354 Works

Lithological structure of western Pacific lithosphere reconstructed from mantle xenoliths in a petit-spot volcano

Kazuto Mikuni, Naoto Hirano, Norikatsu Akizawa, Junji Yamamoto, Shiki Machida, Akihiro Tamura, Yuuki Hagiwara & Tomoaki Morishita
Abstract The lithospheric mantle, formed at the mid-ocean ridge as a residue of crustal production, comprises theoretically depleted peridotite, but more fertile components (e.g., lherzolite and pyroxenite) have been reported, creating an enigmatic picture of the lithosphere. The oceanic lithosphere has also been found to be locally modified by intraplate magmatism as proposed from geochemistry of mantle xenolith. Petit-spot xenoliths are particularly notable as direct evidence of old lithospheric mantle and expected to retain essential...

Prophylactic antibiotic use during labor and delivery in China: a nationwide, multicenter, hospital-based, cross-sectional study

Qiguo Lian, Tao Zheng, Xiaona Huo, Jun Zhang & Lin Zhang
Abstract Background Prophylactic antibiotic use during delivery is common in routine obstetric practice to prevent infection globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In China, however, little is currently known about the national estimates for prophylactic antibiotic use during delivery. Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of prophylactic antibiotic use and guideline adherence using national data in China. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed a national dataset from the China Labor and Delivery Survey in...

Prophylactic antibiotic use during labor and delivery in China: a nationwide, multicenter, hospital-based, cross-sectional study

Qiguo Lian, Tao Zheng, Xiaona Huo, Jun Zhang & Lin Zhang
Abstract Background Prophylactic antibiotic use during delivery is common in routine obstetric practice to prevent infection globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In China, however, little is currently known about the national estimates for prophylactic antibiotic use during delivery. Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of prophylactic antibiotic use and guideline adherence using national data in China. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed a national dataset from the China Labor and Delivery Survey in...

Additional file 3 of Trace-element analysis of mineral grains in Ryugu rock fragment sections by synchrotron-based confocal X-ray fluorescence

Benjamin Bazi, Pieter Tack, Miles Lindner, Bart Vekemans, Ella De Pauw, Beverley Tkalcec, Frank E. Brenker, Jan Garrevoet, Gerald Falkenberg, Hikaru Yabuta, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Tomoki Nakamura, Kana Amano, Megumi Matsumoto, Yuri Fujioka, Yuma Enokido, Daisuke Nakashima, Masayuki Uesugi, Hiroshi Naraoka, Takaaki Noguchi, Ryuji Okazaki, Kanako Sakamoto, Toru Yada, Masahiro Nishimura, Aiko Nakato … & Laszlo Vincze
Additional file 3: Trace-element concentration values of matrix #6, with and without main-element randomization.

Additional file 3 of Trace-element analysis of mineral grains in Ryugu rock fragment sections by synchrotron-based confocal X-ray fluorescence

Benjamin Bazi, Pieter Tack, Miles Lindner, Bart Vekemans, Ella De Pauw, Beverley Tkalcec, Frank E. Brenker, Jan Garrevoet, Gerald Falkenberg, Hikaru Yabuta, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Tomoki Nakamura, Kana Amano, Megumi Matsumoto, Yuri Fujioka, Yuma Enokido, Daisuke Nakashima, Masayuki Uesugi, Hiroshi Naraoka, Takaaki Noguchi, Ryuji Okazaki, Kanako Sakamoto, Toru Yada, Masahiro Nishimura, Aiko Nakato … & Laszlo Vincze
Additional file 3: Trace-element concentration values of matrix #6, with and without main-element randomization.

Additional file 1 of Trace-element analysis of mineral grains in Ryugu rock fragment sections by synchrotron-based confocal X-ray fluorescence

Benjamin Bazi, Pieter Tack, Miles Lindner, Bart Vekemans, Ella De Pauw, Beverley Tkalcec, Frank E. Brenker, Jan Garrevoet, Gerald Falkenberg, Hikaru Yabuta, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Tomoki Nakamura, Kana Amano, Megumi Matsumoto, Yuri Fujioka, Yuma Enokido, Daisuke Nakashima, Masayuki Uesugi, Hiroshi Naraoka, Takaaki Noguchi, Ryuji Okazaki, Kanako Sakamoto, Toru Yada, Masahiro Nishimura, Aiko Nakato … & Laszlo Vincze
Additional file 1: Monte Carlo uncertainty estimation method for the calculation of the elemental yields.

Additional file 1 of Skipping breakfast during pregnancy and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Japanese women: the Tohoku medical megabank project birth and three-generation cohort study

Misato Aizawa, Keiko Murakami, Ippei Takahashi, Tomomi Onuma, Aoi Noda, Fumihiko Ueno, Fumiko Matsuzaki, Mami Ishikuro, Taku Obara, Hirotaka Hamada, Noriyuki Iwama, Masatoshi Saito, Junichi Sugawara, Nobuo Yaegashi & Shinichi Kuriyama
Additional file 1.

Additional file 5 of Trends in survival during the pandemic in patients with critical COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation with or without ECMO: analysis of the Japanese national registry data

Shinichiro Ohshimo, Keibun Liu, Takayuki Ogura, Yoshiaki Iwashita, Shigeki Kushimoto, Nobuaki Shime, Satoru Hashimoto, Yuji Fujino & Shinhiro Takeda
Additional file 5: Fig. S4. ROC curve analysis for predicting poor outcome in patients with critical COVID-19 receiving ECMO. (A) ROC curve for age, (B) body mass index, (C) number of ventilator days before starting ECMO, (D) number of ECMO experiences at an institution for patients with critical COVID-19, and (E) number of ECMO days. ROC, receiver operating characteristic curve; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Additional file 1 of Filtration-processed biomass nanofiber electrodes for flexible bioelectronics

Daiki Ando, Tetsuhiko F. Teshima, Francisco Zurita, Hu Peng, Kota Ogura, Kenji Kondo, Lennart Weiß, Ayumi Hirano-Iwata, Markus Becherer, Joe Alexander & Bernhard Wolfrum
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Fabrication process of electrodes for evaluation of electrical and geometric characterization. The electrodes are composed of CSNFs and patterned conductive materials including CNTs, AgNWs and PEDOT:PSS without the passivation layers.

