12 Works

Data from: Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms

Niv Sabath, Emma E. Goldberg, Lior Glick, Moshe Einhorn, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Ray Ming, Sarah P. Otto, Jana Vamosi, Itay Mayrose & Jana C. Vamosi
Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious...

Data from: Effects of pesticide mixtures on host-pathogen dynamics of the amphibian chytrid fungus

Julia C. Buck, Jessica Hua, , Trang D. Dang, Jenny Urbina, Randall J. Bendis, Aaron B. Stoler, Andrew R. Blaustein, Rick A. Relyea & William R. Brogan
Anthropogenic and natural stressors often interact to affect organisms. Amphibian populations are undergoing unprecedented declines and extinctions with pesticides and emerging infectious diseases implicated as causal factors. Although these factors often co-occur, their effects on amphibians are usually examined in isolation. We hypothesized that exposure of larval and metamorphic amphibians to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures would increase their post-metamorphic susceptibility to the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that has contributed to amphibian...

Data from: Sustained fitness gains and variability in fitness trajectories in the long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli

Richard E. Lenski, Michael J. Wiser, Noah Ribeck, Zachary D. Blount, Joshua R. Nahum, James Jeffrey Morris, Luis Zaman, Caroline B. Turner, Brian D. Wade, Rohan Maddamsetti, Alita R. Burmeister, Elizabeth J. Baird, Jay Bundy, Nkrumah A. Grant, Kyle J. Card, Maia Rowles, Kiyana Weatherspoon, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Rachel Sullivan, Colleen Clark, Joseph S. Mulka & Neerja Hajela
Many populations live in environments subject to frequent biotic and abiotic changes. Nonetheless, it is interesting to ask whether an evolving population's mean fitness can increase indefinitely, and potentially without any limit, even in a constant environment. A recent study showed that fitness trajectories of Escherichia coli populations over 50 000 generations were better described by a power-law model than by a hyperbolic model. According to the power-law model, the rate of fitness gain declines...

Data from: Persistent chaos of measles epidemics in the prevaccination United States caused by a small change in seasonal transmission patterns

Benjamin D. Dalziel, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Willem G. Van Panhuis, Donald S. Burke, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Bryan T. Grenfell & Ottar N. Bjørnstad
Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur in predictable limit cycles. Theory suggests these cycles can be disrupted by high amplitude seasonal fluctuations in transmission rates, resulting in deterministic chaos. However, persistent deterministic chaos has never been observed, in part because sufficiently large oscillations in transmission rates are uncommon. Where they do occur, the resulting deep epidemic troughs break the chain of transmission, leading to epidemic extinction, even in large cities. Here we demonstrate a new...

Data from: Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans

Stephen J. D. O’Keefe, Jia V. Li, Leo Lahti, Junhai Ou, Franck Carbonero, Mohammed Khaled, Joram M. Posma, James Kinross, Elaine Wahl, Elizabeth Ruder, Kishore Vipperla, Vasudevan Naidoo, Lungile Mtshali, Sebastian Tims, Philippe G. B. Puylaert, James DeLany, Alyssa Krasinskas, Ann C. Benefiel, Hatem O. Kaseb, Keith Newton, Jeremy K. Nicholson, Willem M. De Vos, H. Rex Gaskins & Erwin G. Zoetendal
Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in...

Data from: Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Rickey D. Cothran, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Cindy Murray, Beverly J. French, Paul W. Bradley, Jenny Urbina, Andrew R. Blaustein & Rick A. Relyea
Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival...

Data from: Animal personality in a foundation species drives community divergence and collapse in the wild

Jonathan N. Pruitt & Andreas P. Modlmeier
1. Despite thousands of papers on the topic, precious few of the studies on animal personality have considered the role of personality in shaping community-level processes. Here, we test the effect of individual variation on the long-term trajectories of biological communities, from initiation to their demise. The spider Anelosimus studiosus builds webs that serve as habitat for >50 species of spider, which together construct a species-rich silken reef. This species also exhibits a temporally consistent...

