256 Works

From Titusville to Tuver with a Stop in Lagos: Digitizing and Internationalizing Pitt's Manufacturing Assistance Center Model

John Stoner, Bopaya Bidanda, John Wallace, Ravi Madhavan & M. Najeeb Shafiq
Since 1994, the Pitt Manufacturing Assistance Center (MAC) has provided workforce development training in skills relevant to contemporary manufacturing employment. This research project intends to examine research questions related to plans to adapt the MAC model to Titusville’s Education and Training Hub and two different international environments: an urban site in Lagos, Nigeria, and a rural site in Tuver, India. The research objective of this multidisciplinary team is to develop and conduct research that leverages...

Digital Resistance

Olga Kuchinskaya
For citizens seeking to challenge authoritarian regimes, new media are said to provide new mobilization and coordination abilities. At the same time, digital technologies improve regimes’ surveillance and repression abilities. The proposed project intervenes in this debate on the role of digital media in networked movements. Using the example of the 2020 large-scale post-election protests in Belarus, the ongoing brutal crackdown by the Belarusian regime, and the continued efforts of activists, this research argues that...

Center for Text Analytic Methods in Legal Studies

Kevin Ashley, James Anderson, Daqing He, Diane Litman & Rebecca Hwa
The Center for Text Analytic Methods in Legal Studies is a research collaboration of experts from the University of Pittsburgh’s Schools of Law and Computing and Information, the RAND Corporation, Duquesne Law School, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Their goal is to apply newly developed machine learning and natural language processing techniques to newly available sources of legal text data to evaluate legal and social questions involving racism, gender equality, immigration, public health, crime, or education...

Elucidating variable immune responses regulation through non-coding RNA-target interactomes

Olanrewaju Morenikeji
Non-coding RiboNucleic Acids (ncRNAs) are small molecules involved in modulation of gene expression. There is very scant information on how they are involved with our body’s response to infectious diseases. A better understanding of how our immune system is regulated through these ncRNAs in the presence of germs would significantly benefit disease surveillance and design of new drugs for diseases like COVID-19. There is major variation in host-pathogen relationships leading to balanced or unbalanced immune...

Unpolished UNCD (measured with 10.11 nm AFM tip)

Antoine Sanner, Wolfram G. Nöhring, Luke A. Thimons, Tevis D. B. Jacobs & Lars Pastewka
Substrate material – Unpolished Ultrananocrystalline Diamond. Substrate Manufacturer – Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc.

Unpolished ultrananocrystalline diamond

Luke A. Thimons, Abhijeet Gujrati, Antoine Sanner, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
unpolished UNCD film on silicon wafer Substrate Manufacturer : Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.

Unpolished ultrananocrystalline diamond

Luke A. Thimons, Abhijeet Gujrati, Antoine Sanner, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
unpolished UNCD film on silicon wafer Substrate Manufacturer : Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.

Synthetic self-affine topography scanned with a virtual spherical probe

Tevis D. B. Jacobs, Till Junge & Lars Pastewka
This surface contains a self-affine topography that has been scanned with a spherical virtual probe of radius 40 nm. The probe was lowered normal to the surface on each point of the reference topography (that is also included here) and the center of the probe was taken as the "measured" value of the topography. The reference topography has a Hurst exponent of 0.8 and was generated with a Fourier-filtering algorithm. This surface was used to...

Quarry 1 Floor Tile

Ruikang Ding, Abhijeet Gujrati, Matthew M. Pendolino, Kurt E. Beschorner & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
These are surface profiles of quarry 1 smooth flooring. The quarry 1 (0T01881P, Daltile, Dallas, TX, USA) and quarry 2 (01 010 SM 1, Summitville, OH, USA) were commercial tiles, where the full composition was a trade secret, but they were known to include 15-25 wt% quartz, and quarry 2 also included abrasive grits on the surface, presumably to improve slip resistance. There are 30 profiles generated from image analysis and measured by SEM. 10...

Ceramic Floor Tile

Ruikang Ding, Abhijeet Gujrati, Matthew M. Pendolino, Kurt E. Beschorner & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
These are surface profiles of ceramic flooring. The ceramic tile (ADJF250803, ASTM) was a reference tile that was used in the reference standard ASTM F2508-12a. There are 30 profiles generated from image analysis and measured by SEM. 10 profiles are from 250X magnification, 10 profiles are from 5000X magnification, and 10 profiles are from 100kX magnification. There are also 6 profiles measured by stylus profilometry.

