256 Works

Developing a Latinx Youth Research Advisory Board to Address and Dismantle Structural Inequities in Emerging Latinx communities

Josefina Bañales, Sara Goodkind, Patricia Documet, Sharon Ross, José Ochoa, Benjamin Gutschow, Mónica Ruiz & Diana Escobar-Rivera
In this proposal, we will create a multidisciplinary community-academic partnership to develop a Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) study with Latinx youth living in Pittsburgh, PA (or the surrounding region), which is an emerging (or new growth) Latinx immigrant community. Our team will use YPAR—an approach that centers youths’ voices in research by investigating and acting on issues that are of concern to youth and their families—to develop a Youth Research Action Collaborative. This Collaborative...

A Pilot Exploring Self-Advocacy as a Factor in Maternal Mortality and Morbidity in Pregnant Black Women

Betty J. Braxter, Teresa Hagan Thomas, Paul Scott, Trisha Cousins & Willa Doswell
Every year about 700 women die due to a birth and or postpartum difficulty. The United States (US) has the highest number of women dying compared to other countries. Black women are 3-4 times more likely to die than White or Latina women. A number of issues are linked with the US death rate. We begin with healthcare providers and hospitals that the women use. The other issue is patients. We are looking at how...

Development of a post-processing method for estimating solidification parameters from finite-element modeling of laser remelting in directed energy deposition of Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloy single crystals

Tylere Paplham, Jakub Toman & Markus Chmielus
Directed energy deposition is a subset of laser additive manufacturing which has been suggested as a feasible method for producing single crystals of metal alloys such as Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloys. However, relating the thermal parameters, specifically the solidification front growth velocity V and thermal gradient G to the operational parameters, specifically the nominal laser power and travel velocity, is challenging. Therefore, this work aimed to use finite-element analysis (FEA) to create thermal models which...

Modeling Driver Situational Awareness in Highly Automated Driving

NA DU
Situational awareness is important to drivers in automated driving. Maintaining situational awareness of driving environments can help drivers avoid unnecessary interventions with automated driving systems and negotiate challenging scenarios where human takeovers are needed. However, little research has attempted to monitor and predict driver situational awareness in real time. The proposed project aims to fill the research gaps with two specific objectives. First, the project will systematically investigate driver situational awareness in a variety of...

Advancing the Pittsburgh Center for Interdisciplinary Bone and Mineral Research

Giuseppe Intini, Dobrawa Napierala, Deborah L. Galson, Peter Alexander, Partha Roy, Juan Taboas & Shilpa Sant
A multidisciplinary team consisting of 7 faculty from 4 Pitt Schools: Giuseppe Intini, DDS, PhD, Dobrawa Napierala, PhD and Juan Taboas, PhD (Dental Medicine), Deborah Galson, PhD and Peter Alexander, PhD (Medicine), Shilpa Sant, PhD (Pharmacy) and Partha Roy, PhD (Engineering) have been awarded $60,000 from the University of Pittsburgh’s Momentum Teaming grants program. The award will be used to advance the Pittsburgh Center for Interdisciplinary Bone and Mineral Research (PCIBMR), a 73-member consortium of...

Cultural Representativeness in the Principles of AI

Yu-Ru Lin, Frank Morgan, Edouard Machery, Benjamin Rottman & Heath Cabot
Artificial intelligence (AI) applications have reached a wide range of domains and have raised concerns over fairness, accountability, transparency, and ethics. For example, social media platforms face challenges from Congress over data privacy and facial recognition software have been racially biased. Accordingly, society is actively establishing principles to govern the development and application of AI technologies; examples include General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). But, as AI innovation disseminates across cultural and political boundaries, how do...

Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Environments and Equity Research

Aaron Barchowsky, Melissa Bilec, Dara Mendez, Emily Elliott, Daniel Bain, Sarah Haig, James Fabisiak, LuAnn Brink, Harry Hochheiser, Carla Ng & Jeanine Buchanich
The Center for Healthy Environments and Equity Research (CHEER) is a multidisciplinary, intersectional and community-based environmental health research program focused on identifying and addressing environmental health disparities (EHD) – which have a major impact on the health and wellbeing of individuals and communities. CHEER is rallying around a core of forward-thinking and passionate faculty, students and community partners to create research that addresses extensive EHD found across our region, the nation, and beyond. CHEER will...

Q-GPU: A Recipe of Optimizations for Quantum Circuit Simulation Using GPUs

Xulong Tang
In recent years, quantum computing has undergone significant developments and has established its supremacy in many application domains. While quantum hardware is accessible to the public through the cloud environment, a robust and efficient quantum circuit simulator is necessary to investigate the constraints and foster quantum computing development, such as quantum algorithm development and quantum device architecture exploration. In this project, we propose to systematically investigate the deficiencies in quantum circuit simulation (QCS) and propose...

