54 Works

The impacts of trampling and ground disturbances on Antarctic soils

Pablo Tejedo & Tanya O'Neill
Antarctic soils are particularly vulnerable to disturbance due to their biological and physical properties and naturally slow recovery rates that are suppressed by low temperatures and sometimes low moisture availability. As most human activities are concentrated in relatively small scattered ice-free areas, the potential for adverse human impacts is great. Antarctic soils provide habitat for fauna and flora which are regionally important and, in some cases, include endemic representatives. Thus, protection of this component of...

Host specificity and species colouration mediate the regional decline of nocturnal moths in central European forests

Nicolas Roth, Herrman Hacker, Lea Heidrich, Nicolas Friess, Enrique García-Barros, Jan Habel, Simon Thorn & Jörg Müller
The high diversity of insects has limited the volume of long-term community data with a high taxonomic resolution and considerable geographic replications, especially in forests. Therefore, trends and causes of changes are poorly understood. Here we analyse trends in species richness, abundance and biomass of nocturnal macro moths in three quantitative data sets collected over four decades in forests in southern Germany. Two local data sets, one from coppiced oak forests and one from high...

A new remarkable dwarf sedge (Carex phylloscirpoid, Cyperaceae) from Northern Chile, with insights on the evolution of Austral section Racemosae

Pedro Jiménez-Mejías, Patricio Saldivia, Sebastian Gebauer & Santiago Martín-Bravo
We describe a new remarkable dwarf and apparently acaulescent species of Carex (Cyperaceae) from the Andes of northern Chile: Carex phylloscirpoides. Morphological and molecular data (two nuclear and three plastid DNA regions) were used to study the phylogenetic placement and systematic relationships of this species, which resulted in its assignment to section Racemosae. However, despite being related to the other three species of the section present in the Southern Cone based on phylogenetic evidence, it...

Algo más sobre marfiles de Madinat al-Zahra

Fernando Valdés Fernández
Madrider Mitteilungen, 54 (2013)

In memoriam Angela von den Driesch, una pionera de la arqueozoología peninsular (1934-2012)

Corinna Liesau & Lorenz Korn
Madrider Mitteilungen, 57 (2016)

Radicalisation Influence in Social Media

Miriam Fernandez, Antonio Gonzalez-Pardo & Harith Alani
In an increasingly digital world, identifying signs of online extremism sits at the top of the priority list for counter-extremist agencies. Researchers and governments are investing in the creation of advanced information technologies to identify and counter extremism through intelligent large-scale analysis of online data. However, to the best of our knowledge, these technologies are neither based on, nor do they take advantage of, the existing theories and studies of radicalisation. In this paper we...

\"… algo huele a podrido\". [Notas en torno al arte de la insubordinación]

Fernando Castro Flórez
pp. 96-113.

Data from: The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world

Claudio Ottoni, Wim Van Neer, Bea De Cupere, Julien Daligault, Silvia Guimaraes, Joris Peters, Nikolai Spassov, Mary E. Prendergast, Nicole Boivin, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Adrian Bălăşescu, Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Adina Boroneant, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Jwana Chahoud, Alison Crowther, Laura Llorente, Nina Manaseryan, Hervé Monchot, Vedat Onart, Marta Osypińska, Olivier Putelat, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Jacqueline Studer … & Eva-Maria Geigl
The cat has long been important to human societies as a pest-control agent, object of symbolic value and companion animal, but little is known about its domestication process and early anthropogenic dispersal. Here we show, using ancient DNA analysis of geographically and temporally widespread archaeological cat remains, that both the Near Eastern and Egyptian populations of Felis silvestris lybica contributed to the gene pool of the domestic cat at different historical times. While the cat’s...

Extensive introgression at late stages of species formation: Insights from grasshopper hybrid zones

Linda Hagberg, Enrique Celemín, Iker Irisarri, Oliver Hawlitschek, José Bella, Tamí Mott & Ricardo Pereira
The process of species formation is characterised by the accumulation of multiple reproductive barriers. The evolution of hybrid male sterility, or Haldane’s rule, typically characterises later stages of species formation, when total reproductive isolation is strongest. Yet, understanding how quickly reproductive barriers evolve and their consequences for maintaining genetic boundaries between emerging species remains a challenging task because it requires studying taxa that hybridise in nature. Here, we address these questions using the meadow grasshopper...

Assessing carnivore spatial co-occurrence and temporal overlap in the face of human interference in a semi-arid forest

Juan Ignacio Zanón Martínez, Javier Seoane, Marcella Kelly, José Sarasola & Alejandro Travaini
Apex predators drive top-down effects in ecosystems and the loss of such species can trigger mesopredator release. This ecological process has been well documented in human-modified small areas, but for management and conservation of ecological communities, it is important to know which human factors affect apex predator occurrence and which mediate mesopredators release at large scales. We hypothesized that mesopredators would avoid spatial and temporal overlap with the apex predator, the puma; but that human...

