morgenroth, Erik Henricson, Craig McDonald, Jean K. Mah, Paula R. Clemens, Eric P. Hoffman, Yetrib Hathout & Subha Madhavan
Serum metabolite profiling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may enable discovery of valuable molecular markers for disease progression and treatment response. Serum samples from 51 DMD patients from a natural history study and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for discovery of novel circulating serum metabolites associated with DMD. Fourteen metabolites were found significantly altered (1% false discovery rate) in their levels between DMD patients and healthy...

Data from: The expression of established cognitive brain states stabilizes with working memory development

David Florentino Montez, Finnegan J. Calabro & Beatriz Luna
We present results from a longitudinal study conducted over 10 years in a sample of 126 8-33 year olds demonstrating that adolescent development of working memory is supported by decreased variability in the amplitude of expression of whole brain states of task-related activity. fMRI analyses reveal that putative gain signals affecting maintenance and retrieval aspects of working memory processing stabilize during adolescence, while those affecting sensorimotor processes do not. We show that trial-to-trial variability in...

Data from: The evolution of floral sonication, a pollen foraging behavior used by bees (Anthophila)

Sophie Cardinal, Stephen L. Buchmann & Avery Leigh Russell
Over 22,000 species of biotically pollinated flowering plants, including some major agricultural crops, depend primarily on bees capable of floral sonication for pollination services. The ability to sonicate (“buzz”) flowers is widespread in bees but not ubiquitous. Despite the prevalence of this pollinator behavior and its importance to natural and agricultural systems, the evolutionary history of floral sonication in bees has not been previously studied. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of floral sonication in...

Data from: Glucocorticoid-environment relationships align with responses to environmental change in two co-occurring congeners

Talisin T. Hammond, Rupert Palme & Eileen A. Lacey
As more species undergo range shifts in response to climate change, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that determine an organism’s realized niche. Physiological limits imposed by abiotic factors constrain the distributions of many species. Because glucocorticoids are essential to the maintenance of physiological homeostasis, identifying glucocorticoid-environment relationships may generate critical insights into both limits on species distributions and potential responses to environmental change. We explored relationships between variability in baseline glucocorticoids and...

Data from: Differential requirements for the RAD51 paralogs in genome repair and maintenance in human cells

Edwige B. Garcin, Stéphanie Gon, Meghan R. Sullivan, Gregory J. Brunette, Anne De Cian, Jean-Paul Concordet, Carine Giovannangeli, Wilhelm G. Dirks, Sonja Eberth, Kara A. Bernstein, Rohit Prakash, Maria Jasin & Mauro Modesti
Deficiency in several of the classical human RAD51 paralogs [RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3] is associated with cancer predisposition and Fanconi anemia. To investigate their functions, isogenic disruption mutants for each were generated in non-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells and in transformed U2OS and HEK293 cells. In U2OS and HEK293 cells, viable ablated clones were readily isolated for each RAD51 paralog; in contrast, with the exception of RAD51B, RAD51 paralogs are cell-essential in MCF10A...

Data from: Adaptation, chance, and history in experimental evolutionary reversals to unicellularity

María Rebolleda-Gómez & Michael Travisano
Evolution is often deemed irreversible. The evolution of complex traits that require many mutations makes their reversal unlikely. Even in simpler traits, reversals might become less likely as neutral or beneficial mutations, with deleterious effects in the ancestral context, become fixed in the novel background. This is especially true in changes that involve large re-organizations of the organism and its interactions with the environment. The evolution of multicellularity involves the reorganization of previously autonomous cells...

Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, neurology outcomes, and death in older adults, supplement methods & tables, STROND checklist

Stephen Juraschek, , Oscar L. Lopez, John S Gottdiener, Lewis A Lipsitz, Lewis H. Kuller & Kenneth J Mukamal
Objective To test the hypothesis that orthostatic hypotension (OH) might cause cerebral hypoperfusion and injury, we examined the longitudinal relationship between orthostatic hypotension (OH) or orthostatic symptoms and incident neurologic outcomes in a community population of older adults. Methods Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants (≥65yrs) without dementia or stroke had blood pressure (BP) measured after lying 20-minutes and after standing 3-minutes. Participants reported dizziness immediately upon standing and any dizziness in the past 2wks. OH...

Data associated with \"Floral pigmentation has responded rapidly to global change in ozone and temperature\"

Matthew Koski, Drew MacQueen & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Across kingdoms, organisms ameliorate UV stress by increasing UV-absorbing pigmentation. Rapid ozone degradation during the 20th century resulted in elevated UV incidence, yet pigmentation responses to this aspect of global change have yet to be demonstrated. In flowering plants, UV exposure favors larger areas of UV-absorbing pigmentation on petals, which protects pollen from UV-damage. Pigmentation also affects floral thermoregulation, suggesting climate warming may additionally impact pigmentation. We used 1238 herbarium specimens collected from 1941 to...

