The roles of history, chance and selection have long been debated in evolutionary biology. Though uniform selection is expected to lead to convergent evolution between populations, contrasting histories and chance events might prevent them from attaining the same adaptive state, rendering evolution somewhat unpredictable. The predictability of evolution has been supported by several studies documenting repeatable adaptive radiations and convergence in both nature and laboratory. However, other studies suggest divergence among populations adapting to the...
1. Forest certification, a proxy for sustainable forest management, covers more than 10% of the world's forests. Under forest certification, forest managers and landowners must comply with environmental, economic and social management standards aiming to promote forest conservation. Despite an increasing area of certified forests, there is a dearth of data on how forest certification is affecting the conservation of forest ecosystems and associated habitats. 2. Here we assess the effects of Forest Stewardship Council...
1. Climate change is expected to cause several impacts at the global scale and drylands will be among the most affected areas. Thus, investigating how these changes will affect the composition, structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems has become a priority. From an ecological indicator point of view, several works have shown that functional diversity is better than species richness to understand ecosystem functioning or response to environmental factors. However most of these works focus...
Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the...
Data from: How much can history constrain adaptive evolution? A real time evolutionary approach of inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila subobscuraInês Fragata, Miguel Lopes-Cunha, Margarida Bárbaro, Bárbara Kellen, Margarida Lima, Marta A. Santos, Gonçalo S. Faria, Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos & Pedro Simões
Chromosomal inversions are present in a wide range of animals and plants, having an important role in adaptation and speciation. Although empirical evidence of their adaptive value is abundant, the role of different processes underlying evolution of chromosomal polymorphisms is not fully understood. History and selection are likely to shape inversion polymorphism variation to an extent yet largely unknown. Here, we perform a real-time evolution study addressing the role of historical constraints and selection in...
A fluctuating environment may be perceived as a composition of different environments, or as an environment per se, in which it is the fluctuation itself that poses a selection pressure. If so, then organisms may adapt to this alternation. We tested this using experimental populations of spider mites that have been evolving for 45 generations in a homogeneous environment (pepper or tomato plants), or in a heterogeneous environment composed of an alternation of these two...
Data from: Host range expansion of native insects to exotic trees increases with area of introduction and presence of congeneric native treesManuela Branco, Eckehard G. Brockerhoff, Bastien Castagneyrol, Christophe Orazio & Hervé Jactel
1. Exotic tree species are widely used in forest plantations for their often high productivity and performance compared to native trees. However, these advantages may be compromised by herbivore damage. 2. A list of European insect species that have expanded their host range to one of 28 exotic tree species introduced to Europe was compiled from a systematic literature review. The number of successful expansions was analysed using three predictors: (1) phylogenetic relatedness between exotic...
Data from: An holistic ecological analysis of the diet of Cory’s shearwaters using prey morphological characters and DNA barcodingHany Alonso, José Pedro Granadeiro, Silke Waap, José Xavier, William O. C. Symondson, Jaime A. Ramos & Paulo Catry
Knowledge of the dietary choices and trophic niches of organisms is the key to understanding their roles in ecosystems. In seabird diet studies, prey identification is a difficult challenge, often yielding results with technique-specific biases. Additionally, sampling efforts are often not extensive enough to reveal intra-populational variation. Immature animals, which may constitute up to 50% of a population, may occupy a significantly different trophic niche to more-experienced birds, but this remains largely unexplored. We investigated...
University of Lisbon8
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center1
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds1
Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida1
King Juan Carlos University1
French National Institute for Agricultural Research1
University of Wisconsin-Madison1
University of Barcelona1
University of Fribourg1
French National Centre for Scientific Research1