Dispersal syndromes are poorly associated with climatic niche differences in the Azorean seed plants

María Leo, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Paulo A. V. Borges, Eduardo B. De Azevedo, Rosalina Gabriel, Hanno Schaefer & Ana M. C. Santos
Aim: Environmental niche tracking is linked to the species ability to disperse. While well investigated on large spatial scales, dispersal constraints also influence small-scale processes and may explain the difference between the potential and the realized niche of species at small-scales. Here we test whether niche size and niche fill differ systematically according to dispersal syndrome within isolated oceanic islands. We expect species with higher dispersal abilities (anemochorous or endozoochorous) will have a higher niche...

Data from: Drivers of assemblage-wide calling activity in tropical anurans and the role of temporal resolution

Larissa Sayuri Sugai, Thiago Silva, Diego Llusia & Tadeu Siqueira
1. Temporal scale in animal communities is often associated with seasonality, despite the large variation in species activity during a diel cycle. A gap thus remains in understanding the dynamics of short-term activity in animal communities. 2. Here we assessed calling activity of tropical anurans and addressed how species composition varied during night activity in assemblages along gradients of local and landscape environmental heterogeneity. 3. We investigated 39 anuran assemblages in the Pantanal wetlands (Brazil)...

Data from: Isodars unveil asymmetric effects on habitat use caused by competition between two endangered species

Rocío Tarjuelo, Juan Traba, Manuel B. Morales & Douglas W. Morris
In order for competing species to coexist, segregation on some ecological niche component is required and is often mediated by differential habitat use. When unequal competitors are involved, the dominant species tends to displace the subordinate one to its less preferred habitat. Here, we use habitat isodars, an approach which reflects evolutionary stable strategies of habitat selection, to evaluate whether interspecific competition between two competing species with distinct habitat preferences, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax...

Data from: Reprogramming the antigen specificity of B cells using genome-editing technologies

James E. Voss, Alicia Gonzalez-Martin, Raiees Andrabi, Roberta P. Fuller, Ben Murrell, Laura E. McCoy, Katelyn Porter, Deli Huang, Wenjuan Li, Devin Sok, Khoa Le, Bryan Briney, Morgan Chateau, Geoffrey Rogers, Lars Hangartner, Ann J. Feeney, David Nemazee, Paula Cannon & Dennis R. Burton
We have developed a method to introduce novel paratopes into the human antibody repertoire by modifying the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of mature B cells directly using genome editing technologies. We used CRISPR-Cas9 in a homology directed repair strategy, to replace the heavy chain (HC) variable region in B cell lines with that from an HIV broadly neutralizing antibody, PG9. Our strategy is designed to function in cells that have undergone VDJ recombination using any combination...

Data from: Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy

Yury Kryvasheyeu, Haohui Chen, Esteban Moro, Pascal Van Hentenryck & Manuel Cebrian
Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences...

La cosmética del poder. Consideraciones sobre el papel de los partidos en la práctica política contemporánea

David Sánchez Usanos
pp. 84-95. This article reflects on the role of parties in the configuration of contemporary political practice. It asks to what extent can we continue to speak of "politics" in a context in which the objective of the action of professional politicians has ceased to be the community and the effective management of its conflicts to focus on the conquest and maintenance of power. To this end, Immanuel Kant’s notions of "public reason" and "private...

Lógica de la abstracción política entre Hegel y el estoicismo

Valerio Rocco Lozano
pp. 73-83. The purpose of this article is to trace the common logical elements that exist between the current European socio-political situation and the historical epoch of the transition between the Republic and the Roman Empire, as studied and analyzed by G. W. F. Hegel, particularly in his analysis of the defining characteristics of Stoicism in Rome. A detailed study of these structural coincidences, as well as of the role played in both epochs by...

Trait data of European and Maghreb butterflies

Joseph Middleton Welling, Leonardo Dapporto Dapporto, Enrique García-Barros, Martin Wiemers, Piotr Nowicki, Elisa Plazio, Simona Bonelli, Michele Zaccagno, Martina Šašić, Jana Lipárová, Oliver Schweiger, Alexander Harpke, Martin Musche, Josef Settele, Reto Schmucki & Tim Shreeve
Trait-based analyses explaining the different responses of species and communities to environmental changes are increasing in frequency. European butterflies are an indicator group that responds rapidly to environmental changes with extensive citizen science contributions to documenting changes of abundance and distribution. Species traits have been used to explain long- and short-term responses to climate, land-use and vegetation changes. Studies are often characterised by limited traits sets being used, with risks that the relative roles of...