Microcrystalline Diamond

Abhijeet Gujrati, Subarna R. Khanal, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
MCD surface topography measured using TEM, AFM, and Stylus Profilometry

Drivers of Topography in Fold-thrust Belts: A Perspective from Central Nepal

Paul R Eizenhöfer, Nadine McQuarrie & Suryodoy Ghoshal(
Topography in fold-thrust belts over geologic time reflects the development of an orogenic Coulomb wedge that represents a balance of tectonic and erosional forcings. The establishment of critically tapered topography is generally viewed under two contrasting mechanical frameworks: (i) shortening and rock uplift are occurring everywhere suggesting an orogenic wedge under mechanical failure everywhere; and (ii) rock displacement takes place along discrete fault planes, including the translation of uplifted topography laterally. Here we investigate whether...

Data from: Public sharing of research datasets: a pilot study of associations

Heather A. Piwowar & Wendy W. Chapman
The public sharing of primary research datasets potentially benefits the research community but is not yet common practice. In this pilot study, we analyzed whether data sharing frequency was associated with funder and publisher requirements, journal impact factor, or investigator experience and impact. Across 397 recent biomedical microarray studies, we found investigators were more likely to publicly share their raw dataset when their study was published in a high-impact journal and when the first or...

Data from: Land use history and seed dispersal drive divergent plant community assembly patterns in urban vacant lots

Anna L. Johnson, Dorothy Borowy & Christopher M. Swan
1. Despite high levels of disturbance and habitat modification, urban ecosystems still host substantial levels of biodiversity. The processes that maintain existing levels of diversity, however, remain understudied. Identifying the links between urban ecological processes and patterns has, therefore, become a fundamental research goal to support urban biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We conducted a study to determine how the diversity and composition of urban plant communities is affected by spatially and temporally variable land...

Data from: Persistent chaos of measles epidemics in the prevaccination United States caused by a small change in seasonal transmission patterns

Benjamin D. Dalziel, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Willem G. Van Panhuis, Donald S. Burke, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Bryan T. Grenfell & Ottar N. Bjørnstad
Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur in predictable limit cycles. Theory suggests these cycles can be disrupted by high amplitude seasonal fluctuations in transmission rates, resulting in deterministic chaos. However, persistent deterministic chaos has never been observed, in part because sufficiently large oscillations in transmission rates are uncommon. Where they do occur, the resulting deep epidemic troughs break the chain of transmission, leading to epidemic extinction, even in large cities. Here we demonstrate a new...

Data from: Proximity to roads disrupts rodents’ contributions to seed dispersal services and subsequent recruitment dynamics

Wenwen Chen, Jie Zhong, Walter Carson, Zhanhui Tang, Zongqiang Xie, Shucun Sun & Youbing Zhou
1. Seed dispersal and subsequent recruitment dynamics play a crucially important role in regulating species coexistence and structuring tree diversity in diverse forests. Wildlife, which can dually shape the tree recruitment process by simultaneously functioning as natural enemies and seed dispersers, are undergoing widespread changes in population and behaviour due to the detrimental effects of expanding global road networks. However, the impact of these changes on recruitment dynamics through the alteration of seed dispersal processes...

Negative frequency-dependent selection maintains coexisting genotypes during fluctuating selection

Vaughn Cooper, Caroline Turner, Sean Buskirk & Katrina Harris
Natural environments are rarely static; rather selection can fluctuate on time scales ranging from hours to centuries. However, it is unclear how adaptation to fluctuating environments differs from adaptation to constant environments at the genetic level. For bacteria, one key axis of environmental variation is selection for planktonic or biofilm modes of growth. We conducted an evolution experiment with Burkholderia cenocepacia, comparing the evolutionary dynamics of populations evolving under constant selection for either biofilm formation...

Data from: Shoaling guppies evade predation but have deadlier parasites

Jason Walsman, Mary Janecka, David Clark, Rachael Kramp, Faith Rovenolt, Regina Patrick, Ryan Mohammed, Mateusz Konczal, Clayton Cressler & Jessica Stephenson
We collected data on coinfection rates, infection prevalence, and infection intensity for Gyrodactylus spp. on wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We also collected data on the shoaling preference of wild-caught guppy hosts. Further, we collected data on transmission rates, infection intensity, and infected host mortality rates of lines of these parasites on guppies in the laboratory. We fouind that wild guppy populations with stronger shoaling preferences had higher infection prevalence and coinfection rates. Further, we...

