61 Works

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 2016

Eva Heiða Önnudóttir, Ólafur Þórður Harðarson, Hulda Þórisdóttir & Agnar Freyr Helgason
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 2017

Eva Heiða Önnudóttir, Ólafur Þórður Harðarson, Hulda Þórisdóttir & Agnar Freyr Helgason
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Könnun á kosningaþátttöku í sveitarstjórnarkosningum 2014

, &
Í sveitarstjórnarkosningunum í maí árið 2014 var kjörsókn í landinu minni en nokkru sinni fyrr. Á landinu öllu varð heildarkjörsóknin 66,5% og í þremur stærstu sveitarfélögum landsins var hún einungis um 60 prósent. Óhætt er að fullyrða að fáa hefði órað fyrir jafn mikilli minnkun kjörsóknar á jafn skömmum tíma. Að vísu hafði verið leitt að því líkum að hina dræmu kjörsókn í kosningunum árið 2010 mætti að einhverju leyti rekja til áhrifa frá bankahruninu...

Könnun á íslenskri þjóðtrú og trúarviðhorfum - sameinað gagnasafn 1974 og 2006-2007

Erlendur Haraldsson, Terry Gunnell &
Gagnasafnið er samansett skrá sem inniheldur sameiginlegar spurningar milli tveggja kannana um íslenska þjóðtrú og trúarviðhorf sem lagðar voru fyrir árið 1974 og aftur á árunum 2006-2007. Tilgangur rannsóknanna var að safna upplýsingum um þjóðtrú landsmanna og reynslu af svonefndum dulrænum fyrirbærum og viðhorfum til þeirra. Erlendur Haraldsson stóð að baki fyrri könnuninni og einnig þeirri seinni, sem byggðist að miklu leyti á þeirri fyrri og var unnin í samstarfi við Terry Gunnell.

Data from: Subarctic singers: Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song structure and progression from an Icelandic feeding ground during winter

Edda E. Magnúsdóttir & Rangyn Lim
Humpback whale songs associated with breeding behaviors are increasingly reported outside of traditional low latitude breeding grounds. Songs from a subarctic feeding ground during the winter were quantitatively characterized to investigate the structure and temporal changes of the songs at such an atypical location. Recordings were collected from 26. January to 12. March, 2011, using bottom mounted recorders. Humpback songs were detected on 91% of the recording days with peak singing activities during 9.–26. February....

Data from: Faster migration in autumn than in spring: seasonal migration patterns and non-breeding distribution of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus islandicus

Camilo Carneiro, Tómas G. Gunnarsson & José A. Alves
Migration is fundamental in the life of many birds and entails significant energetic and time investments. Given the importance of arrival time in the breeding area and the relatively short period available to reproduce (particularly at high latitudes), it is expected that birds reduce spring migration duration to a greater extent than autumn migration, assuming that pressure to arrive into the wintering area might be relaxed. This has previously been shown for several avian groups,...

Data from: Ecological forensics: using single point stable isotope values to infer seasonal schedules of animals after two diet switches

Jeltje Jouta, Maurine W. Dietz, Jeroen Reneerkens, Theunis Piersma, Eldar Rakhimberdiev, Gunnar T. Hallgrímsson & Ido Pen
Animals adjust to seasonal challenges in physical, behavioural and spatial ways. Such adjustments are commonly associated with diet changes that often can be characterised isotopically. We introduce the ‘double diet switch model’, with which the occurrence and timing of two subsequent diet switches of an individual animal can be traced with a single sample assayed for stable isotopes. We demonstrate the model for Sanderling, Calidris alba, a small shorebird that migrates from the Nearctic tundra...

