256 Works

Data from: The index case is not enough: variation among individuals, groups, and social networks modify bacterial transmission dynamics

Carl N. Keiser, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Michael J. Ziemba, Krishna S. Kothamasu & Jonathan N. Pruitt
1.The traits of the index case of an infectious disease outbreak, and the circumstances for their etiology, potentially influence the trajectory of transmission dynamics. However, these dynamics likely also depend on the traits of the individuals with whom the index case interacts. 2.We used the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola to test how the traits of the index case, group phenotypic composition, and group size interact to facilitate the transmission of a GFP-labeled cuticular bacterium. We...

Data from: Behavioral hypervolumes of predator groups and predator-predator interactions shape prey survival rates and selection on prey behavior

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Kimberley Howell, Shaniqua Gladney, Yusan Yang, James L. L. Lichtenstein, Michelle Elise Spicer, Sebastian A. Echeverri & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Predator-prey interactions often vary on the basis of the traits of the individual predators and prey involved. Here we examine whether the multidimensional behavioral diversity of predator groups shapes prey mortality rates and selection on prey behavior. We ran individual sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus) through three behavioral assays to characterize individuals’ behavioral phenotype along three axes. We then created groups that varied in the volume of behavioral space that they occupied. We further manipulated the...

Data from: Dissecting pollinator responses to a ubiquitous ultraviolet floral pattern in the wild

Matthew H. Koski & Tia-Lynn Ashman
1. Color patterns on flowers can increase pollinator visitation and enhance foraging behavior. Flowers uniform in color to humans, however, can appear patterned to insects due to spatial variation in UV-reflectance on petals. A UV ‘bullseye’ pattern that is common among angiosperms—UV-absorbing petal bases and reflective apices—purportedly functions as a nectar guide, enhancing pollinator orientation, and experimental evidence suggests that UV reflectance increases apparency to pollinators. 2. We test the pollinator-attracting and -orienting functions of...

Data from: Plant host identity and soil macronutrients explain little variation in sapling endophyte community composition: is disturbance an alternative explanation?

Eric A. Griffin, Joshua G. Harrison, Steven W. Kembel, Alyssa A. Carrell, S. Joseph Wright & Walter P. Carson
1. Bacterial endophytes may be fairly host specific; nonetheless, an important subset of taxa may be shared among numerous host species forming a community-wide core microbiome. Moreover, other key factors, particularly the supply of limiting macronutrients and disturbances, may supersede the importance of host identity. 2. We tested the following four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: 1. The Host Identity Hypothesis: endophytes vary substantially among different host plant species. 2. The Core Microbiome Hypothesis: a subset of...

Data from: The potential for mass ratio and trait divergence effects to explain idiosyncratic impacts of nonnative invasive plants on carbon mineralization of decomposing leaf litter

Sara E. Kuebbing & Mark A. Bradford
1. Invasive plant effects on litter decomposition tend to be idiosyncratic among species and ecosystems, which may arise from variation in the invader’s relative abundance (mass ratio effect), its relative functional difference to other species (trait divergence effect), and/or from species’ litter mixing that causes non-additive decomposition rates relative to single-species decomposition. 2. We use experimental microcosms to quantify the potential for mass ratio and trait divergence to explain effects of invasive litters on carbon...

Data from: Personality composition is more important than group size in determining collective foraging behaviour in the wild

Carl N. Keiser & Jonathan N. Pruitt
Describing the factors that shape collective behaviour is central to our understanding of animal societies. Countless studies have demonstrated an effect of group size in the emergence of collective behaviours, but comparatively few have accounted for the composition/diversity of behavioural phenotypes, which is often conflated with group size. Here, we simultaneously examine the effect of personality composition and group size on nest architecture and collective foraging aggressiveness in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. We created...

Data from: Individual differences in boldness influence patterns of social interactions and the transmission of cuticular bacteria among group-mates

Carl N. Keiser, Noa Pinter-Wollman, David A. Augustine, Michael J. Ziemba, Lingran Hao, Jeffrey G. Lawrence & Jonathan N. Pruitt
Despite the importance of host attributes for the likelihood of associated microbial transmission, individual variation is seldom considered in studies of wildlife disease. Here, we test the influence of host phenotypes on social network structure and the likelihood of cuticular bacterial transmission from exposed individuals to susceptible group-mates using female social spiders (Stegodyphus dumicola). Based on the interactions of resting individuals of known behavioural types, we assessed whether individuals assorted according to their behavioural traits....

