18 Works

Data from: Species richness and interacting factors control invasibility of a marine community

Michelle L. Marraffini & Jonathan B. Geller
Anthropogenic vectors have moved marine species around the world leading to increased invasions and expanded species' ranges. The biotic resistance hypothesis of Elton (in The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, 1958) predicts that more diverse communities should have greater resistance to invasions, but experiments have been equivocal. We hypothesized that species richness interacts with other factors to determine experimental outcomes. We manipulated species richness, species composition (native and introduced) and availability of bare...

Data from: Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current

Sabrina Fossette, Briana Abrahms, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Kelly M. Newton, John Calambokidis, Julia A. Burrows, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, James T. Harvey, Baldo Marinovic, Bernie Tershy, Donald A. Croll & Kelly M. Zilliacus
1. Resource partitioning is an important process driving habitat use and foraging strategies in sympatric species that potentially compete. Differences in foraging behavior are hypothesized to contribute to species coexistence by facilitating resource partitioning, but little is known on the multiple mechanisms for partitioning that may occur simultaneously. Studies are further limited in the marine environment, where the spatial and temporal distribution of resources is highly dynamic and subsequently difficult to quantify. 2. We investigated...

Data from: Protection of large predators in a marine reserve alters size-dependent prey mortality

Rebecca L. Selden, Steven D. Gaines, Scott L. Hamilton & Robert R. Warner
Where predator–prey interactions are size-dependent, reductions in predator size owing to fishing has the potential to disrupt the ecological role of top predators in marine ecosystems. In southern California kelp forests, we investigated the size-dependence of the interaction between herbivorous sea urchins and one of their predators, California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher). Empirical tests examined how differences in predator size structure between reserve and fished areas affected size-specific urchin mortality. Sites inside marine reserves had greater...

CMS-Flux NBE 2020

Junjie Liu, Lartha Baskarran, Kevin Bowman, David Schimel, A. Anthony Bloom, Nick Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, Dustin Carrol, Dimitris Menemenlis, Joanna Joiner, Roisin Commane, Bruce Daube, Lucianna V. Gatti, Kathryn McKain, John Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Colm Sweeney & Steven Wofsy
Top-down Net biosphere exchange estimates between Jan 2010 and Dec 2018 constrained by column CO2 observations from Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite and Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2. This dataset is openly shared in accordance with NASA Data and Information Policy (https://earthdata.nasa.gov/collaborate/open-data-services-and-software/data-information-policy).

Data from: Amino acid δ15N underestimation of cetacean trophic positions highlights poor understanding of isotopic fractionation in higher marine consumers

Cory Matthews, Iliana Ruiz-Cooley, Corinne Pomerleau & Steven Ferguson
Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids (AAs) has been rapidly incorporated in ecological studies to resolve consumer trophic position (TP). Differential 15N fractionation of ‘trophic’ AAs, which undergo 15N enrichment with each trophic step, and ‘source’ AAs, which undergo minimal trophic 15N enrichment and serve as a proxy for primary producer δ15N values, allows for internal calibration of TP. Recent studies, however, have shown the difference between source and trophic AA δ15N...

Data from: Density-dependent effects on reproductive output in a capital breeding carnivore, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)

Daniel Costa, Rachel Holser, Daniel Crocker, Patrick Robinson, Gitte McDonald, Melinda Fowler, Jason Hassrick, Luis Hückstädt, Sarah Peterson, Samantha Simmons & Theresa Keates
All organisms face resource limitations that will ultimately restrict population growth, but the controlling mechanisms vary across ecosystems, taxa, and reproductive strategies. Using four decades of data, we examine how variation in the environment and population density affect reproductive outcomes in a capital-breeding carnivore, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). This species provides a unique opportunity to examine the relative importance of resource acquisition and density-dependence on breeding success. Capital breeders accrue resources over large...

Data from: Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests

Scott L. Hamilton & Jennifer E. Caselle
Size-structured predator–prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin...

Data from: Behavioral responses of individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to mid-frequency military sonar

Brandon L. Southall, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Ari Friedlaender, Alison K. Stimpert, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, Elliott Hazen, Caroline Casey, Selene Fregosi, David E. Cade, Ann N. Allen, Catriona M. Harris, Greg Schorr, David Moretti, Shane Guan & John Calambokidis
This study measured the degree of behavioral responses in blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to controlled noise exposure off the southern California coast. High-resolution movement and passive acoustic data were obtained from non-invasive archival tags (n=42) while surface positions were obtained with visual focal follows. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) were used to obtain direct behavioral measurements before, during, and after simulated and operational military mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS), pseudorandom noise (PRN), and controls (no noise exposure)....

Coupled changes in pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen impact the physiology and ecology of herbivorous kelp forest grazers

Emily Donham, Lauren Strope, Scott Hamilton & Kristy Kroeker
Understanding species’ responses to upwelling may be especially important in light of ongoing environmental change. Upwelling frequency and intensity are expected to increase in the future, while ocean acidification and deoxygenation are expected to decrease the pH and dissolved oxygen of upwelled waters. However, the acute effects of a single upwelling event and the integrated effects of multiple upwelling events on marine organisms are poorly understood. Here, we use in situ measurements of pH, temperature,...