Socially Responsible Data Collection and Network Intervention Codesigns

M. Amin Rahimian
Data collection is an important bottleneck in social network intervention designs. While prior work has paid much attention to reducing costs and maximizing benefits of the collected data, it is equally important to note the vulnerability of individuals to being left out of the collected data or being unduly exposed in the collected data because of the interventions. For example, public health professionals engage with vulnerable populations to improve effectiveness of HIV and suicide prevention...

Would That

Diana Khoi Nguyen
Would That is a creative research project that entails a collection of hybrid creative writing which will include poetry, nonfiction prose, audio-visual work, and site-based installation. At its core is an oral history project which gathers narratives from within the Vietnamese diaspora, tracing not only the displacement of refugees after the end of the war in Vietnam in 1975, but also tracing how these stories have been passed down to the next generation, the second generations of Vietnamese who were...

Taiwan Rising: A Year in the Life of a Forbidden Nation

Michael Meyer
I know it’s time to write a book when the one I want to read doesn’t exist. Remarkably, there is no general audience nonfiction book set in modern-day Taiwan, describing its cities, islands, and mountains; introducing readers to its people; explaining its fascinating, layered, and contentious history; and arguing for both its relevance to American interests and its importance in global affairs, from its semiconductor manufacturing to its nascent, hard-fought-for democracy. Taiwan Rising will be...

The Politics-­Psychology Nexus and the Future of Public Service

Gary Hollibaugh
This project will examine important and pressing issues across multiple disciplinary boundaries. Using concepts and measures from political science, public administration, psychology, economics, and organizational studies, I will conduct a comprehensive examination of the role of how individual psychological traits and economic and political preferences affect the behavior of public servants within the American bureaucratic state. While previous research has examined parts of this project in isolation, this will be the first attempt to unify...

Developing a Holistic Measurement Plan for Transition to Adulthood

Traci Kazmerski, Andrew McCormick, Ming-Te Wang, Tomar Pierson-Brown, Marlo Perry & Loreta Matheo
Transition to adulthood is a process faced by all adolescents, which includes the domains of health, education, employment, finance and community, and encompasses legal, social, and emotional components. Significant structural barriers and social injustices and inequities exist on this pathway and are often ignored. Multidisciplinary experts are all invested in a “successful” transition, but are siloed and have historically created strategies to measure transition that are specific to their field and narrow in focus. Such data collection approaches...

Manipulation of sensory-motor coupling during speech production

Jason Bohland
When we speak, the parts of our brains responsible for moving and hearing are engaged in a precisely timed dance of coordinated electrical activity. This coordination allows us to monitor our speech for errors without our own sound inputs distracting or confusing us. If we introduce a small delay between when we produce speech and when we hear it, most people will slow down and make speech errors, which suggests how important timing is during...

Using convolutional neural networks to efficiently extract immense phenological data from community science images

Rachel Reeb, Naeem Aziz, Samuel Lapp, Justin Kitzes, J. Mason Heberling & Sara Kuebbing
Community science image libraries offer a massive, but largely untapped, source of observational data for phenological research. The iNaturalist platform offers a particularly rich archive, containing more than 49 million verifiable, georeferenced, open access images, encompassing seven continents and over 278,000 species. A critical limitation preventing scientists from taking full advantage of this rich data source is labor. Each image must be manually inspected and categorized by phenophase, which is both time-intensive and costly. Consequently,...

Interferon beta drives intestinal regeneration after radiation

Jian Yu & Brian Leibowitz
The cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway is critical for host defense. Here, we report that cGAS-STING–dependent type 1 interferon (IFN) response drives intestinal regeneration and animal recovery from radiation injury. STING deficiency has no effect on radiation-induced DNA damage or crypt apoptosis but abrogates epithelial IFN beta production, local inflammation, innate transcriptional response, and subsequent crypt regeneration. cGAS KO, IFNAR1 KO, or CCR2 KO also abrogates radiation-induced acute crypt inflammation and regeneration. Impaired intestinal regeneration...

Data from: Using a continuum model to decipher the mechanics of embryonic tissue spreading from time-lapse image sequences: an approximate Bayesian computation approach

Tracy L. Stepien, Holley E. Lynch, Shirley X. Yancey, Laura Dempsey & Lance A. Davidson
Advanced imaging techniques generate large datasets that are capable of describing the structure and kinematics of tissue spreading in embryonic development, wound healing, and the progression of many diseases. Information in these datasets can be integrated with mathematical models to infer important biomechanical properties of the system. Standard computational tools for estimating relevant parameters rely on methods such as gradient descent and typically identify a single set of optimal parameters for a single experiment. These...

