42 Works

Evolutionary and taphonomic implications of a new species of Amphoracrinus from the early Viséan of Kentucky

William Ausich, Steven Koenig, Alan Goldstein & Gretel Monreal
The youngest species of Amphoracrinus, A. tenax n. sp., is described from the Muldraugh Member of the Borden Formation (early Viséan) of north-central Kentucky. With this new occurrence, both the oldest and youngest named species of Amphoracrinus are from North America. Numerous Tournaisian and Viséan crinoid faunas are documented in the United States, but only four are known to contain Amphoracrinus. Morphological analysis indicates that A. tenax is more closely aligned with species from China...

Data from: Niche partitioning and the role of intraspecific niche variation in structuring a guild of generalist anurans

Carl S. Cloyed & Perri K. Eason
Intra-population niche differences in generalist foragers have captured the interest of ecologists, because such individuality can have important ecological and evolutionary implications. Few researchers have investigated how these differences affect the relationships among ecologically similar, sympatric species. Using stable isotopes, stomach contents, morphology and habitat preference, we examined niche partitioning within a group of five anurans and determined whether variation within species could facilitate resource partitioning. Species partitioned their niches by trophic level and by...

Data from: Decomposition of coarse woody debris in a long-term litter manipulation experiment: a focus on nutrient availability

Evan M. Gora, Emma J. Sayer, Benjamin L. Turner & Edmund V. J. Tanner
1.The majority of aboveground carbon in tropical forests is stored in wood, which is returned to the atmosphere during decomposition of coarse woody debris. However, the factors controlling wood decomposition have not been experimentally manipulated over time scales comparable to the length of this process. 2.We hypothesized that wood decomposition is limited by nutrient availability and tested this hypothesis in a long-term litter addition and removal experiment in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Specifically,...

Data from: Wnt5a regulates the assembly of human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction-derived microvasculatures

Venkat M. Ramakrishnan, Kevin T. Tien, Thomas R. McKinley, Braden R. Bocard, Terry M. McCurry, Stuart K. Williams, James B. Hoying & Nolan L. Boyd
Human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (hSVF) cells are an easily accessible, heterogeneous cell system that can spontaneously self-assemble into functional microvasculatures in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying vascular self-assembly and maturation are poorly understood, therefore we utilized an in vitro model to identify potential in vivo regulatory mechanisms. We utilized passage one (P1) hSVF because of the rapid UEA1+ endothelium (EC) loss at even P2 culture. We exposed hSVF cells to a battery of angiogenesis...

COVID-19 first lockdown as a window into language acquisition: associations between caregiver-child activities and vocabulary gains

Natalia Kartushina, Nivedita Mani, Aslı Aktan-Erciyes, Khadeejah Alaslani, Naomi Aldrich, Alaa Almohammadi, Haifa Alroqi, Lucy Anderson, Elena Andonova, Suzanne Aussems, Mireille Babineau, Mihaela Barokova, Christina Bergmann, Cara Cashon, Stephanie Custode, Alex de Carvalho, Nevena Dimitrova, Agnieszka Dynak, Rola Farah, Christopher Fennell, Anne-Caroline Fiévet, Michael Frank, Margarita Gavrilova, Hila Gendler-Shalev & Shannon Gibson
The COVID-19 pandemic, and the resulting closure of daycare centers worldwide, led to unprecedented changes in children’s learning environments. This period of increased time at home with caregivers, with limited access to external sources (e.g., daycares) provides a unique opportunity to examine the associations between the caregiver-child activities and children’s language development. The vocabularies of 1742 children aged 8-36 months across 13 countries and 12 languages were evaluated at the beginning and end of the...

Data from: Familiarity affects network structure and information flow in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) shoals

Matthew J. Hasenjager & Lee Alan Dugatkin
How individuals respond toward one another can depend on the level of familiarity between them. Variation in the proportion of familiar individuals comprising a group can shape group-level outcomes and group members’ fitness, but less is known about how this variation shapes the emergence and structure of social networks or the resulting consequences for social processes. We formed guppy (Poecilia reticulata) groups in which individuals were: 1) all familiar with one another, 2) all unfamiliar,...

Data from: Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders

Stephen P Yanoviak, Yonatan Munk & Robert Dudley
The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon...

Data from: Benzene exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease risk

Wesley Abplanalp, Natasha DeJarnett, Daniel W. Riggs, Daniel J. Conklin, James P. McCracken, Sanjay Srivastava, Zhengzhi Xie, Shesh Rai, Aruni Bhatnagar, Timothy E. O'Toole & Timothy E. O’Toole
Benzene is a ubiquitous, volatile pollutant present at high concentrations in toxins (e.g. tobacco smoke) known to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Despite its prevalence, the cardiovascular effects of benzene have rarely been studied. Hence, we examined whether exposure to benzene is associated with increased CVD risk. The effects of benzene exposure in mice were assessed by direct inhalation, while the effects of benzene exposure in humans was assessed in 210 individuals with mild to...

