256 Works

Data from: Personality composition alters the transmission of cuticular bacteria in social groups

Carl N. Keiser, Kimberly A. Howell, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The initial stages of a disease outbreak can determine the magnitude of an epidemic. Though rarely tested in unison, two factors with important consequences for the infectious transmission dynamics are the traits of the susceptible population and the traits of the index case (i.e., “patient zero”). Here, we test whether the behavioural composition of a social group can explain horizontal transmission dynamics of cuticular bacteria using a social spider. We exposed focal spiders of known...

Data from: Nitrogen fertilization differentially enhances nodulation and host growth of two invasive legume species in an urban environment

Nicole J. Forrester & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Invasive plants negatively impact native communities by altering ecosystem processes and reducing species diversity. Plants in the legume family are overrepresented among invasive taxa and establish in disturbed environments common in urban ecosystems. Mutualisms with rhizobia and anthropogenic activities, such as nitrogen fertilization, may be key mechanisms driving legume invasions of urban habitats. Moreover, legume species and genetic lineages within species may vary in their responses to nitrogen fertilization, making some more likely to invade...

Data from: Life history trait divergence among populations of a non-palatable species reveals strong non-trophic indirect effects of an abundant herbivore

Christopher D. Heckel & Susan Kalisz
When large herbivores exert selection on their prey plant species, co-occurring, non-prey species may experience selection through non-trophic indirect effects. Such selection is likely common where herbivores are overabundant. Yet, empirical studies of non-trophic indirect effects as drivers of non-prey trait evolution are lacking. Here we test for adaptive shifts in life history traits in an unpalatable species, Arisaema triphyllum, a common forest perennial that is unique because it exhibits size-dependent sex switching. We collected...

Data from: Delimiting Species Using DNA and Morphological Variation and Discordant Species Limits in Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus)

John J. Wiens & Tonya A. Penkrot
Haplotype phylogenies based on DNA sequence data are increasingly being used to test traditional species-level taxonomies based on morphology. However, few studies have critically compared species limits based on morphological and DNA data, and the methods used to delimit species using either type of data are only rarely explained. In this paper, we review three approaches for species delimitation (tree-based with DNA data and tree-based and character-based with morphological data) and propose explicit protocols for...

Data from: Macroevolutionary synthesis of flowering plant sexual systems

Emma E. Goldberg, Sarah P. Otto, Jana C. Vamosi, Itay Mayrose, Niv Sabath, Ray Ming & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Sexual system is a key determinant of genetic variation and reproductive success, affecting evolution within populations and within clades. Much research in plants has focused on evolutionary transitions away from the most common state of hermaphroditism and toward the rare state of dioecy (separate sexes). Rather than transitions predominantly toward greater sexual differentiation, however, evolution may proceed in the direction of lesser sexual differentiation. We analyzed the macroevolutionary dynamics of sexual system in angiosperm genera...

Data from: Control of signaling alignment during the dynamic courtship display of a jumping spider

Sebastian A. Echeverri, Nathan I. Morehouse & Daniel B. Zurek
During communication, alignment between signals and sensors can be critical. Signals are often best perceived from specific angles, and sensory systems can also exhibit strong directional biases. However, we know little about how animals establish and maintain such signaling alignment during communication. To investigate this, we characterized the spatial dynamics of visual courtship signaling in the jumping spider Habronattus pyrrithrix. The male performs forward-facing displays involving complex color and movement patterns, with distinct long- and...

Data from: Human retinal pigment epithelium: in vivo cell morphometry, multispectral autofluorescence, and relationship to cone mosaic

Charles E. Granger, Qiang Yang, Hongxin Song, Kenichi Saito, Koji Nozato, Lisa R. Latchney, Bianca T. Leonard, Mina M. Chung, David R. Williams & Ethan A. Rossi
Purpose: To characterize in vivo morphometry and multispectral autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell mosaic and its relationship to cone cell topography across the macula. Methods: RPE cell morphometrics were computed in regularly spaced regions of interest (ROIs) from contiguous short-wavelength autofluorescence (SWAF) and photoreceptor reflectance images collected across the macula in one eye of 10 normal participants (23–65 years) by using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Infrared autofluorescence (IRAF) images of...

Data from: Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms

Niv Sabath, Emma E. Goldberg, Lior Glick, Moshe Einhorn, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Ray Ming, Sarah P. Otto, Jana Vamosi, Itay Mayrose & Jana C. Vamosi
Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious...

