79 Works

Þjóðmálakönnun: Viðhorf til alþjóða- og utanríkismála

Könnun var gerð á viðhorfum Íslendinga til alþjóða- og utanríkis­mála og er liður í því að fylgjast með breytingum á þeim milli ára. Fræðimenn á Félagsvísindasviði Háskóla Íslands lögðu fram tillögur að spurningum um málefnið sem voru þróaðar áfram í samstarfi við Félagsvísindastofnun og voru lagðar fyrir netpanel stofnunarinnar á formi netkönnunar í lok árs 2016.

Íslenska menningarvogin

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Haustið 2009 gerði Félagsvísindastofnun Háskóla Íslands könnun fyrir mennta- og menningarmálaráðuneytið þar sem leitast var við að kortleggja menningarneyslu landsmanna. Þátttakendur voru spurðir um þátttöku í mismunandi tegundum menningarviðburða á síðastliðnum 12 mánuðum, bóklestur, fjölmiðlanotkun og einnig var spurt um viðhorf til menningar. Menningarvogin er yfirgripsmesta könnun sinnar tegundar sem gerð hefur verið hér á landi og stefnt er að því að endurtaka hana með reglubundnum hætti til að fylgjast með menningarneyslu Íslendinga.

Könnun á íslenskri þjóðtrú og trúarviðhorfum 2006-2007

Erlendur Haraldsson, Terry Gunnell &
Árið 2006 framkvæmdi Félagsvísindastofnun Háskóla Íslands könnun fyrir Terry Gunnell og Erlend Haraldsson. Markmið könnunarinnar var að kanna þjóðtrú landsmanna, reynslu og viðhorf þeirra til guðs, dauðans og hin yfirnáttúrulega. Þessi könnun byggðist að miklu leyti á könnun Erlends frá árinu 1974. Könnunin var send út árið 2006 en svarhlutfall var aðeins um 44%. Upphaflegt úrtak var 1500 manna slembiúrtak. Sökum þess hve fá svör bárust var ákveðið að safna viðbótargögnum í upphafi vorannar 2007,...

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 2007

Ólafur Þórður Harðarson, Eva Heiða Önnudóttir, Einar Már Þórðarson &
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 1999

Ólafur Þórður Harðarson &
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 2003

Ólafur Þórður Harðarson, Eva Heiða Önnudóttir, Einar Mar Þórðarson &
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Data from: Low fitness at low latitudes: wintering in the tropics increases migratory delays and mortality rates in an Arctic breeding shorebird

Jeroen Reneerkens, Tom S.L. Versluijs, Theunis Piersma, Jose Alves, Mark Boorman, Colin Corse, Olivier Gilg, Gunnar Hallgrimsson, Johannes Lang, Bob Loos, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Alfred Nuoh, Peter Potts, Job Ten Horn & Tamar Lok
1. Evolutionary theories of seasonal migration generally assume that the costs of longer migrations are balanced by benefits at the non-breeding destinations. 2. We tested, and rejected, the null hypothesis of equal survival and timing of spring migration for High Arctic breeding sanderling Calidris alba using six and eight winter destinations between 55° N and 25° S, respectively. 3. Annual apparent survival was considerably lower for adult birds wintering in tropical West-Africa (Mauritania: 0.74 and...

Data from: Host sex and age typically explain variation in parasitism of Rock Ptarmigan: implications for identifying determinants of exposure and susceptibility

Ólafur Nielsen, André Morrill, Karl Skírnisson, Ute Stenkewitz, Guðný Pálsdóttir & Mark Forbes
Measures of parasitism often differ between hosts. This variation is thought due in part to age or sex differences in exposure to parasites and/or susceptibility to parasitism. We assessed how often age or sex biases in parasitism were found using a large, multi-year (2006 – 2017) dataset of 12 parasite species of Icelandic Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta). We found host traits (i.e. age and/or sex) accounted for significant variation in abundance of 11 of the...

Linking range wide energetic trade-offs to breeding performance in a long-distance migrant

Camilo Carneiro, Tómas Gunnarsson, Veronica Méndez, Amadeu Soares & Jose Alves
Understanding how individual trade-offs and carry-over effects along the annual cycle influence fitness is fundamental to unravel population dynamics, but such data is particularly challenging to collect in long-distance migrants. Here, with a full annual cycle perspective of Icelandic whimbrels Numenius phaeopus islandicus, we investigate trade-offs across the entire distribution, assessing migration costs and wintering energetic balance experienced throughout the wintering range (from temperate to tropical regions), and link these to breeding parameters for two...