Data from: Numbers and distribution of the Great Cormorant in Iceland: limitation at the regional and metapopulation level

Arnthor Gardarsson & Jon Einar Jonsson
We studied a metapopulation of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Iceland, using complete aerial censuses of nests in 25 years during 1975–2015. Age composition was estimated in 1998–2014 by ground surveys in September and February. Brood size was estimated from aerial photographs in 2007–2015. Weather, food, breeding habitat, and density were considered as explanatory variables when examining numerical and distributional changes in the cormorant metapopulation. In 1975–1990 total nest numbers changed little, very low numbers...

Data from: Can collective memories shape fish distributions? A test, linking space-time occurrence models and population demographics

Jed I. Macdonald, Kai Logemann, Elias T. Krainski, Þorsteinn Sigurðsson, Colin M. Beale, Geir Huse, Solfrid S. Hjøllo & Guðrún Marteinsdóttir
Social learning can be fundamental to cohesive group living, and schooling fishes have proven ideal test subjects for recent work in this field. For many species, both demographic factors, and inter- (and intra-) generational information exchange are considered vital ingredients in how movement decisions are reached. Yet key information is often missing on the spatial outcomes of such decisions, and questions concerning how migratory traditions are influenced by collective memory, density-dependent and density-independent processes remain...

Plant diversity data from modern sedimentary DNA of lakes in Siberia and China

Kathleen R. Stoof-Leichsenring, Sisi Liu, Weihan Jia, Kai Li, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Steffen Mischke, Xianyong Cao, Xinqui Liu, Jian Ni, Stefan Neuhaus & Ulrike Herzschuh
Here we provide a large dataset on genetic plant diversity retrieved from surface sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) of lakes from Siberia and China spanning over a large environmental gradient. Our dataset encompasses sedDNA sequence data of 244 surface lake sediments and 3 soil samples originating from Siberia and Chinese lakes. We used a PCR-based metabarcoding approach combined with Next-Generation Sequencing to assess the modern and local plant diversity in and around the analysed lake localities. As...

For better or for worse Knowledge output 1944-2001 and effects of the Legal Deposit Act no. 20/2002 and e-publishing on access to GL in Iceland

Stefanía Júlíusdóttir
Two studies are presented in this paper. The former was a study on the amount of knowledge output in Iceland, from 1944 to 2001. It covered all publications issued in Iceland in the sampling years, in the following publication genres: all market publications and GL published in Iceland on paper and catalogued in Gegnir, the national union catalogue, international peer-reviewed journal articles bibliographically accessible in Web of Science (WoS), in addition to patent applications, and...

Individual variation in migratory behavior in a sub-arctic partial migrant shorebird

Verónica Méndez Aragón, Jose Alves, Bodvar Þórisson, Alina Marca, Tomas Gunnarsson & Jennifer Gill
Migratory behavior can differ markedly amongst individuals within populations or species. Understanding the factors influencing this variation is key to understanding how current environmental changes might influence migratory propensity and the distribution and abundance of migratory species across their range. Here, we investigate variation in migratory behavior of the partially migratory Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) population breeding in Iceland. We use resightings of color-ringed adults and stable isotopes to determine whether individuals migrate or remain...

Data from: North Atlantic Gateway: test bed of deep-sea macroecological patterns

Anna Jöst, Moriaki Yasuhara, Chih-Lin Wei, Hisayo Okahashi, Alexandra Ostmann, Pedro Arbízu Martinez, Briony Mamo, Jörundur Svavarsson & Saskia Brix
Aim: The deep waters around Iceland, known as the North Atlantic Gateway, constitute an ideal location to investigate deep-sea ecological hypotheses. Using ostracods, we constructed a comprehensive deep-sea macroecological dataset of the North Atlantic Gateway region and investigated the controlling factors of large-scale, deep-sea species diversity patterns. Location: Sub-polar North Atlantic Ocean Time period: Modern Major taxa studied: Ostracoda (Crustacea) Methods: We investigated deep-sea biodiversity patterns and applied ecological modeling (multiple regression and model averaging)...