Data from: Area 2 of primary somatosensory cortex encodes kinematics of the whole arm

Raeed Chowdhury, Joshua Glaser & Lee Miller
Proprioception, the sense of body position, movement, and associated forces, remains poorly understood, despite its critical role in movement. Most studies of area 2, a proprioceptive area of somatosensory cortex, have simply compared neurons' activities to the movement of the hand through space. By using motion tracking, we sought to elaborate this relationship by characterizing how area 2 activity relates to whole arm movements. We found that a whole-arm model, unlike classic models, successfully predicted...

Frequent burning causes large losses of carbon from deep soil layers in a temperate savanna

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Sarah E. Hobbie, Michelle C. Mack, Abbey L. Marcotte, David M. Nelson, Steven Perakis, Peter B. Reich & Kyle Whittinghill
1. Fire activity is changing dramatically across the globe, with uncertain effects on ecosystem processes, especially belowground. Fire‐driven losses of soil carbon (C) are often assumed to occur primarily in the upper soil layers because the repeated combustion of aboveground biomass limits organic matter inputs into surface soil. However, C losses from deeper soil may occur if frequent burning reduces root biomass inputs of C into deep soil layers or stimulates losses of C via...

Pasture trees contribute to structural heterogeneity and plant distributions in post-agricultural forests decades after canopy closure

Marion Holmes
Questions: Open-grown shade trees retained in pastures are legacies of agricultural history that influence recolonization dynamics and create structural heterogeneity in post-agricultural forests. This work addresses the long-term influence of pasture trees on forest structure and composition. I ask: Do signs of successional nucleation in microhabitat, structure and composition near pasture trees persist decades after canopy closure? If so, does variation primarily reflect seed deposition or environmental facilitation? Location: Southeastern Ohio, USA Methods: Thirteen open-grown...

Data from: Polyploid plants obtain greater fitness benefits from a nutrient acquisition mutualism

Nicole Forrester
Polyploidy is a key driver of ecological and evolutionary processes in plants, yet little is known about its effects on biotic interactions. This gap in knowledge is especially profound for nutrient acquisition mutualisms, despite the fact that they regulate global nutrient cycles and structure ecosystems. Generalism in mutualistic interactions depends on the range of potential partners (niche breadth), the benefits obtained, and ability to maintain benefits across a variety of partners (fitness plasticity). Here, we...

Data from: eIF4E S209 phosphorylation licenses myc- and stress-driven oncogenesis

Jian Yu & Hang Ruan
Mutational activation of Wnt/Myc and RAS signaling promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) development and deregulates translation. Phosphorylation of the cap binding protein eIF4E (Serine 209) is commonly elevated in cancer such as CRC yet dispensable for normal development. To better understand an oncogenic role of eIF4ES209, we generated eIF4E (S209A/+) heterozygous knockin (4EKI) HCT 116 human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. 4EKI had little or no effect on total eIF4E levels, cap binding or global translation, while...

Data and code for: Male-male contest limits the expression of assortative mate preferences in a polymorphic poison frog

Yusan Yang & Corinne Richards-Zawacki
Co-divergence of sexual traits and mate preferences can lead to assortative mating and subsequently reproductive isolation. However, mate choice rarely operates without intrasexual competition, and the effects of the latter on speciation are often overlooked. Maintaining trait polymorphisms despite gene flow and limiting assortative female preferences for less-competitive male phenotypes are two important roles that male-male competition may play in the speciation process. Both roles rely on the assumption that male-male competition limits the expression...

Ligand-dependent effects of methionine-8 oxidation in parathyroid hormone peptide analogs

Thomas Gardella, Vsevolod Katritch, Saheem Zaidi, Eileen Daley, Ashok Khatri & Jean-Pierre Vilardaga
LA-PTH is a long-acting parathyroid hormone (PTH) peptide analog in pre-clinical development for hypoparathyroidism (HP). Like native PTH, LA-PTH contains a methionine at position 8 that is predicted to be critical for function. We assessed the impact of methionine oxidation on the functional properties of LA-PTH and control PTH ligands. Oxidation of PTH(1-34) resulted in marked (~20-fold) reductions in binding affinity on the PTH receptor-1 (PTHR1) in cell membranes, similarly diminished potency for cAMP signaling...