Data from: Origins of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus): impacts of ice-olation and introgression

Ryan P. Walter, Denis Roy, Nigel E. Hussey, Björn Stelbrink, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bailey C. McMeans, Jörundur Svavarsson, Steven T. Kessel, Sebastian Biton Porsmoguer, Sharon Wildes, Cindy A. Tribuzio, Steven E. Campana, Stephen D. Petersen, R. Dean Grubbs, Daniel D. Heath, Kevin J. Hedges & Aaron T. Fisk
Herein, we use genetic data from 277 sleeper sharks to perform coalescent-based modeling to test the hypothesis of early Quaternary emergence of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) from ancestral sleeper sharks in the Canadian Arctic-Subarctic region. Our results show that morphologically cryptic somniosids S. microcephalus and Somniosus pacificus can be genetically distinguished using combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Our data confirm the presence of genetically admixed individuals in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic, and...

Data from: Shorebirds as important vectors for plant dispersal in Europe

Ádám Lovas-Kiss, Marta I. Sanchez, David M. Wilkinson, Neil E. Coughlan, Jose A. Alves & Andy J. Green
Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) undergo rapid migrations with potential for long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants. We studied the frequency of endozoochory by shorebirds in different parts of Europe covering a broad latitudinal range and different seasons. We assessed whether plants dispersed conformed to morphological dispersal syndromes. A total of 409 excreta samples (271 faeces and 138 pellets) were collected from redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew...

Iceland

Valgerður Valgerður, Jón Gunnar  Ólafsson  & Friðrik Þór  Guðmundsson

Countering misinformation in and from the newsroom: How digital platforms redefine journalistic practice and the democratic role of news media

Eva Mayerhöffer, Marinella Belluati, Brooks DeCillia, Leen d’Haenens, Alice Fubini, Wai Han Lo, Enrique Núñez-Mussa, Jón Gunnar Ólafsson & Rossella Rega

Data from: Seasonal dynamics of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.) populations spawning in the vicinity of marginal habitats

Florian Eggers, Aril Slotte, Lísa Anne Libungan, Arne Johannessen, Cecilie Kvamme, Even Moland, Esben Moland Olsen & Richard D. M. Nash
Gillnet sampling and analyses of otolith shape, vertebral count and growth indicated the presence of three putative Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.) populations mixing together over the spawning season February–June inside and outside an inland brackish water lake (Landvikvannet) in southern Norway. Peak spawning of oceanic Norwegian spring spawners and coastal Skagerrak spring spawners occurred in March–April with small proportions of spawners entering the lake. In comparison, spawning of Landvik herring peaked in May–June with...

Invertebrate biomass, vegetation cover, and environmental data from Hengill, Iceland

E.J. O'Gorman, S.I Robinson, Ó.B. McLaughlin & B. Marteinsdóttir
This is a dataset of environmental data, percentage vegetation cover, total invertebrate abundance, and mean invertebrate body mass, sampled at 96 soil habitat patches in the Hengill geothermal valley, Iceland, in July 2013. The habitat patches span a temperature gradient of 7-38 degrees C, yet they occur within 2 km of each other and have similar soil moisture, pH, total carbon, and total nitrogen. Effects of soil temperature on the structure and diversity of plant...

Feather isotope ratios and sexing of oystercatchers breeding in Iceland, 2013-2017

J.A. Gill, V. Mendez, T.G. Gunnarsson, J.A. Alves & B. Thorrison
Dataset comprises of the delta-13C and delta-15N stable isotopic information from feather samples (for 552 individuals) and the sex (assigned by DNA-analysis of blood samples for 321 individuals) of oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) breeding in Iceland during the summers of 2013-2017. The Icelandic oystercatcher population contains individuals that stay in Iceland year-round and individuals that migrate to mainland Europe in the non-breeding season, and feather isotope ratios provide a means of distinguishing between these migratory behaviours...