Data from: Trees as islands: canopy ant species richness increases with the size of liana-free trees in a Neotropical forest

Benjamin J. Adams, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Stephen P. Yanoviak
The physical characteristics of habitats shape local community structure; a classic example is the positive relationship between the size of insular habitats and species richness. Despite the high density and proximity of tree crowns in forests, trees are insular habitats for some taxa. Specifically, crown isolation (i.e. crown shyness) prevents the movement of small cursorial animals among trees. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the species richness of ants (Sa) in individual, isolated trees embedded...

Data from: Simulation as a new tool to establish benchmark outcome measures in obstetrics

Matt M. Kurrek, Pamela Morgan, Steven Howard, Peter Kranke, Aaron Calhoun, Joshua Hui & Alex Kiss
Background: There are not enough clinical data from rare critical events to calculate statistics to decide if the management of actual events might be below what could reasonably be expected (i.e. was an outlier). Objectives: In this project we used simulation to describe the distribution of management times as an approach to decide if the management of a simulated obstetrical crisis scenario could be considered an outlier. Design: Twelve obstetrical teams managed 4 scenarios that...

Data from: The youngest South American rhynchocephalian, a survivor of the K/Pg extinction

Sebastian Apesteguía, Raúl O. Gómez, Guillermo W. Rougier & R. O. Gomez
Rhynchocephalian lepidosaurs, though once widespread worldwide, are represented today only by the tuatara (Sphenodon) of New Zealand. After their apparent early Cretaceous extinction in Laurasia, they survived in southern continents. In South America, they are represented by different lineages of Late Cretaceous eupropalinal forms until their disappearance by the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary. We describe here the only unambiguous Palaeogene rhynchocephalian from South America; this new taxon is a younger species of the otherwise Late Cretaceous...

Data from: Lightning damage facilitates beetle colonization of tropical trees

Brady Parlato, Evan Gora & Stephen Yanoviak
Lightning is a common agent of disturbance in many forest ecosystems. Lightning-damaged trees are a potentially important resource for beetles, but most evidence for this association is limited to temperate pine forests. Here, we evaluate the relationship between lightning damage and beetle colonization of tropical trees. We recorded the number of beetle holes on the trunks of trees from 10 strike sites (N = 173 lightning-damaged trees) and 10 matching control sites (N = 137...

Differentially regulated genes in the heart of benzene exposed TAC-instrumented mice

Igor N. Zelko, Sujith Dassanayaka, Marina V. Malovichko, Caitlin M. Howard, Lauren F. Garrett, Shizuka Uchida, Kenneth R. Brittian, Steven P. Jones & Sanjay Srivastava
Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant abundant in household products, petrochemicals, and cigarette smoke. Benzene is a well-known carcinogen in humans and experimental animals; however, little is known about the cardiovascular toxicity of benzene. Recent population-based studies indicate that benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk for heart failure. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether benzene exposure is sufficient to induce and/or exacerbate heart failure. We examined the effects of benzene (50 ppm, 6 h/day,...

Personality composition determines social learning pathways within shoaling fish

Matthew Hasenjager, William Hoppitt & Lee Dugatkin
In shaping how individuals explore their environment and interact with others, personality may mediate both individual and social learning. Yet increasing evidence indicates that personality expression is contingent on social context, suggesting that group personality composition may be key in determining how individuals learn about their environment. Here, we used recovery latency following simulated predator attacks to identify Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that acted in a consistently bold or shy manner. We then employed network-based...

Data from: A lower jaw of Palaeoxonodon from the Middle Jurassic of the Isle of Skye, Scotland, sheds new light on the diversity of British stem therians

Roger A. Close, Brian M. Davis, Stig Walsh, Andrzej S. Wolniewicz, Matt Friedman & Roger B. J. Benson
The Middle Jurassic was a key interval of mammalian evolutionary history that witnessed the diversification of the therian stem-group. Great Britain has yielded a significant record of mammalian fossils from this interval, represented by numerous isolated jaws and teeth from the Bathonian of Oxfordshire and the Isle of Skye. This record captures a key period in early cladotherian evolution, with amphitheriids, peramurans and “stem zatherians” displaying intermediate talonid morphologies that document the evolutionary assembly of...

Data from: Life in the cystic fibrosis upper respiratory tract influences competitive ability of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Jeffrey John Bara, Zachary Matson & Susanna K. Remold
Understanding characteristic differences between host-associated and free-living opportunistic pathogens can provide insight into the fundamental requirements for success after dispersal to the host environment, and more generally into the ecological and evolutionary processes by which populations respond to simultaneous selection on complex interacting traits. We examined how cystic fibrosis (CF) associated and environmental isolates of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa differ in the production of an ecologically important class of proteinaceous toxins known as bacteriocins,...

Data from: Inbreeding depression increases with environmental stress: an experimental study and meta-analysis

Charles W Fox & David H Reed
Inbreeding-environment interactions occur when inbreeding leads to differential fitness loss in different environments. Inbred individuals are often more sensitive to environmental stress than are outbred individuals, presumably because stress increases the expression of deleterious recessive alleles or cellular safeguards against stress are pushed beyond the organism's physiological limits. We examined inbreeding-environment interactions, along two environmental axes (temperature and rearing host) that differ in the amount of developmental stress they impose, in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus...

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