258 Works

Data from: Public sharing of research datasets: a pilot study of associations

Heather A. Piwowar & Wendy W. Chapman
The public sharing of primary research datasets potentially benefits the research community but is not yet common practice. In this pilot study, we analyzed whether data sharing frequency was associated with funder and publisher requirements, journal impact factor, or investigator experience and impact. Across 397 recent biomedical microarray studies, we found investigators were more likely to publicly share their raw dataset when their study was published in a high-impact journal and when the first or...

Data from: Persistent chaos of measles epidemics in the prevaccination United States caused by a small change in seasonal transmission patterns

Benjamin D. Dalziel, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Willem G. Van Panhuis, Donald S. Burke, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Bryan T. Grenfell & Ottar N. Bjørnstad
Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur in predictable limit cycles. Theory suggests these cycles can be disrupted by high amplitude seasonal fluctuations in transmission rates, resulting in deterministic chaos. However, persistent deterministic chaos has never been observed, in part because sufficiently large oscillations in transmission rates are uncommon. Where they do occur, the resulting deep epidemic troughs break the chain of transmission, leading to epidemic extinction, even in large cities. Here we demonstrate a new...

Data from: Proximity to roads disrupts rodents’ contributions to seed dispersal services and subsequent recruitment dynamics

Wenwen Chen, Jie Zhong, Walter Carson, Zhanhui Tang, Zongqiang Xie, Shucun Sun & Youbing Zhou
1. Seed dispersal and subsequent recruitment dynamics play a crucially important role in regulating species coexistence and structuring tree diversity in diverse forests. Wildlife, which can dually shape the tree recruitment process by simultaneously functioning as natural enemies and seed dispersers, are undergoing widespread changes in population and behaviour due to the detrimental effects of expanding global road networks. However, the impact of these changes on recruitment dynamics through the alteration of seed dispersal processes...

Right ventricular contractility and load in HIV associated pulmonary hypertension

Arun Rajaratnam, Marc Simon, Alison Morris, Sofiya Rehman, Prerna Sharma, Melissa Saul, Rebecca Vanderpool, Mark Gladwin & Vikas Singh
Background: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, but understanding of the relationship of RV function to afterload (RV-PA coupling) is limited. We evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated PH. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of HIV undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) from 2000-2016 in a tertiary care center. Inclusion criteria...

Data from: A generalist nematode destabilizes plant competition: no evidence for direct effects, but strong evidence for indirect effects on rhizobia abundance

Samantha Catella, Castilleja Olmsted, Shaniya Markalanda, Connor McFadden, Corlett Wood & Sara Kuebbing
1. Difficulties quantifying pathogen load and mutualist abundance limit our ability to connect disease dynamics to host community ecology. For example, specific predictions about how differential pathogen load is hypothesized to drive host competitive outcomes are rarely tested. Additionally, although infection is known to affect mutualists, we rarely measure the magnitude of pathogen effects on mutualist abundance across host competitive contexts. We tested for both mechanisms in a plant-rhizobia-nematode system. 2. We paired the legume...

Supplementary information for: A continuous-score occupancy modeling framework for incorporating uncertain machine learning output in autonomous biodiversity surveys

Tessa Rhinehart, Daniel Turek & Justin Kitzes
Ecologists often study biodiversity by evaluating species occupancy and the relationship between occupancy and other covariates. Occupancy models are now widely used to account for false absences in field surveys and to reduce bias in estimates of covariate relationships. Existing occupancy models take as inputs binary detection/non-detection observations of species at each visit to each site. However, autonomous sensing devices and machine learning models are increasingly used to survey biodiversity, generating a new type of...

Data from: Shoaling guppies evade predation but have deadlier parasites

Jason Walsman, Mary Janecka, David Clark, Rachael Kramp, Faith Rovenolt, Regina Patrick, Ryan Mohammed, Mateusz Konczal, Clayton Cressler & Jessica Stephenson
We collected data on coinfection rates, infection prevalence, and infection intensity for Gyrodactylus spp. on wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We also collected data on the shoaling preference of wild-caught guppy hosts. Further, we collected data on transmission rates, infection intensity, and infected host mortality rates of lines of these parasites on guppies in the laboratory. We fouind that wild guppy populations with stronger shoaling preferences had higher infection prevalence and coinfection rates. Further, we...

Seasonality of host immunity in a tropical disease system

Jamie Voyles, Goncalo Rosa, Rachel Perez, Lora Richards, Corinne Richards-Zawacki, Angela Smilanich, Laura K. Reinert, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Daniel Wetzel & Jamie Voyles
Infectious disease systems frequently exhibit strong seasonal patterns, yet the mechanisms that underpin intra-annual cycles are unclear, particularly in tropical regions. We hypothesized that host immune function fluctuates seasonally, contributing to oscillations in infection patterns in a tropical disease system. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a key host defense of amphibians against a lethal fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We integrated two field experiments in which we perturbed amphibian skin secretions, a critical host...

