147 Works

Data from: Rare events of massive plant reproductive investment lead to long-term density-dependent reproductive success

Magdalena Żywiec, Mateusz Ledwoń, Jan Holeksa, Piotr Seget, Barbara Łopata & Jose M. Fedriani
1. The level of reproductive investment and density and distance dependent (DDD) processes are major determinants of plant reproductive output. The reproductive investment of a plant population varies temporally, but whether and how density- and distance-dependent processes are affected by population-level reproductive investment is a puzzle. 2. We used a spatially explicit approach in order to examine DDD effects on Sorbus acuparia crop sizes for a continuous period of 16 years. Our special interest was...

Data from: Long term on-farm participatory maize breeding by stratified mass selection retains molecular diversity while improving agronomic performance

Mara Lisa Alves, Maria Belo, Bruna Carbas, Cláudia Brites, Manuel Paulo, Pedro Mendes-Moreira, Carla Brites, Maria Do Rosário Bronze, Zlatko Šatović & Maria Carlota Vaz Patto
Modern maize breeding programs gave rise to genetically uniform varieties that can affect maize's capacity to cope with increasing climate unpredictability. Maize populations, genetically more heterogeneous, can evolve and better adapt to a broader range of edaphic-climatic conditions. These populations usually suffer from low yields; it is therefore desirable to improve their agronomic performance while maintaining their valuable diversity levels. With this objective, a long-term participatory breeding/on-farm conservation program was established in Portugal. In this...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Stable leaders pave the way for cooperation under time-dependent exploration rates

Flávio L. Pinheiro, Jorge M. Pacheco & Francisco C. Santos
The exploration of different behaviors is part of the adaptation repertoire of individuals to new environments. Here, we explore how the evolution of cooperative behavior is affected by the interplay between exploration dynamics and social learning, in particular when individuals engage on the Prisoner's Dilemma along the edges of a social network. We show that when the population undergoes a transition from strong to weak exploration rates a decline in the overall levels of cooperation...

Um olhar sobre a grande prematuridade: a investigação com bebés nascidos com menos de 32 semanas de gestação

Sandra Antunes, Marina Fuertes & João Moreira
Os bebés de pré-termo (com menos de 32 semanas) ou com muito baixo peso ao nascer (abaixo dos 1500g) apresentam um risco agravado de problemas de saúde e constitucionais, capazes de afetar o seu desenvolvimento. A taxa de sobrevivência de bebés com grande e extrema prematuridade aumentou na última década, com a melhoria dos cuidados peri e neonatais. Contudo, estes bebés enfrentam um significativo conjunto de problemas durante a fase perinatal, que podem fazer perigar...

Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation – Results of EURADOS Survey 2012

P. J. Gilvin, J. G. Alves, C. Chesteres, J. W. E. van Dijk, M. Lehtinen, F. Rossi, B. Vekic & M. A. Chevallier
Abstract: EURADOS Working Group 2 (WG2) on Harmonization of Individual Monitoring is a network of institutions and individual monitoring services (IMSs), built up over the last 20 years, that aims to promote quality, technical excellence and good practice in Europe. In pursuit of these aims, in 2012 WG2 carried out a survey of IMSs in Europe. The survey was sent to about 170 IMS and included questions on: the use of formal quality assurance (QA)...

Major inconsistencies of inferred population genetic structure estimated in a large set of domestic horse breeds using microsatellites

Stephan Funk, Jose Luis Vega-Pla, Cristina Luis, Gus Cothran & Rytis Juras
STRUCTURE remains the most applied tool aimed at recovering the true, but unknown, population structure from observed microsatellite data or other genetic markers. About 30% of STRUCTURE-based studies could not be reproduced (Gilbert et al., 2012). Here we use a large set of data from 2323 horses from 93 domestic breeds plus the Przewalski horse, typed at 15 microsatellite markers, to evaluate how program settings, in particular the so far insufficiently evaluated number of replicates,...