Thalamic encoding of lexical status is lateralized during reading aloud

Dengyu Wang, Witold J. Lipski, Alan Bush, Anna Chrabaszcz, Christina Dastolfo-Hromack, Michael W. Dickey, Julie A. Fiez & R. Mark Richardson
To explore whether the thalamus participates in lexical status encoding, local field potentials were recorded in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation lead implantation while they read aloud single-syllable words and nonwords. Bilateral decreases in thalamic beta (12-30Hz) activity were preferentially locked to stimulus presentation, and these decreases were greater when nonwords were read. Increased broadband gamma (70-150Hz) activity also was locked preferentially to speech onset bilaterally, but greater nonword-related increases in this activity were observed...

Targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 for cancer immunotherapy

Zhuoya Wan
The complex mechanism regulating the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) remains poorly understood. Here, we reported a novel role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (GRM4) in suppressing the anti-tumor immunity. We revealed in three murine syngeneic tumor models (B16, MC38, and 3LL) that either genetic knockout (Grm4−/−) or pharmacological inhibition led to significant delay in tumor growth and synergized with immune checkpoint inhibitors in male mice. Mechanistically, perturbation of GRM4 resulted in a strong anti-tumor immunity...

Anti-Racism Action Development among Latinx Youth

Josefina Bañales & Bernadette Sanchez
The increased visibility of the Black Lives Matter Movement in response to countless murders of Black people, including but not limited to George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Atatiana Jefferson, and Ahmaud Arbery, underscores that the United States (U.S.) is a country plagued with anti-Black racism, white supremacy, and other manifestations of racism. The term BIPOC—Black, indigenous, and People of Color—has gained traction during the Black Lives Matter Movement to underscore the unique racialized experiences Black people...

Conceptualizing Corporate Reparations

Paul Harper
I propose to design and build a database of corporate commitment statements resulting from the killing of George Floyd on May 25, 2020, by Minneapolis police officers. Through the creation of this database, I will be positioned to track the implementation and outcomes of these publicly-stated commitments and make determinations about the seriousness within which any specific company takes its self-articulated sense of obligation and duty to racial justice. Once constructed, this database will serve...

Overlearning speaker race in sociolinguistic auto-coding

Dan Villarreal
Concerns about AI fairness have been raised in domains like the American criminal justice system, where algorithms assessing the risk of a pretrial defendant may inadvertently use defendants’ race as a decision criterion. Similar risks apply to the domain of sociolinguistic auto-coding, in which machine learning classifiers assign categories to variable data based on acoustic features (e.g., car vs “cah”). The proposed project addresses this possibility by using sociolinguistic data by assessing the extent to...

Determinants of executive function development: A motor training study

Klaus Libertus, Darcy Smith & Ran An

A Black Women’s Health Agenda: Applying an Intersectional Systems Approach and Reproductive Justice Lens

Dara Mendez, Tiffany Gary-Webb, Esa Davis, Abimbola Fapohunda, Tomar Pierson-Brown, Jada Shirriel, Alysia Tucker, Dannai Wilson & La'Tasha Mayes

Supporting Data: Numerical Simulation of Sleeve Fracturing for In-Situ Stress Measurement using Cohesive Elements

Yao Huang, John Ohanian & Andrew Bunger

Population-level variation in parasite resistance due to differences in immune initiation and rate of response

Amanda Hund, Lauren Fuess, Mariah Kenney, Meghan Maciejewski, Joseph Marini, Kum Chuan Shim & Dan Bolnick
Closely related populations often differ in resistance to a given parasite, as measured by infection success or failure. Yet, the immunological mechanisms of these evolved differences are rarely specified. Does resistance evolve via changes to the host’s ability to recognize that an infection exists, actuate an effective immune response, or attenuate that response? We tested whether each of these phases of the host response contributed to threespine sticklebacks’ recently evolved resistance to their tapeworm Schistocephalus...

Beyond graduation rates: Conceptualizing liberatory educational outcomes for colleges and universities

Gina Ann Garcia
Colleges and universities in the United States are expected to deliver “normative academic outcomes” which are those that are acceptable and desirable to the general public. This includes accessibility, affordability, and degree attainment. They are also accountable for delivering “neoliberal outcomes” such as upward mobility, life-long learning, and workforce development. Yet postsecondary institutions have historically delivered these normative and neoliberal outcomes inequitably for Black, Indigenous, Latinx, and Pacific Islander students. While colleges and universities must...

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