71 Works

Black on the Edge: Amplifying Pittsburgh HBCU Narratives

Khirsten Scott
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were created as a corrective to the legacy of slavery’s having outlawed the formal education of Black people. Although the U.S.’s 107 HBCUs now account for merely 3 percent of US colleges and universities, public discourse surrounding them often hinges on questions about their efficacy and relevance in addressing structural racism. My developing book to satisfy tenure requirements, Black on the Edge: Rhetorics of HBCU Survival, poses the question:...

Highly Scalable and Efficient Deep Learning Accelerator Enabled by 3D Photonic Integration

Nathan Youngblood
The positive societal impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) through the field of deep learning have been thrilling to witness, but these advances come with an increasingly unsustainable appetite for computing resources. Thus, the generality and accuracy of deep learning—which fundamentally scale with the amount of training data and available computation—is also its Achilles’ heel. Novel approaches to computation are therefore needed to address the slowing growth in compute performance and efficiency of electronic hardware in...

Making Skeletons of Shapes Dance

Paul Gartside
Topology is the study of shape. During this project a bridge will be built between the continuous, infinite world of shapes and the combinatorial, finite domain of graphs (networks). To each shape will be associated a sequence of `1-skeletons' which are graphs. By employing recent developments in graph theory these skeletons will be put to work (`made to dance') both as a theoretical tool in topology, but also as a practical tool to understand shapes...

Data Mining Approach to Understand Tensor Properties in Turbulent Cascade

Lei Fang
Traditionally, turbulence study starts from unproven but plausible hypotheses (e.g. Kolmogorov's similarity hypotheses) and then proceeding in a systematic fashion to reach theory (e.g. K41). The results are then tested against the experimental data for correctness and completeness. While this hypothetical-deductive-like-method received many successes in history, it has its detrimental limitation: starting from a plausible hypothesis precludes any other possibilities. Since the turbulent data is the final test for turbulent theories, why not start by...

Polished Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

Abhijeet Gujrati, Subarna R. Khanal, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
Polished UNCD surface topography measured using TEM, AFM, and Stylus Profilometry

Quarry 2 Floor Tile

Ruikang Ding, Abhijeet Gujrati, Matthew M. Pendolino, Kurt E. Beschorner & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
These are surface profiles of quarry 2 rough flooring. The quarry 1 (0T01881P, Daltile, Dallas, TX, USA) and quarry 2 (01 010 SM 1, Summitville, OH, USA) were commercial tiles, where the full composition was a trade secret, but they were known to include 15-25 wt% quartz, and quarry 2 also included abrasive grits on the surface, presumably to improve slip resistance. There are 30 profiles generated from image analysis and measured by SEM. 10...

Local field potentials reflect cortical population dynamics in a region-specific and frequency-dependent manner

Cecilia Gallego-Carracedo, Matthew G. Perich, Raeed H. Chowdhury, Lee E. Miller & Juan A. Gallego
The spiking activity of populations of cortical neurons is well described by a small number of population-wide covariance patterns, the “latent dynamics”. These latent dynamics are largely driven by the same correlated synaptic currents across the circuit that determine the generation of local field potentials (LFP). Yet, the relationship between latent dynamics and LFPs remains largely unexplored. Here, we characterised this relationship for three different regions of primate sensorimotor cortex during reaching. The correlation between...

Data from: Parasite-driven cascades or hydra effects: susceptibility and foraging depression shape parasite-host-resource interactions

Jason Walsman, Alexander Strauss & Spencer Hall
This contains data for the manuscript listed in the title.We measured the foraging rates of individual zooplankton hosts, Daphnia dentifera, on phytoplankton resources, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, in the presence of fungal parasites of zooplankton, Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Some of these data are previously published (Genotypes12_foraging.csv by Strauss, Alexander T., et al. "Genotypic variation in parasite avoidance behaviour and other mechanistic, nonlinear components of transmission." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286.1915 (2019): 20192164.) and some are published...

Improving Health Equity by Analyzing Social Determinants of Health from the Electronic Health Records

Yanshan Wang
Social determinants of health (SDOH) are the conditions under which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, and include factors such as socioeconomic status, education, employment, lifestyles, social support networks, access to medical care, and neighborhood characteristics. These factors have a major impact on health equity. With the passing of the HITECH Act in 2009, there has been increased emphasis on the use of electronic health records (EHRs) to document SDOH. While most of the...