Understanding Polarizing Community Perspectives on Harm Reduction Strategies

Stephanie L. Creasy, Jessica R. Thompson, Christina F. Mair & Jessica G. Burke
Introduction: Rural communities face barriers to opioid treatment and overdose prevention including concerns about stigma and lack of harm reduction services. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore community perspectives and understanding of harm reduction approaches to opioid use and overdose in a high-risk Northern Appalachian case community in Pennsylvania. Methods: A small town approximately 10 miles from Pittsburgh was identified as the community with the greatest predicted probabilities of epidemic outbreak using...

Carbonic Anhydrase-Catalyzed Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Seawater

Meng Wang
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has emerged as a crucial action to mitigate the unprecedented challenges of global warming on human society. Carbon mineralization, a process whereby CO2 reacts with mineral cations such as magnesium to form insoluble solids, is a safe way for sequestrating CO2. As one of the largest reservoirs of mineral cations, seawater contains a high content of magnesium, which provides a gigaton-scale capacity for CO2 sequestration. However, the slow combination of CO2...

Improving Health Equity by Analyzing Social Determinants of Health from the Electronic Health Records

Yanshan Wang
Social determinants of health (SDOH) are the conditions under which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, and include factors such as socioeconomic status, education, employment, lifestyles, social support networks, access to medical care, and neighborhood characteristics. These factors have a major impact on health equity. With the passing of the HITECH Act in 2009, there has been increased emphasis on the use of electronic health records (EHRs) to document SDOH. While most of the...

Situated Task-Driven Multimodal Intent Modeling and Applications

Adriana Kovashka, Diane Litman & Malihe Alikhani
How should AI systems support multimodal task-driven interactions? What cues do they use to gauge the role of each communicative modality, i.e. what objective each verbal utterance, naming, pointing gesture, or visual demonstration plays in accomplishing goals? How does the meaning of each action change with the actor’s/speaker’s goal? How do actions vary depending on physical context? We will first capture the purpose of multimodal interactions by asking humans to collaborate to complete a set...

SDOH- Taking Off the Cape: Removing the Cloak of Invincibility To Support BIPOC Graduate Students

Alicia Johnson, Aliya Durham, Yodit Betru & Toya Jones
The University of Pittsburgh seeks to attract Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) into their MSW graduate programs, thus providing a diverse group of professionals to help BIPOC clients. We hypothesize that BIPOC students may be experiencing high levels of burnout and we want to know what the contributing/mitigating factors are and how to best support students to a successful completion of their programs and beyond. The consequences of increased burnout is decreased overall wellness,...

Data from: Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider

Lena Grinsted, Jonathan N. Pruitt, Virginia Settepani & Trine Bilde
Deciphering the mechanisms involved in shaping social structure is key to a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to sociality. Individual specialization within groups can increase colony efficiency and consequently productivity. Here, we test the hypothesis that within-group variation in individual personalities (i.e. boldness and aggression) can shape task differentiation. The social spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) showed task differentiation (significant unequal participation) in simulated prey capture events across 10-day behavioural assays in the field,...

Data from: Longitudinal cognitive and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease

Eric McDade, Guoqiao Wang, Brian Andrew Gordon, Jason Hassenstab, Tammie L.S. Benzinger, Virginia Buckles, Anne M. Fagan, David M. Holtzman, Nigel J. Cairns, Alison M. Goate, Daniel S. Marcus, John C. Morris, Katrina Paumier, Chengjie Xiong, Ricardo Allegri, Sarah B. Berman, William Klunk, James Nobel, John Ringman, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin Farlow, Reisa Anne Sperling, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Stephen Salloway, Neil R. Graff-Radford … & Randall J. Bateman
Objective: To assess the onset, sequence and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. Methods: We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 (+/- 1.1) visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals’ estimated years...