Data from: The genetic legacy of the 19th century decline of the British polecat: evidence for extensive introgression from feral ferrets

Mafalda Costa, Carlos Fernandes, Johnny D. S. Birks, Andrew C. Kitchener, Margarida Santos-Reis & Mike W. Bruford
In the 19th century, the British polecat suffered a demographic contraction, as a consequence of direct persecution, reaching its lowest population in the years that preceded the First World War. The polecat is now recovering and expanding throughout Britain, but introgressive hybridization with feral ferrets has been reported, which could be masking the true range of the polecat and introducing domestic genes into the species. We used a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region...

Data from: Host range expansion of native insects to exotic trees increases with area of introduction and presence of congeneric native trees

Manuela Branco, Eckehard G. Brockerhoff, Bastien Castagneyrol, Christophe Orazio & Hervé Jactel
1. Exotic tree species are widely used in forest plantations for their often high productivity and performance compared to native trees. However, these advantages may be compromised by herbivore damage. 2. A list of European insect species that have expanded their host range to one of 28 exotic tree species introduced to Europe was compiled from a systematic literature review. The number of successful expansions was analysed using three predictors: (1) phylogenetic relatedness between exotic...

Data from: Intracoronary delivery of human mesenchymal/stromal stem cells: insights from coronary microcirculation invasive assessment in a swine model

António Fiarresga, Márcia F. Mata, Sandra Cavaco-Gonçalves, Mafalda Selas, Irina N. Simões, Eunice Oliveira, Belmira Carrapiço, Nuno Cardim, Joaquim M. Sampaio Cabral, Rui Cruz Ferreira & Cláudia Lobato Da Silva
Background: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells have unique properties favorable to their use in clinical practice and have been studied for cardiac repair. However, these cells are larger than coronary microvessels and there is controversy about the risk of embolization and microinfarctions, which could jeopardize the safety and efficacy of intracoronary route for their delivery. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is an invasive method for quantitatively assessing the coronary microcirculation status. Objectives: To examine heart microcirculation...

Data from: The diet of a nocturnal pelagic predator, the Bulwer’s petrel, across the lunar cycle

S. Waap, W. O. C. Symondson, J. P. Granadeiro, H. Alonso, C. Serra-Gonçalves, M. P. Dias & P. Catry
The lunar cycle is believed to strongly influence the vertical distribution of many oceanic taxa, with implications for the foraging behaviour of nocturnal marine predators. Most studies to date testing lunar effects on foraging have focused on predator activity at-sea, with some birds and marine mammals demonstrating contrasting behavioural patterns, depending on the lunar-phase. However, to date no study has focused on how the lunar cycle might actually affect predator-prey interactions in the upper layers...

Data from: Tracking changes in chromosomal arrangements and their genetic content during adaptation

Josiane Santos, Marta Pascual, Inês Fragata, Pedro Simões, Marta A. Santos, Margarida Lima, Ana Marques, Miguel Lopes-Cunha, Bárbara Kellen, Joan Balanyà, Michael R. Rose & Margarida Matos
There is considerable evidence for an adaptive role of inversions, but how their genetic content evolves and affects the subsequent evolution of chromosomal polymorphism remains controversial. Here, we track how life-history traits, chromosomal arrangements and 22 microsatellites, within and outside inversions, change in three replicated populations of Drosophila subobscura for 30 generations of laboratory evolution since founding from the wild. The dynamics of fitness-related traits indicated adaptation to the new environment concomitant with directional evolution...

Data from: Evolutionary online behaviour learning and adaptation in real robots

Fernando Silva, Luís Correia & Anders L. Christensen
Online evolution of behavioural control on real robots is an open-ended approach to autonomous learning and adaptation: robots have the potential to automatically learn new tasks and to adapt to changes in environmental conditions, or to failures in sensors and/or actuators. However, studies have so far almost exclusively been carried out in simulation because evolution in real hardware has required several days or weeks to produce capable robots. In this article, we successfully evolve neural...