Carbonic Anhydrase-Catalyzed Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Seawater

Meng Wang
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has emerged as a crucial action to mitigate the unprecedented challenges of global warming on human society. Carbon mineralization, a process whereby CO2 reacts with mineral cations such as magnesium to form insoluble solids, is a safe way for sequestrating CO2. As one of the largest reservoirs of mineral cations, seawater contains a high content of magnesium, which provides a gigaton-scale capacity for CO2 sequestration. However, the slow combination of CO2...

Situated Task-Driven Multimodal Intent Modeling and Applications

Adriana Kovashka, Diane Litman & Malihe Alikhani
How should AI systems support multimodal task-driven interactions? What cues do they use to gauge the role of each communicative modality, i.e. what objective each verbal utterance, naming, pointing gesture, or visual demonstration plays in accomplishing goals? How does the meaning of each action change with the actor’s/speaker’s goal? How do actions vary depending on physical context? We will first capture the purpose of multimodal interactions by asking humans to collaborate to complete a set...

SDOH- Taking Off the Cape: Removing the Cloak of Invincibility To Support BIPOC Graduate Students

Alicia Johnson, Aliya Durham, Yodit Betru & Toya Jones
The University of Pittsburgh seeks to attract Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) into their MSW graduate programs, thus providing a diverse group of professionals to help BIPOC clients. We hypothesize that BIPOC students may be experiencing high levels of burnout and we want to know what the contributing/mitigating factors are and how to best support students to a successful completion of their programs and beyond. The consequences of increased burnout is decreased overall wellness,...

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond TEM cross-section

Subarna R. Khanal, Abhijeet Gujrati, Sai Bharadwaj Vishnubhotla, Pawel Nowakowski, Cecile S. Bonifacio, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
Cross-section UNCD surfaces for TEM from publication: S. R. Khanal, A. Gujrati, S. B. Vishnubhotla, P. Nowakowski, C. S. Bonifacio, L. Pastewka, T. D. B. Jacobs, "Characterization of small-scale surface topography using transmission electron microscopy", Surf. Topogr.: Metrol. Prop. 6 045004 (2018) See publication for details.

Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)

Abhijeet Gujrati, Subarna R. Khanal, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
UNCD surface from A. Gujrati, S.R. Khanal, L. Pastewka, T.D.B. Jacobs, "Combining TEM, AFM, and profilometry for quantitative topography characterization across all scales", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 29169-29178 (2018)

Self-affine synthetic surface

Tevis D. B. Jacobs, Till Junge & Lars Pastewka
This surface contains virtual measurements taken out of a large self-affine synthetic surface with Hurst exponent 0.8. The original surface had 50,000 x 50,000 data points and was created using a Fourier filtering algorithm. The surface was "measured" in block containing 500 x 500 data points with a variety of scan sizes ranging from almost the full surface with 100 μm width to 10 μm to 1 μm, with pixel sizes scaling accordingly. This surface...

Genetic confirmation of a hybrid between two highly divergent cardinalid species: A Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) and a Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)

David Toews, Tessa Rhinehart, Robert Mulvihill, Spencer Galen, Stephen Gosser, Tom Johnson, Jessie Williamson, Andrew Wood & Steven Latta
Using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, analysis of vocalizations, and inferences from natural history, we document a first-generation hybrid between a rose-breasted grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) and a scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea). These two species occur sympatrically throughout much of eastern North America, although were not previously known to interbreed. Following the field identification of a putative hybrid, we use genetic and bioacoustic data to show that a rose-breasted grosbeak was the maternal parent and a scarlet tanager...

Layering Caribbean Texts and Modalities: Relational Pedagogies for Secondary Language Arts Classrooms

Lisa Hamm-Rodríguez & Lisa Ortiz

Data from: A generalist nematode destabilizes plant competition: no evidence for direct effects, but strong evidence for indirect effects on rhizobia abundance

Samantha Catella, Castilleja Olmsted, Shaniya Markalanda, Connor McFadden, Corlett Wood & Sara Kuebbing
1. Difficulties quantifying pathogen load and mutualist abundance limit our ability to connect disease dynamics to host community ecology. For example, specific predictions about how differential pathogen load is hypothesized to drive host competitive outcomes are rarely tested. Additionally, although infection is known to affect mutualists, we rarely measure the magnitude of pathogen effects on mutualist abundance across host competitive contexts. We tested for both mechanisms in a plant-rhizobia-nematode system. 2. We paired the legume...