Revisiting the origin of octoploid strawberry

Aaron Liston, Na Wei, Jacob Tennessen, Jumin Li, Ming Dong & Ashman Tia-Lynn
The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) is an octoploid, and the identity of its four subgenomes has long been a mystery. In their recent strawberry genome publication, Edger et al. present a novel hypothesis: each subgenome originated from a different extant diploid progenitor, and the hexaploid species Fragaria moschata was a direct ancestor. We reanalyzed the four octoploid subgenomes in a phylogenomic context and our results support only two extant diploids progenitors; we also found no...

Recipient and donor characteristics govern the hierarchical structure of heterospecific pollen competition networks

Jose B. Lanuza, Ignasi Bartomeus, Tia-Lynn Ashman & Romina Rader
Pollinator sharing can have negative consequences for plant fitness with the arrival of foreign (i.e. heterospecific) pollen, yet responses are often variable among species. Plant traits and relatedness of donor and recipient species have been suggested to drive the variations in plant fitness, but how they shape the structure of pollen competition networks has been overlooked at the community level. To understand the importance of reproductive traits and relatedness on the impacts of heterospecific pollen...

Ambiguity in medical concept normalization: An analysis of types and coverage in electronic health record datasets

Denis Newman-Griffis, Guy Divita, Bart Desmet, Ayah Zirikly, Carolyn Rosé & Eric Fosler-Lussier
Objective: Normalizing mentions of medical concepts to standardized vocabularies is a fundamental component of clinical text analysis. Ambiguity—words or phrases that may refer to different concepts—has been extensively researched as part of information extraction from biomedical literature, but less is known about the types and frequency of ambiguity in clinical text. This study characterizes the distribution and distinct types of ambiguity exhibited by benchmark clinical concept normalization datasets, in order to identify directions for advancing...

Competition for pollination and isolation from mates differentially impact four stages of pollination in a model grassland perennial

Lea K. Richardson, M. Kate Gallagher, Tracie E. Hayes, Amanda S. Gallinat, Gretel Kiefer, Kristen Manion, Miriam Jenkins, Greg Diersen & Stuart Wagenius
1. Species that persist in small populations isolated by habitat destruction may experience reproductive failure. Self-incompatible plants face dual threats of mate-limitation and competition with co-flowering plants for pollination services. Such competition may lower pollinator visitation, increase heterospecific pollen transfer, and reduce the likelihood that a visit results in successful pollination. 2. To understand how isolation from mates and competition with co-flowering species contribute to reproductive failure in fragmented habitat, we conducted an observational study...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of the importance of keystone communities for maintaining metacommunity biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

Xian Yang, Jiaqi Tan, Kevin Harry Sun & Lin Jiang
As local communities within a metacommunity may differ considerably in their contributions to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, it has been suggested that conservation priority should be given to disproportionately important local communities (i.e., keystone communities). However, we know little about what characterizes a keystone community. Using laboratory protist microcosms as the model system, we examined how the environmental uniqueness and location of a local community affect its contributions to the metacommunities. We found that the...

Data from: The size, symmetry, and color saturation of a male guppy’s ornaments forecast his resistance to parasites

Jessica Stephenson, Martin Stevens, Jolyon Troscianko & Jukka Jokela
Sexually selected ornaments range from highly dynamic traits to those that are fixed during development and relatively static throughout sexual maturity. Ornaments along this continuum differ in the information they provide about the qualities of potential mates, such as their parasite resistance. Dynamic ornaments enable real-time assessment of the bearer’s condition: they can reflect an individual’s current infection status, or resistance to recent infections. Static ornaments, however, are not affected by recent infection but may...

Data from: Spatially-explicit depiction of a floral epiphytic bacterial community reveals role for environmental filtering within petals

Maria Rebolleda-Gomez, Rebecca Hayes, Kristen Butela, Leah F. Cabo, Nevin Cullen, Nancy Kaufmann, Steffani A. O'Neil & Tia-Lynn Ashman
The microbiome of flowers (anthosphere) is an understudied compartment of the plant microbiome. Within the flower, petals represent a heterogeneous environment for microbes in terms of resources and environmental stress. Yet little is known of drivers of structure and function of the epiphytic microbial community at the within-petal scale. We characterized the petal microbiome in two co-flowering plants that differ in pattern of ultraviolet (UV) absorption along their petals. Bacterial communities were similar between plant...

Pollinators mediate floral microbial diversity and network under agrochemical disturbance

Na Wei, Avery Russell, Abigail Jarrett & Tia-Lynn Ashman
How pollinators mediate microbiome assembly in the anthosphere is a major unresolved question of theoretical and applied importance in the face of anthropogenic disturbance. We addressed this question by linking visitation of diverse pollinator functional groups (bees, wasps, flies, butterflies, beetles, true bugs and other taxa) to the key properties of floral microbiome (microbial α- and β-diversity and microbial network) under agrochemical disturbance, using a field experiment of bactericide and fungicide treatments on cultivated strawberries...

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Affiliations

  • University of Pittsburgh
    238
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    18
  • Cluster of Excellence livMatS, Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technologies, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 105, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
    14
  • Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
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