Data from: Despite reproductive interference, the net outcome of reproductive interactions among spider mite species is not necessarily costly

Salomé H. Clemente, Inês Santos, Rita Ponce, Leonor R. Rodrigues, Susana A.M. Varela & Sara Magalhaes
Reproductive interference is considered a strong ecological force, potentially leading to species exclusion. This supposes that the net effect of reproductive interactions is strongly negative for one, or both, of the species involved. Testing this requires a comprehensive analysis of interspecific reproductive interactions, accounting for the order and timing of mating events, and for their effects on either fertility or fecundity. To this aim, we measured reproductive interactions among spider mites, using a focal species,...

Data from: Mechanisms and fitness consequences of laying decisions in a migratory raptor

Teresa Catry, Francisco Moreira, Rita Alcazar, Pedro A. Rocha & Ines Catry
Seasonal decline in breeding performance is a commonly observed pattern in birds, but disentangling the contributions of environmental conditions (“timing” hypothesis) and individual quality (“quality” hypothesis) to such a pattern is challenging. Moreover, despite the strong selection for early breeding, the individual optimization model predicts that each individual has an optimal breeding window. We investigated the causes and consequences of laying decisions in the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) by combining a long-term dataset on reproductive...

Data from: Bee movement across heterogeneous tropical forests: multi-paternal genetic analyses reveal the importance of neighborhood composition for pollen-mediated gene flow

Megan C. O'Connell, Antonio R. Castilla, Leticia X. Lee & Shalene Jha
Animal pollination is critical for maintaining the reproduction and genetic diversity of many plant species, especially those in tropical ecosystems. Despite the threat to pollination posed by tropical deforestation, it remains an understudied process. In particular, little is known about these dynamics in multi-paternal, successional plant species whose fruits can contain substantial genetic diversity. Given the importance of successional plants in reforestation, quantifying the factors that impact their reproduction is essential for understanding plant gene...

Data from: Understanding the mechanisms of anti-tropical divergence in the seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Procellariiformes: Pelagodroma marina) using a multi-locus approach

Monica C. Silva, Rafael Matias, Ross M. Wanless, Peter G. Ryan, Brent Stephenson, Mark Bolton, Nuno Ferrand & M. Manuela Coelho
Analytical methods that apply coalescent theory to multilocus data have improved inferences of demographic parameters that are critical to understanding population divergence and speciation. In particular, at the early stages of speciation, it is important to implement models that accommodate conflicting gene trees, and benefit from the presence of shared polymorphisms. Here, we employ eleven nuclear loci and the mitochondrial control region to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of the pelagic seabird White-faced Storm-petrel...

Data from: How a haemosporidian parasite of bats gets around: the genetic structure of a parasite, vector and host compared

Fardo Witsenburg, Laura Clément, Ludovic Dutoit, Adrià López-Baucells, Jorge Palmeirim, Dino Scaravelli, Martin Ševčík, Nicolas Salamin, Jérôme Goudet, Philippe Christe & Igor Pavlinić
Parasite population structure is often thought to be largely shaped by that of its host. In the case of a parasite with a complex life cycle, two host species, each with their own patterns of demography and migration, spread the parasite. However, the population structure of the parasite is predicted to resemble only that of the most vagile host species. In this study we tested this prediction in the context of a vector-transmitted parasite. We...

Data from: Do mites evolving in alternating host plants adapt to host switch?

Sara Magalhães, Aurelie Cailleau, Elodie Blanchet & Isabelle Olivieri
A fluctuating environment may be perceived as a composition of different environments, or as an environment per se, in which it is the fluctuation itself that poses a selection pressure. If so, then organisms may adapt to this alternation. We tested this using experimental populations of spider mites that have been evolving for 45 generations in a homogeneous environment (pepper or tomato plants), or in a heterogeneous environment composed of an alternation of these two...