Data from: Leaf litter species identity alters the structure of pond communities

Aaron B. Stoler & Rick A. Relyea
The input of leaf litter resources is a major driver of ecosystem processes in terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Although variation exists in the quantity and composition of litter inputs due to natural and anthropogenic causes, few studies have examined how such variation influences the structure and composition of aquatic food webs. Using outdoor mesocosms, we examined the bottom–up effects of 10 chemically distinct tree litter species on microbial, algal, invertebrate and vertebrate fauna found in...

Data from: Geographic patterns of genetic variation in three genomes of North American diploid strawberries with special reference to Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata

Lauren Stanley, Nicole J. Forrester, Rajanikanth Govindarajulu, Aaron Liston & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Geographic patterns of genetic variation in wild species reflect the interplay of ecological and evolutionary processes. We assessed genetic variation in three genomes across four North American diploid strawberry taxa, with special emphasis on the gynodioecious Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata (A.Heller) Staudt. Specifically, we sequenced one chloroplast (rpoC2) and two mitochondrial (atp8 and atp8-orf225) genes along with several nuclear microsatellite markers. In addition, we assessed indicators of breeding system (pollen viability and female frequency) for...

Data from: Genetic and phenotypic influences on copulatory plug survival in mice

Rachel Mangels, Brent Young, Sara Keeble, Reza Ardekani, Camille Meslin, Zelia Ferreira, Nathan L. Clark, Jeffrey M. Good & Matthew D. Dean
Across a diversity of animals, male seminal fluid coagulates upon ejaculation to form a hardened structure known as a copulatory plug. Previous studies suggest that copulatory plugs evolved as a mechanism for males to impede remating by females, but detailed investigations into the time course over which plugs survive in the female’s reproductive tract are lacking. Here, we cross males from eight inbred strains to females from two inbred strains of house mice (Mus musculus...

Data from: Genome-wide association studies in dogs and humans identify ADAMTS20 as a risk variant for cleft lip and palate

Zena T. Wolf, Harrison A. Brand, John R. Shaffer, Elizabeth J. Leslie, Boaz Arzi, Cali E. Willet, Timothy C. Cox, Toby McHenry, Nicole Narayan, Eleanor Feingold, Xioajing Wang, Saundra Sliskovic, Nili Karmi, Noa Safra, Carla Sanchez, Frederic W. B. Deleyiannis, Jeffrey C. Murray, Claire M. Wade, Mary L. Marazita & Danika L. Bannasch
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defect. We provide insight into the genetic etiology of this birth defect by performing genome-wide association studies in two species: dogs and humans. In the dog, a genome-wide association study of 7 CL/P cases and 112 controls from the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) breed identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 27 (unadjusted p=1.1 x 10-13; adjusted...

Data from: Phosphorescence monitoring of hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors to evaluate chemotherapeutic effects using the hypoxia-sensitive iridium (III) coordination compound

Yun Zeng, Yang Liu, Jin Shang, Jingwen Ma, Rong Wang, Lei Deng, Youmin Guo, Fan Zhong, Mingfeng Bai, Shaojuan Zhang & Daocheng Wu
Objectives: To utilize phosphorescence to monitor hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors and investigate cancer chemotherapeutic effects in vivo. Methods: A hypoxia-sensitive probe named BTP was used to monitor hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors. The low-dose metronomic treatment with cisplatin was used in anti-angiogenetic chemotherapeutic programs. The phosphorescence properties of BTP were detected by a spectrofluorometer. BTP cytotoxicity utilized cell necrosis and apoptosis, which were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and Hoechst33342 plus propidium iodide assays. Tumor-bearing...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    12

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    12

Affiliations

  • University of Pittsburgh
    12
  • Oregon State University
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
    2
  • University of Montana
    1
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham
    1
  • Princeton University
    1
  • Sam Houston State University
    1
  • Fudan University
    1
  • Xi'an Jiaotong University
    1