Data from: Looking into the past – the reaction of three grouse species to climate change over the last million years using whole genome sequences

Radoslav Kozma, Páll Melsted, Kristinn P. Magnússon & Jacob Höglund
Tracking past population fluctuations can give insight into current levels of genetic variation present within species. Analysing population dynamics over larger time scales can be aligned to known climatic changes to determine the response of species to varying environments. Here, we applied the Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC) model to infer past population dynamics of three widespread grouse species; black grouse, willow grouse and rock ptarmigan. This allowed the tracking of the effective population size...

Data from: Structure and functioning of intertidal food webs along an avian flyway: a comparative approach using stable isotopes

Teresa Catry, Pedro M. Lourenço, Ricardo J. Lopes, Camilo Carneiro, José A. Alves, Joana Costa, Hamid Rguibi-Idrissi, Stuart Bearhop, Theunis Piersma & José P. Granadeiro
Food webs and trophic dynamics of coastal systems have been the focus of intense research throughout the world, as they prove to be critical in understanding ecosystem processes and functions. However, very few studies have undertaken a quantitative comparison of entire food webs from a key consumer perspective across a broad geographical area, limiting relevant comparisons among systems with distinct biotic and abiotic components. We investigate the structure and functioning of food webs in four...

Data from: Present-day genetic structure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Icelandic rivers and ice-cap retreat models

Kristinn Olafsson, Christophe Pampoulie, Sigridur Hjorleifsdottir, Sigurdur Gudjonsson & Gudmundur O. Hreggvidsson
Due to an improved understanding of past climatological conditions, it has now become possible to study the potential concordance between former climatological models and present-day genetic structure. Genetic variability was assessed in 26 samples from different rivers of Atlantic salmon in Iceland (total of 2,352 individuals), using 15 microsatellite loci. F-statistics revealed significant differences between the majority of the populations that were sampled. Bayesian cluster analyses using both prior information and no prior information on...

Data from: Low inter-basin connectivity in a facultatively diadromous fish: evidence from genetics and otolith chemistry

Jane M. Hughes, Daniel J. Schmidt, Jed I. Macdonald, Joel A. Huey & David A. Crook
Southern smelts (Retropinna spp.) in coastal rivers of Australia are facultatively diadromous, with populations potentially containing individuals with diadromous or wholly freshwater life-histories. The presence of diadromous individuals is expected to reduce genetic structuring between river basins due to larval dispersal via the sea. We use otolith chemistry to distinguish between diadromous and non-diadromous life-histories and population genetics to examine inter-basin connectivity resulting from diadromy. Otolith strontium isotope (87Sr:86Sr) transects identified three main life history...

Data from: Do cryptic species matter in macroecology? Sequencing European groundwater crustaceans yields smaller ranges but does not challenge biodiversity determinants

David Eme, Maja Zagmajster, Teo Delić, Cene Fiser, Jean-François Flot, Lara Konecny-Dupré, Snaebjorn Palsson, Fabio Stoch, Valerija Zakšek, Christophe J. Douady & Florian Malard
Ecologists increasingly rely on molecular delimitation methods (MMs) to identify species boundaries, thereby potentially increasing the number of putative species because of the presence of morphologically cryptic species. It has been argued that cryptic species could challenge our understanding of what determine large-scale biodiversity patterns which have traditionally been documented from morphology alone. Here, we used morphology and three MMs to derive four different sets of putative species among the European groundwater crustaceans. Then, we...

Data from: A test for paedomorphism in domestic pig cranial morphology

Allowen Evin, Joseph Owen, Greger Larson, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud, Thomas Cucchi, Una Strand Vidarsdottir & Keith Dobney
Domestic animals are often described as paedomorphic, meaning that they retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood. Through a three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of cranial morphology at three growth stages, we demonstrate that wild boar (n = 138) and domestic pigs (n = 106) (Sus scrofa) follow distinct ontogenetic trajectories. With the exception of the size ratio between facial and neurocranial regions, paedomorphism does not appear to be the primary pattern describing the observed differences between...