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

Data from: Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters

Richard M. Starr, Dean E. Wendt, Cheryl L. Barnes, Corina I. Marks, Dan Malone, Grant Waltz, Katherine T. Schmidt, Jennifer Chiu, Andrea L. Launer, Nathan C. Hall & Noelle Yochum
Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected...

Data from: Discrimination of fast click series produced by tagged Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) for echolocation or communication

Patricia Arranz, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Alison K. Stimpert, Silvana Neves, Ari S. Friedlaender, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, Fleur Visser, John Calambokidis, Brandon L. Southall & Peter L. Tyack
Early studies that categorized odontocete pulsed sounds had few means of discriminating signals used for biosonar-based foraging from those used for communication. This capability to identify the function of sounds is important for understanding and interpreting behavior; it is also essential for monitoring and mitigating potential disturbance from human activities. Archival tags were placed on free-ranging Grampus griseus to quantify and discriminate between pulsed sounds used for echolocation-based foraging and those used for communication. Two...

Data from: Tsunami-driven rafting: transoceanic species dispersal and implications for marine biogeography

James T. Carlton, John W. Chapman, Jonathan B. Geller, Jessica A. Miller, Deborah A. Carlton, Megan I. McCuller, Nancy C. Treneman, Brian P. Steves & Gregory M. Ruiz
The 2011 East Japan earthquake generated a massive tsunami that launched an extraordinary transoceanic biological rafting event with no known historical precedent. We document 289 living Japanese coastal marine species from 16 phyla transported over 6 years on objects that traveled thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean to the shores of North America and Hawai‘i. Most of this dispersal occurred on nonbiodegradable objects, resulting in the longest documented transoceanic survival and dispersal of coastal...

Data from: Effects of multiple climate change stressors on gene expression in blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus)

Andrew J. Cline, Scott L. Hamilton & Cheryl A. Logan
Global climate change is predicted to increase the co-occurrence of high pCO2 and hypoxia in upwelling zones worldwide. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of these stressors on economically and ecologically important fishes. Here, we investigated short-term responses of juvenile blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus) to independent and combined high pCO2 and hypoxia at the molecular level, using changes in gene expression and metabolic enzymatic activity to investigate potential shifts in energy metabolism. Fish were...

Supporting data to: Evolution of realized Eltonian niches across Rajidae species

Oliver Shipley, Joseph Kelly, Joseph Bizzarro, Jill Olin, Robert Cerrato, Michael Power & Michael Frisk
The notion that closely related species resemble each other in ecological niche space (i.e., phylogenetic dependence) has been a longstanding, contentious paradigm in evolutionary biology, the incidence of which is important for predicting the ecosystem-level effects of species loss. Despite being examined across a multitude of terrestrial taxa, many aspects of niche conservatism have yet to be explored in marine species, especially for characteristics related to resource use and trophic behavior (Eltonian niche characteristics, ENCs)....

High heart rates in hunting porpoises

Birgitte McDonald, Siri Elmegaard, Mark Johnson, Danuta Wisniewska, Laia Rojano-Donate, Anders Galatius, Ursula Siebert, Jonas Teilmann & Peter Madsen
The impressive breath-hold capabilities of marine mammals are facilitated by both enhanced O2 stores and reductions in the rate of O2 consumption via peripheral vasoconstriction and bradycardia, coined the dive response. Many studies have focused on the extreme role of the dive response in maximizing dive duration in marine mammals, but few have addressed how these adjustments may compromise the capability to hunt, digest and thermoregulate during routine dives. Here we use DTAGs which record...

DNA metabarcoding marker choice skews perception of marine eukaryotic biodiversity

Jordan M Casey, Emma Ransome, Allen G Collins, Angka Mahardini, Eka M Kurniasih, Andrianus Sembiring, Nina M D Schiettekatte, Ni Kadek Dita Cahyani, Aji Wahyu Anggoro, Mikaela Moore, Abby Uehling, Mahdi Belcaid, Paul H Barber, Jonathan B Geller & Christopher P Meyer
DNA metabarcoding is an increasingly popular technique to investigate biodiversity; however, many methodological unknowns remain, especially concerning the biases resulting from marker choice. Regions of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S rDNA (18S) genes are commonly employed “universal” markers for eukaryotes, but the extent of taxonomic biases introduced by these markers and how such biases may impact metabarcoding performance is not well quantified. Here, focusing on macro-eukaryotes, we use standardized sampling from...

Burrowing crabs and physical factors hasten marsh recovery at panne edges

Kathryn Beheshti, Charlie Endris, Peter Goodwin, Annabelle Pavlak & Kerstin Wasson
Salt marsh loss is projected to increase as sea-level rise accelerates with global climate change. Salt marsh loss occurs along both lateral creek and channel edges and in the marsh interior, when pannes expand and coalesce. Often, edge loss is attributed to erosive processes whereas dieback in the marsh interior is linked to excessive inundation or deposition of wrack, but remains poorly understood. We conducted a two-year field investigation in a central California estuary to...

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