Rapid colour shift by reproductive character displacement in Cupido butterflies

Joan Carles Hinojosa, Darina Koubínová, Vlad Dincă, Juan Hernández-Roldán, Miguel L. Munguira, Enrique García-Barros, Marta Vila, Nadir Alvarez, Marko Mutanen & Roger Vila
Reproductive character displacement occurs when competition for successful breeding imposes a divergent selection on the interacting species, causing a divergence of reproductive traits. Here, we show that a disputed butterfly taxon is actually a case of male wing colour shift, apparently produced by reproductive character displacement. Using double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and mitochondrial DNA sequencing we studied four butterfly taxa of the subgenus Cupido (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): Cupido minimus and the taxon carswelli, both...

Data from: Current climate, but also long-term climate changes and human impacts, determine the geographic distribution of European mammal diversity

Ana Margarida Coelho Dos Santos, Marcus Cianciaruso, A. Marcia Barbosa, Luis Mauricio Bini, José Alexandre Diniz-Filho, Frederico Augusto Faleiro, Sidney Gouveia, Rafael Loyola, Nagore Medina, Thiago Rangel, Geiziane Tessarolo & Joaquín Hortal
Aim. Historical climate variations, current climate and human impacts are known to influence current species richness, but their effects on phylogenetic and trait diversity have been seldom studied. We investigated the relationship of these three factors with the independent variations of species, phylogenetic and trait diversity of European mammals. Considering the position of the 0ºC isotherm in the Last Glacial Maximum as a tipping point, we tested the following hypotheses: northern European assemblages host less...

Data from: An integrative skeletal and paleogenomic analysis of stature variation suggests relatively reduced health for early European farmers

Stephanie Marciniak, Christina Bergey, Ana Maria Silva, Agata Hałuszko, Mirosław Furmanek, Barbara Veselka, Petr Velemínský, Giuseppe Vercellotti, Joachim Wahl, Gunita Zarina, Cristina Longhi, Jan Kolář, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Raúl Flores-Fernández, Ana M. Herrero-Corral, Angela Simalcsik, Werner Müller, Alison Sheridan, Žydrūnė Miliauskienė, Rimantas Jankauskas, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Kitti Köhler, Ágnes Király, Beatriz Gamarra, Olivia Cheronet … & George H. Perry
Human culture, biology, and health were shaped dramatically by the onset of agriculture ~12,000 years before present (BP). This shift is hypothesized to have resulted in increased individual fitness and population growth as evidenced by archaeological and population genomic data alongside a decline in physiological health as inferred from skeletal remains. Here, we consider osteological and ancient DNA data from the same prehistoric individuals to study human stature variation as a proxy for health across...

Data from: Resolving recent plant radiations: power and robustness of genotyping-by-sequencing

Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Greg Mellers, Beatriz Vigalondo, Llorenç Sáez, Pablo Vargas & Beverley J. Glover
Disentangling species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within recent evolutionary radiations is a challenge due to the poor morphological differentiation and low genetic divergence between species, frequently accompanied by phenotypic convergence, inter-specific gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. Here we employed a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach, in combination with morphometric analyses, to investigate a small western Mediterranean clade in the flowering plant genus Linaria that radiated in the Quaternary. After confirming the morphological and genetic distinctness of...

Data from: Resource stability and geographic isolation are associated with genome divergence in western Palearctic crossbills

Thomas L. Parchman, Pim Edelaar, Kathryn Uckele, Eduardo T. Mezquida, Daniel Alonso, Joshua P. Jahner, Ron W. Summers & Craig W. Benkman
While many conifers produce annually variable seed crops, serotinous species (which hold seeds in cones for multiple years) represent unusually stable food resources for seed predators. Such stability is conducive to residency and potentially population divergence of consumers as exemplified by the Cassia crossbill (Loxia sinesciuris) in North America. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether three Mediterranean subspecies of common crossbills (L. curvirostra) associated with the serotinous Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) were more genetically distinct...

Predation risk can modify the foraging behaviour of frugivorous carnivores: implications of rewilding apex predators for plant-animal mutualisms

Tamara Burgos, José M. Fedriani, Gema Escribano-Ávila, Javier Seoane, Javier Hernández-Hernández & Emilio Virgós
Apex predators play key roles in food webs and their recovery can trigger trophic cascades in some ecosystems. Intra-guild competition can reduce the abundances of smaller predators and perceived predation risk can alter their foraging behaviour thereby limiting seed dispersal by frugivorous carnivores. However, little is known about how plant-frugivore mutualism could be disturbed in the presence of larger predators. We evaluated the top-down effect of the regional superpredator, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), on...

Data from: Time to monitor livestock carcasses for biodiversity conservation and public health

Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P. Olea & José Vicente López‐Bao
Law enforcement and integration of environmental issues into other policies able to affect species and ecosystems are cornerstones for the effective protection of biodiversity. We illustrate the necessity of monitoring and improving such enforcement and integration through the example of the European sanitary policies for managing livestock carcasses after the “mad cow disease” outbreak while supporting scavengers’ conservation. Continuous updates of EU sanitary regulations for reconciling scavenger conservation and public health have led to actions...

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  • Autonomous University of Madrid
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