Plant DNA metabarcoding record from a sediment core from Lake Naleng, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

Sisi Liu, Stefan Kruse, Dirk Scherler, Richard H. Ree, Heike H. Zimmermann, Kathleen R. Stoof-Leichsenring, Laura S. Epp, Steffen Mischke & Ulrike Herzschuh
Here, we provide the raw plant DNA metabarcoding data archived in Lake Naleng sediment core spanning the late-glacial to the present (17,700 to 0 cal yr BP). Lake Naleng (31.10° N, 99.7°5 E, 4200 above sea level) is situated in a glacially-formed basin on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. It is an alpine freshwater lake with a maximum water depth of 36.7 m, an open surface area of 1.7 km2, a specific conductivity of 0.045 mS/cm,...

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 2009

Ólafur Þórður Harðarson, Eva Heiða Önnudóttir, Einar Már Þórðarsson &
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Data from: Origins of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus): impacts of ice-olation and introgression

Ryan P. Walter, Denis Roy, Nigel E. Hussey, Björn Stelbrink, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bailey C. McMeans, Jörundur Svavarsson, Steven T. Kessel, Sebastian Biton Porsmoguer, Sharon Wildes, Cindy A. Tribuzio, Steven E. Campana, Stephen D. Petersen, R. Dean Grubbs, Daniel D. Heath, Kevin J. Hedges & Aaron T. Fisk
Herein, we use genetic data from 277 sleeper sharks to perform coalescent-based modeling to test the hypothesis of early Quaternary emergence of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) from ancestral sleeper sharks in the Canadian Arctic-Subarctic region. Our results show that morphologically cryptic somniosids S. microcephalus and Somniosus pacificus can be genetically distinguished using combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Our data confirm the presence of genetically admixed individuals in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic, and...

Data from: Low fitness at low latitudes: wintering in the tropics increases migratory delays and mortality rates in an Arctic breeding shorebird

Jeroen Reneerkens, Tom S.L. Versluijs, Theunis Piersma, Jose Alves, Mark Boorman, Colin Corse, Olivier Gilg, Gunnar Hallgrimsson, Johannes Lang, Bob Loos, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Alfred Nuoh, Peter Potts, Job Ten Horn & Tamar Lok
1. Evolutionary theories of seasonal migration generally assume that the costs of longer migrations are balanced by benefits at the non-breeding destinations. 2. We tested, and rejected, the null hypothesis of equal survival and timing of spring migration for High Arctic breeding sanderling Calidris alba using six and eight winter destinations between 55° N and 25° S, respectively. 3. Annual apparent survival was considerably lower for adult birds wintering in tropical West-Africa (Mauritania: 0.74 and...

Data from: Shorebirds as important vectors for plant dispersal in Europe

Ádám Lovas-Kiss, Marta I. Sanchez, David M. Wilkinson, Neil E. Coughlan, Jose A. Alves & Andy J. Green
Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) undergo rapid migrations with potential for long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants. We studied the frequency of endozoochory by shorebirds in different parts of Europe covering a broad latitudinal range and different seasons. We assessed whether plants dispersed conformed to morphological dispersal syndromes. A total of 409 excreta samples (271 faeces and 138 pellets) were collected from redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew...

Data from: Host sex and age typically explain variation in parasitism of Rock Ptarmigan: implications for identifying determinants of exposure and susceptibility

Ólafur Nielsen, André Morrill, Karl Skírnisson, Ute Stenkewitz, Guðný Pálsdóttir & Mark Forbes
Measures of parasitism often differ between hosts. This variation is thought due in part to age or sex differences in exposure to parasites and/or susceptibility to parasitism. We assessed how often age or sex biases in parasitism were found using a large, multi-year (2006 – 2017) dataset of 12 parasite species of Icelandic Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta). We found host traits (i.e. age and/or sex) accounted for significant variation in abundance of 11 of the...

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