Negative frequency-dependent selection maintains coexisting genotypes during fluctuating selection

Vaughn Cooper, Caroline Turner, Sean Buskirk & Katrina Harris
Natural environments are rarely static; rather selection can fluctuate on time scales ranging from hours to centuries. However, it is unclear how adaptation to fluctuating environments differs from adaptation to constant environments at the genetic level. For bacteria, one key axis of environmental variation is selection for planktonic or biofilm modes of growth. We conducted an evolution experiment with Burkholderia cenocepacia, comparing the evolutionary dynamics of populations evolving under constant selection for either biofilm formation...

Convergence Acceleration in Machine Learning Potentials for Atomistic Simulations: ESI dataset

Dylan Bayerl & Wissam A. Saidi

Attacking the Global Plastics Waste Problem

Eric Beckman, Melissa Bilec, Vikas Khanna, Gotz Veser, Peng Liu, Amy Wildermuth & Joshua Galperin

Safely Staging Sex and Violence for the Academic Performer

Karen Gilmer

The emergence of Corporate Venture Capital in China: A Field Study

Ravi Madhavan

Grandparents raising grandchildren: A Strength-Based Perspective and Intervention

Fengyan Tang & Elizabeth Farmer

Deciphering Redox Free Radical Mechanisms of 15LOX/PEBP1-Driven Ferroptosis in Skin

Yuri Bunimovich, Valerian E. Kagan & Sunil Saxena

CBA Survey Final Dataset 2019

Josephine Olson & Haimanti Banerjee

Recidivism in context: A meta-analysis of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and repeat offending

leah jacobs, Laura Ellen Ashcraft, Craig Sewall, Danielle Wallace & Barbara Folb

Studying glacial/interglacial cycles from downhole logging data: an application to the ICDP drilling project Lake Junín, Peru

Simona Pierdominici, Christian Zeeden , Jochem Kück , Donald Rodbell & Marc Abbott
Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum - GFZ, Germany (1); Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics, Hannover, Germany (2); Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308, USA (3); Dep. Of Geology and Planetary Science, University of Pittsburg, USA (4)

Can the history of the lake records covering the glacial-interglacial cycles be reconstructed from downhole logging data without the high-resolution data derived from core analysis? To answer this question, we present a study reconstructing glacial-interglacial sediment variability and an estimate...

Community-centric Building of Digital Infrastructures Against Systemic Oppression: G2A police misconduct complaint support system

Sera Linardi & Yu-Ru Lin
Digital infrastructure can make visible the problems hidden in policies that maintain systematic racism and oppression. However, these infrastructures are difficult to design because the technology workers that build them are often too far removed from those with lived experiences of oppression. Grief to Action pPUC is a novel community data-science engagement network that is building an online platform to help citizens navigate the police accountability process. The tool will collect municipal level police union...

Physics-guided Machine Learning for Scientific Knowledge Discovery

Xiaowei Jia
Machine learning (ML) has found immense success in commercial applications such as computer vision and natural language processing. Given the success of ML in commercial domains, there is an increasing interest in using ML models for advancing scientific discovery. However, direct application of ``black-box" ML models has met with limited success in scientific domains given that the data available for many scientific problems is far smaller than what is needed to effectively train advanced ML...

Hemispheric Conversations Urban Art Project

Caitlin Bruce, Sylvia Rhor Samaniego, Oreen Cohen, Max Gonzales & Shane Pilster
Hemispheric Conversations Urban Art Project (HCUAP, pronounced “Hiccup”), is a public art platform that draws on the urban arts as a framework through which we can map the aesthetic, historical and cultural connections between Pittsburgh and similar post-industrial cities. HCUAP promotes urban art (graffiti, street art, and mural production) as a tool for education and dialogue about cultural expression, conscious redevelopment, and the preservation and celebration of diverse cultural identities. HCUAP partners University of Pittsburgh...

Toward Effects of Collective Animal on Larger-scale Ocean Transport and Mixing

Lei Fang
Ocean bodies have very high aspect ratios, which enable them to be approximated as two-dimensional (2D). The 2D flows are distinct from the three-dimensional (3D) counterparts, which are prone to produce a wide range of coherent motions such as eddies and jets that live a long time before being dissipated. In this project, we are going to study how collective fish swimming interact with the coherent motions in the ocean. Fishes are small compared to...

Advanced Magnetics for Power and Energy Development - A Multidisciplinary Consortium between the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, and North Carolina State University

Brandon Grainger, Paul Ohodnicki, Daniel Mosse & Rabikar Chatterjee
Emerging societal trends drive the need for advanced magnetic materials and power magnetic components including the electrification of domestic and military transportation; the emergence of solid state transformers as a practical and viable alternative to conventional transformers; increased penetration of renewables and other distributed energy resources which require power electronics converters and novel electric machines for grid integration. A historical gap in research and development funding for advanced power magnetics has created a severe shortfall...

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