Data from: Correlated evolution of mating system and floral display traits in flowering plants and its implications for the distribution of mating system variation

Carol Goodwillie, Risa D. Sargent, Susan Kalisz, Richard H. Ree, David A. Moeller, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Christopher G. Eckert, Alice A. Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Monica A. Geber & Mark O. Johnston
Reduced allocation to structures for pollinator attraction is predicted in selfing species. We explored the association between outcrossing and floral display in a broad sample of angiosperms. We used the demonstrated relationship to test for bias against selfing species in the outcrossing rate distribution, the shape of which has relevance for the stability of mixed mating. Relationships between outcrossing rate, flower size, flower number and floral display, measured as the product of flower size and...

Data from: Parallel genetic adaptation across environments differing in mode of growth or resource availability

Caroline B. Turner, Christopher W. Marshall & Vaughn S. Cooper
Evolution experiments have demonstrated high levels of genetic parallelism between populations evolving in identical environments. However, natural populations evolve in complex environments that can vary in many ways, likely sharing some characteristics but not others. Here we ask whether shared selection pressures drive parallel evolution across distinct environments. We addressed this question in experimentally evolved populations founded from a clone of the bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. These populations evolved for 90 days (approximately 600 generations) under...

Data from: In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader’s explosive population growth rate and restored natives

Susan Kalisz, Rachel B. Spigler & Carol C. Horvitz
A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth...

Anti-Racism Action Development among Latinx Youth

Josefina Bañales & Bernadette Sanchez
The increased visibility of the Black Lives Matter Movement in response to countless murders of Black people, including but not limited to George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Atatiana Jefferson, and Ahmaud Arbery, underscores that the United States (U.S.) is a country plagued with anti-Black racism, white supremacy, and other manifestations of racism. The term BIPOC—Black, indigenous, and People of Color—has gained traction during the Black Lives Matter Movement to underscore the unique racialized experiences Black people...

Conceptualizing Corporate Reparations

Paul Harper
I propose to design and build a database of corporate commitment statements resulting from the killing of George Floyd on May 25, 2020, by Minneapolis police officers. Through the creation of this database, I will be positioned to track the implementation and outcomes of these publicly-stated commitments and make determinations about the seriousness within which any specific company takes its self-articulated sense of obligation and duty to racial justice. Once constructed, this database will serve...

Overlearning speaker race in sociolinguistic auto-coding

Dan Villarreal
Concerns about AI fairness have been raised in domains like the American criminal justice system, where algorithms assessing the risk of a pretrial defendant may inadvertently use defendants’ race as a decision criterion. Similar risks apply to the domain of sociolinguistic auto-coding, in which machine learning classifiers assign categories to variable data based on acoustic features (e.g., car vs “cah”). The proposed project addresses this possibility by using sociolinguistic data by assessing the extent to...

Determinants of executive function development: A motor training study

Klaus Libertus, Darcy Smith & Ran An

A Black Women’s Health Agenda: Applying an Intersectional Systems Approach and Reproductive Justice Lens

Dara Mendez, Tiffany Gary-Webb, Esa Davis, Abimbola Fapohunda, Tomar Pierson-Brown, Jada Shirriel, Alysia Tucker, Dannai Wilson & La'Tasha Mayes

Supporting Data: Numerical Simulation of Sleeve Fracturing for In-Situ Stress Measurement using Cohesive Elements

Yao Huang, John Ohanian & Andrew Bunger

Beyond graduation rates: Conceptualizing liberatory educational outcomes for colleges and universities

Gina Ann Garcia
Colleges and universities in the United States are expected to deliver “normative academic outcomes” which are those that are acceptable and desirable to the general public. This includes accessibility, affordability, and degree attainment. They are also accountable for delivering “neoliberal outcomes” such as upward mobility, life-long learning, and workforce development. Yet postsecondary institutions have historically delivered these normative and neoliberal outcomes inequitably for Black, Indigenous, Latinx, and Pacific Islander students. While colleges and universities must...

Causal Moderation and Mediation Analyses in Multisite Randomized Trials

Xu Qin
An intervention may generate heterogeneous impacts due to natural variations in participant characteristics, context, and local implementation. Important research questions include whether the impact of an intervention is generalizable across individuals and contexts, for whom and under what contexts the intervention is effective, and why. To answer such questions, it is necessary to unpack the mediation mechanism underlying the intervention impact and assess how it varies by individual and contextual characteristics. However, with the existing...

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