Right ventricular contractility and load in HIV associated pulmonary hypertension

Arun Rajaratnam, Marc Simon, Alison Morris, Sofiya Rehman, Prerna Sharma, Melissa Saul, Rebecca Vanderpool, Mark Gladwin & Vikas Singh
Background: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, but understanding of the relationship of RV function to afterload (RV-PA coupling) is limited. We evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated PH. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of HIV undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) from 2000-2016 in a tertiary care center. Inclusion criteria...

Data from: A generalist nematode destabilizes plant competition: no evidence for direct effects, but strong evidence for indirect effects on rhizobia abundance

Samantha Catella, Castilleja Olmsted, Shaniya Markalanda, Connor McFadden, Corlett Wood & Sara Kuebbing
1. Difficulties quantifying pathogen load and mutualist abundance limit our ability to connect disease dynamics to host community ecology. For example, specific predictions about how differential pathogen load is hypothesized to drive host competitive outcomes are rarely tested. Additionally, although infection is known to affect mutualists, we rarely measure the magnitude of pathogen effects on mutualist abundance across host competitive contexts. We tested for both mechanisms in a plant-rhizobia-nematode system. 2. We paired the legume...

Supplementary information for: A continuous-score occupancy modeling framework for incorporating uncertain machine learning output in autonomous biodiversity surveys

Tessa Rhinehart, Daniel Turek & Justin Kitzes
Ecologists often study biodiversity by evaluating species occupancy and the relationship between occupancy and other covariates. Occupancy models are now widely used to account for false absences in field surveys and to reduce bias in estimates of covariate relationships. Existing occupancy models take as inputs binary detection/non-detection observations of species at each visit to each site. However, autonomous sensing devices and machine learning models are increasingly used to survey biodiversity, generating a new type of...

Complementary evolution of coding and noncoding sequence underlies mammalian hairlessness

Nathan Clark, Amanda Kowalczyk & Maria Chikina
Body hair is a defining mammalian characteristic, but several mammals, such as whales, naked mole-rats, and humans, have notably less hair than others. To find the genetic basis of reduced hair quantity, we used our evolutionary-rates-based method, RERconverge, to identify coding and noncoding sequences that evolve at significantly different rates in so-called hairless mammals compared to hairy mammals. Using RERconverge, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide scan over 62 mammal species using 19,149 genes and 343,598...

Traction performance across the life of slip-resistant footwear

Kurt Beschorner, Sarah L. Hemler, Joel M. Haight, Mark S. Redfern, Jessica R. Sider & Erika M. Pliner
Slips, trips, and falls are a major cause of injury in the workplace. Footwear is an important factor in preventing slips. Furthermore, traction performance (friction and under-shoe fluid drainage) are believed to change throughout the life of footwear. However, a paucity of data is available for how traction performance changes for naturally worn, slip-resistant footwear. Participants wore slip-resistant footwear while their distance walked was monitored. Friction and under-shoe fluid pressures were measured using a robotic...

Changes in under-shoe traction and fluid drainage for progressively worn shoe tread

Kurt E. Beschorner, Sarah L. Hemler, Danielle N. Charbonneau, Arian Iraqi, Mark S. Redfern, Joel M. Haight & Brian E. Moyer
Slip and fall accidents are a common cause of injuries in the workplace. Slip-resistant footwear offers the potential to reduce the risk of these accidents. However, the efficacy of these shoes is reduced as shoes become worn. This data set provides the key independent and dependent variables from a study to evaluate the changes in traction performance of slip-resistant shoes as they become worn. The traction performance of five shoes were tracked as these shoes...

Seasonality of host immunity in a tropical disease system

Jamie Voyles, Goncalo Rosa, Rachel Perez, Lora Richards, Corinne Richards-Zawacki, Angela Smilanich, Laura K. Reinert, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Daniel Wetzel & Jamie Voyles
Infectious disease systems frequently exhibit strong seasonal patterns, yet the mechanisms that underpin intra-annual cycles are unclear, particularly in tropical regions. We hypothesized that host immune function fluctuates seasonally, contributing to oscillations in infection patterns in a tropical disease system. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a key host defense of amphibians against a lethal fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We integrated two field experiments in which we perturbed amphibian skin secretions, a critical host...

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  • University of Pittsburgh
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  • Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
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  • Cluster of Excellence livMatS, Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technologies, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 105, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
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  • Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
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