Supplementary information for: A continuous-score occupancy modeling framework for incorporating uncertain machine learning output in autonomous biodiversity surveys

Tessa Rhinehart, Daniel Turek & Justin Kitzes
Ecologists often study biodiversity by evaluating species occupancy and the relationship between occupancy and other covariates. Occupancy models are now widely used to account for false absences in field surveys and to reduce bias in estimates of covariate relationships. Existing occupancy models take as inputs binary detection/non-detection observations of species at each visit to each site. However, autonomous sensing devices and machine learning models are increasingly used to survey biodiversity, generating a new type of...

Data from: Shoaling guppies evade predation but have deadlier parasites

Jason Walsman, Mary Janecka, David Clark, Rachael Kramp, Faith Rovenolt, Regina Patrick, Ryan Mohammed, Mateusz Konczal, Clayton Cressler & Jessica Stephenson
We collected data on coinfection rates, infection prevalence, and infection intensity for Gyrodactylus spp. on wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We also collected data on the shoaling preference of wild-caught guppy hosts. Further, we collected data on transmission rates, infection intensity, and infected host mortality rates of lines of these parasites on guppies in the laboratory. We fouind that wild guppy populations with stronger shoaling preferences had higher infection prevalence and coinfection rates. Further, we...

Seasonality of host immunity in a tropical disease system

Jamie Voyles, Goncalo Rosa, Rachel Perez, Lora Richards, Corinne Richards-Zawacki, Angela Smilanich, Laura K. Reinert, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Daniel Wetzel & Jamie Voyles
Infectious disease systems frequently exhibit strong seasonal patterns, yet the mechanisms that underpin intra-annual cycles are unclear, particularly in tropical regions. We hypothesized that host immune function fluctuates seasonally, contributing to oscillations in infection patterns in a tropical disease system. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a key host defense of amphibians against a lethal fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We integrated two field experiments in which we perturbed amphibian skin secretions, a critical host...

Complementary evolution of coding and noncoding sequence underlies mammalian hairlessness

Nathan Clark, Amanda Kowalczyk & Maria Chikina
Body hair is a defining mammalian characteristic, but several mammals, such as whales, naked mole-rats, and humans, have notably less hair than others. To find the genetic basis of reduced hair quantity, we used our evolutionary-rates-based method, RERconverge, to identify coding and noncoding sequences that evolve at significantly different rates in so-called hairless mammals compared to hairy mammals. Using RERconverge, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide scan over 62 mammal species using 19,149 genes and 343,598...

Digital Resistance

Olga Kuchinskaya
For citizens seeking to challenge authoritarian regimes, new media are said to provide new mobilization and coordination abilities. At the same time, digital technologies improve regimes’ surveillance and repression abilities. The proposed project intervenes in this debate on the role of digital media in networked movements. Using the example of the 2020 large-scale post-election protests in Belarus, the ongoing brutal crackdown by the Belarusian regime, and the continued efforts of activists, this research argues that...

From Titusville to Tuver with a Stop in Lagos: Digitizing and Internationalizing Pitt's Manufacturing Assistance Center Model

John Stoner, Bopaya Bidanda, John Wallace, Ravi Madhavan & M. Najeeb Shafiq
Since 1994, the Pitt Manufacturing Assistance Center (MAC) has provided workforce development training in skills relevant to contemporary manufacturing employment. This research project intends to examine research questions related to plans to adapt the MAC model to Titusville’s Education and Training Hub and two different international environments: an urban site in Lagos, Nigeria, and a rural site in Tuver, India. The research objective of this multidisciplinary team is to develop and conduct research that leverages...

Elucidating variable immune responses regulation through non-coding RNA-target interactomes

Olanrewaju Morenikeji
Non-coding RiboNucleic Acids (ncRNAs) are small molecules involved in modulation of gene expression. There is very scant information on how they are involved with our body’s response to infectious diseases. A better understanding of how our immune system is regulated through these ncRNAs in the presence of germs would significantly benefit disease surveillance and design of new drugs for diseases like COVID-19. There is major variation in host-pathogen relationships leading to balanced or unbalanced immune...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    71

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    36
  • Image
    30
  • Output Management Plan
    2
  • Event
    1
  • Journal Article
    1
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Pittsburgh
    52
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    18
  • Cluster of Excellence livMatS, Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technologies, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 105, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
    15
  • Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
    15
  • Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    3
  • Indiana University
    2
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    2
  • Vanderbilt University
    2
  • Northwestern University
    1
  • University of the Free State
    1