Neural activity during a simple reaching task in macaques is counter to gating and rebound in basal ganglia-thalamic communication

Bettina Schwab, Daisuke Kase, Andrew Zimnik, Robert Rosenbaum, Marcello Codianni, Jonathan Rubin & Robert Turner
Task-related activity in the ventral thalamus, a major target of basal ganglia output, is often assumed to be permitted or triggered by changes in basal ganglia activity through gating- or rebound-like mechanisms. To test those hypotheses, we sampled single-unit activity from connected basal ganglia output and thalamic nuclei (globus pallidus-internus, GPi, and ventrolateral-anterior nucleus, VLa) in monkeys performing a reaching task. Rate increases were the most common peri-movement change in both nuclei. Moreover, peri-movement changes...

Characterization of hierarchical structures in remelted Ni-Mn-Ga substrates for directed energy deposition manufacturing of single crystals

Paplham Tyler, Jakub Toman & Markus Chmielus

Data from: Novel sources of (co)variation in nestling begging behavior and hunger at different biological levels of analysis

Daniel Wetzel, Ariane Mutzel, Jonathan Wright & Niels Dingemanse
Biological hypotheses predicting patterns of offspring begging typically concern the covariance with hunger and/or development at specific hierarchical levels. For example, hunger drives within-individual patterns of begging, but begging also drives food intake among individuals within broods, and begging and food intake can covary positively or negatively among genotypes or broods. Testing biological phenomena that occur at multiple levels therefore requires the partitioning of covariance between traits of interest to ensure that each level-specific relationship...

Data from: Nonnative old-field species inhabit early-season phenological niches and exhibit unique sensitivity to climate

Rachel Reeb, Isabel Acevedo, Mason Heberling & Sara Kuebbing
Native and nonnative plant species can exhibit differences in the timing of their reproductive phenology as well as their phenological sensitivity to climate. These contrasts may influence species’ interactions and the invasion potential of nonnative species; however, a limited number of phenology studies expressly consider phenological mismatches among native and nonnative species over broad spatial or temporal scales. To fill this knowledge gap, we used two complementary approaches: first, we quantified the flowering phenology of...

Building Workplace Democracy

Trevor Young-Hyman

Locomotor Adaptability for Community Mobility of Older Adults: The Role of Gait Automaticity

Andrea Rosso, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo & Andrea Weinstein

Investigating targettable pathways in Robinow Syndrome

Heather Szabo Rogers

Evaluating Prescription Drug Subsidies for Diabetics: Effects on Medication Adherence and Health Outcomes

Eric Roberts & Immaculada Hernandez

Pittsburgh Phage Project (P3)

John Williams, Jennifer Bomberger, Vaughn Cooper, Tim Corcoran, Yohei Doi, Balasubramani Goundappa, Ghady Haidar, Graham Hatfull, Alina Iovleva, Geoff Kurland, Seema Lakdawala, Marian Michaels, Stephanie Mitchell, Lisa Parker, Jim Pipas, Doug Reed, Ryan Shields, Fernanda Silveira, Daria Van Tyne, Anna Wang-Erickson & Steve Wisniewski

Mouse substantia nigra responses to optogenetic stimulation of projections from striatum and globus pallidus

Ryan Phillips, Ian Rosner, Aryn Gittis & Jonathan Rubin
As a rodent basal ganglia (BG) output nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is well positioned to impact behavior. SNr neurons receive GABAergic inputs from the striatum (direct pathway) and globus pallidus (GPe, indirect pathway). Dominant theories of action selection rely on these pathways' inhibitory actions. Yet, experimental results on SNr responses to these inputs are limited and include excitatory effects. Our study combines experimental and computational work to characterize, explain, and make predictions...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    113
  • 2021
    52
  • 2020
    49
  • 2019
    14
  • 2018
    16
  • 2017
    11
  • 2016
    11
  • 2015
    12
  • 2014
    5
  • 2013
    9

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    177
  • Image
    79
  • Text
    39
  • Collection
    9
  • Journal Article
    2
  • Other
    2
  • Output Management Plan
    2
  • Event
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Pittsburgh
    292
  • Capital Medical University
    19
  • Magee-Womens Research Institute
    16
  • Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
    14
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
    14
  • Drexel University
    14
  • Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University
    13
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    13
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    13
  • Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine
    13