Data from: Avian malaria: a new lease of life for an old experimental model to study the evolutionary ecology of Plasmodium

Romain Pigeault, Julien Vézilier, Stéphane Cornet, Flore Zélé, Antoine Nicot, Philippe Perret, Sylvain Gandon & Ana Rivero
Avian malaria has historically played an important role as a model in the study of human malaria, being a stimulus for the development of medical parasitology. Avian malaria has recently come back to the research scene as a unique animal model to understand the ecology and evolution of the disease, both in the field and in the laboratory. Avian malaria is highly prevalent in birds and mosquitoes around the world and is amenable to laboratory...

Data from: Extended dispersal kernels in a changing world: insights from statistics of extremes

Cristina Garcia & Luís Borda-De-Água
Dispersal ecology is a topical discipline that involves understanding and predicting plant community responses to multiple drivers of global change. Propagule movements that entail long-distance dispersal (LDD) events are crucial for plants to reach and colonize suitable sites across fragmented landscapes. Yet, LDD events are extremely rare, and thus, obtaining reliable estimates of the maximum distances that propagules move across and of their frequency has been a long-lasting challenge in plant ecology. Recent advances in...

Data from: Inter- and intra-specific variation of spider mite susceptibility to fungal infections: implications for the long-term success of biological control

Flore Zélé, Mustafa Altıntaş, Inês Santos, Ibrahim Cakmak & Sara Magalhães
Spider mites are severe pests of several annual and perennial crops worldwide, often causing important economic damages. As rapid evolution of pesticide resistance in this group hampers the efficiency of chemical control, alternative control strategies, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi, are being developed. However, while several studies have focused on the evaluation of the control potential of different fungal species and/or isolates as well as their compatibility with other control methods (e.g. predators...

Data from: Visual adaptation and microhabitat choice in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

Daniel Mameri, Corina Van Kammen, Ton G. G. Groothuis, Ole Seehausen & Martine E. Maan
When different genotypes choose different habitats to better match their phenotypes, adaptive differentiation within a population may be promoted. Mating within those habitats may subsequently contribute to reproductive isolation. In cichlid fish, visual adaptation to alternative visual environments is hypothesised to contribute to speciation. Here, we investigated whether variation in visual sensitivity causes different visual habitat preferences, using two closely related cichlid species that occur at different but overlapping water depths in Lake Victoria and...

Data from: Micro- and macroparasite species richness in birds: the role of host life history and ecology

Jorge S. Gutiérrez, Theunis Piersma & David W. Thieltges
1.Identifying the factors shaping variation in parasite diversity among host species is crucial to understand wildlife diseases. Although micro‐ and macroparasites may exert different selective pressures on their hosts, studies investigating the determinants of parasite species richness in animals have rarely considered this divide. 2.Here, we investigated the role of host life history and ecology in explaining the species richness of helminths (macroparasites) and haemosporidians (microparasites) in birds worldwide. We collated data from multiple global...

Data from: Sex-specific telomere length and dynamics in relation to age and reproductive success in Cory’s Shearwaters

Christina Bauch, Marie Claire Gatt, José Pedro Granadeiro, Simon Verhulst & Paulo Catry
Individuals in free-living animal populations generally differ substantially in reproductive success, lifespan and other fitness-related traits and the molecular mechanisms underlying this variation are poorly understood. Telomere length and dynamics are candidate traits explaining this variation, as long telomeres predict a higher survival probability and telomere loss has been shown to reflect experienced “life stress”. However, telomere dynamics among very long-lived species are unresolved. Additionally, it is generally not well understood how telomeres relate with...

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  • University of Lisbon
  • University of Porto
  • Universidade Nova de Lisboa
  • Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência
  • University of Aveiro
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • University of Washington
  • University of Pretoria
  • The University of Texas at Austin