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 1983

Ólafur Þórður Harðarson &
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Íslenska kosningarannsóknin 1995

Ólafur Þórður Harðarson &
Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er viðamikil rannsókn þar sem lagðar eru fyrir spurningar um kosninga- og stjórnmálahegðun íslenskra kjósenda. Meðal rannsóknarefna eru til dæmis kosningahegðun, afstaða kjósenda til stjórnmálaflokka, afstaða til lýðræðis, hvað kjósendur telja vera mikilvægustu verkefnin á vettvangi stjórnmála, þátttöku þeirra í prófkjörum og margvísleg önnur málefni á vettvangi stjórnmála. Íslenska kosningarannsóknin er hluti af Nordic Electoral Democracy (NED) sem er norrænt samstarf um lýðræði og kosningar; Comparative Studies of Electoral Systems (CSES) og True...

Media and politics in Iceland

Jón Gunnar Ólafsson & Valgerður Jóhannsdóttir

Data from: Multiple stressors in a top predator seabird: potential ecological consequences of environmental contaminants, population health and breeding conditions

Jan Ove Bustnes, Sophie Bourgeon, Eliza H. K. Leat, Ellen Magnusdottir, Hallvard Strøm, Sveinn A. Hanssen, Aevar Petersen, Kristin Olafsdottir, Katrine Borgå, Geir W. Gabrielsen & Robert W. Furness
Environmental contaminants may have impacts on reproduction and survival in wildlife populations suffering from multiple stressors. This study examined whether adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with poor population health and breeding conditions in three colonies (60–74°N) of great skua (Stercorarius skua) in the north-eastern Atlantic (Shetland, Iceland and Bjørnøya [Bear Island]). POPs (organochlorines [OCs] and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs]) were measured in plasma of incubating birds (n = 222), concentrations differing nearly...

Data from: Contributions of feather microstructure to eider down insulation properties

Liliana D'Alba, Thomas Holm Carlsen, Árni Ásgeirsson, Matthew D. Shawkey & Jon Einar Jonsson
Insulation is an essential component of nest structure that helps provide incubation requirements for birds. Many species of waterfowl breed in high latitudes where rapid heat loss can necessitate a high energetic input from parents and use down feathers to line their nests. Common eider Somateria mollissima nest down has exceptional insulating properties but the microstructural mechanisms behind the feather properties have not been thoroughly examined. Here, we hypothesized that insulating properties of nest down...

Data from: Gene expression in the phenotypically plastic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): a focus on growth and ossification at early stages of development

Samantha V. Beck, Katja Räsänen, Ehsan P. Ahi, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason, Zophonías O. Jónsson & Camille A. Leblanc
Gene expression during development shapes the phenotypes of individuals. Although embryonic gene expression can have lasting effects on developmental trajectories, few studies consider the role of maternal effects, such as egg size, on gene expression. Using qPCR, we characterize relative expression of 14 growth and/or skeletal promoting genes across embryonic development in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We test to what extent their relative expression is correlated with egg size and size at early life‐stages within...

Distinctive mitogenomic lineages within populations of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla)

Charles Christian Riis Hansen
Using whole mitochondrial DNA sequences from 89 white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) sampled from Iceland, Greenland, Norway, Denmark and Estonia between 1990-2018, we investigate the mitogenomic variation within and between countries. We show that there is a substantial population differentiation between the countries, reflecting similar major phylogeographic patterns obtained previously for the control region of the mitochondria, which suggested two main refugia during the last glacial period of Ice Age. Distinct mitogenomic lineages are observed within...

Species richness in North Atlantic fish: process concealed by pattern

Henrik Gislason, Jeremy Collie, Brian R. MacKenzie, Anders Nielsen, Maria De Fatima Borges, Teresa Bottari, Corina Chavez, Andrey V. Dolgov, Jakov Dulčić, Daniel Duplisea, Heino O. Fock, Didier Gascuel, Luís Gil De Sola, Jan Geert Hiddink, Remment Ter Hofstede, Igor Isajlović, Jónas Páll Jonasson, Ole Jørgensen, Kristján Kristinsson, Gudrun Marteinsdottir, Hicham Masski, Sanja Matić-Skoko, Mark R. Payne, Melita Peharda, Jakup Reinert … & Lilja Stefansdottir
Aim Previous analyses of marine fish species richness based on presence-absence data have shown changes with latitude and average species size, but little is known about the underlying processes. To elucidate these processes we use metabolic, neutral, and descriptive statistical models to analyse how richness responds to maximum species length, fish abundance, temperature, primary production, depth, latitude, and longitude, while accounting for differences in species catchability, sampling effort, and mesh size. Data Results from 53,382...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

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