Characteristics, Antithrombotic Patterns, and Prognostic Outcomes in Claudication and Critical Limb-Threatening Ischemia Undergoing Endovascular Therapy

Osami Kawarada, Kan Zen, Koji Hozawa, Hideaki Obara, Kentaro Matsubara, Yoshito Yamamoto, Tatsuki Doijiri, Nozomu Tamai, Shigenori Ito, Akihiro Higashimori, Daizo Kawasaki, Hideki Doi, Kensuke Matsushita, Kengo Tsukahara, Katsuo Noda, Masahisa Shimpo, Yuki Tsuda, Shinjo Sonoda, Takuya Taniguchi, Katsuhisa Waseda, Masato Munehisa, Eiji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kinjo, Yohei Sasaki, Kenichiro Yuba … & Satoshi Yasuda
Purpose:The underlying difference between intermittent claudication (IC) and critical limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) still remains unclear. This prospective multicenter observational study aimed to clarify differences in clinical features and prognostic outcomes between IC and CLTI, and prognostic factors in patients undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT).Materials and Methods:A total of 692 patients with 808 limbs were enrolled from 20 institutions in Japan. The primary measurements were the 3-year rates of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and reintervention.Results:Among patients,...

Data from: Molecular and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia

Laura Parducci, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Keith D. Bennett, Yoshihisa Suyama, James Haile, Kurt H. Kjær, Nicolaj K. Larsen, Andreas D. Drouzas, Eske Willerslev & Kurt H. Kjaer
Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sediments. However, the extent to which metabarcoding truly reflects plant composition remains unclear, as does its power to identify species with no pollen or macrofossil evidence. Here, we compared pollen-based and metabarcoding approaches to...

Data from: Sex chromosome turnover contributes to genomic divergence between incipient stickleback species

Kohta Yoshida, Takashi Makino, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Mitsuyasu Hasebe, Masakado Kawata, Manabu Kume, Seiichi Mori, Catherine L. Peichel, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama & Jun Kitano
Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups, where closely related species have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. The sympatric pair of Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provides an excellent system to address these questions: the Japan Sea species has a neo-sex chromosome system resulting from a fusion between an...

Data from: Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog

Angus Davison, Gary S. McDowell, Jennifer M. Holden, Harriet F. Johnson, Georgios D. Koutsovoulos, M. Maureen Liu, Paco Hulpiau, Frans Van Roy, Christopher M. Wade, Ruby Banerjee, Fengtang Yang, Satoshi Chiba, John W. Davey, Daniel J. Jackson, Michael Levin & Mark L. Blaxter
While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria. Here, we report that a disabling mutation...

Data from: Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide

Yuanzhi Li, Bill Shipley, Jodi N. Price, Vinícius De L. Dantas, Riin Tamme, Mark Westoby, Andrew Siefert, Brandon S. Schamp, Marko J. Spasojevic, Vincent Jung, Daniel C. Laughlin, Sarah J. Richardson, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Schöb, Antonio Gazol, Honor C. Prentice, Nicolas Gross, Jacob Overton, Marcus V. Cianciaruso, Frédérique Louault, Chiho Kamiyama, Tohru Nakashizuka, Kouki Hikosaka, Takehiro Sasaki, Masatoshi Katabuchi … & Marco A. Batalha
How the patterns of niche occupancy vary from species-poor to species-rich communities is a fundamental question in ecology that has a central bearing on the processes that drive patterns of biodiversity. As species richness increases, habitat filtering should constrain the expansion of total niche volume, while limiting similarity should restrict the degree of niche overlap between species. Here, by explicitly incorporating intraspecific trait variability, we investigate the relationship between functional niche occupancy and species richness...

Data from: Spatial distribution of flower color induced by interspecific sexual interaction

Yuma Takahashi, Masakado Kawata & Koh-Ichi Takakura
Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural...

Data from: Cough reflex sensitivity and urge-to-cough deterioration in dementia with Lewy bodies

Takae Ebihara, Peijun Gui, Chika Ooyama, Koichi Kozaki & Satoru Ebihara
Cough, an important respiratory symptom, predominantly involves the brainstem, and the urge-to-cough is modulated by the cerebral cortex. Lewy body disease is associated with decreased cough reflex sensitivity and central respiratory chemosensitivity. Additionally, the insula, associated with the urge-to-cough, shows decreased activation and atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We investigated the relationships between cognition and cough reflex and the urge-to-cough and compared the differences in responses of patients with DLB and other dementia...

Tracking long-distance migration of marine fishes using compound-specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids

Jun Matsubayashi, Yutaka Osada, Kazuaki Tadokoro, Yoshiyuki Abe, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Kotaro Shirai, Kentaro Honda, Chisato Yoshikawa, Nanako Ogawa, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Naoto Ishikawa, Toshi Nagata, Hiroomi Miyamoto, Shigeto Nishino & Ichiro Tayasu
The long-distance migrations by marine fishes are difficult to track by field observation. Here, we propose a new method to track such migrations using stable nitrogen isotopic composition at the base of the food web (δ15NBase), which allows for direct comparison of isotope ratios between proxy organisms of the isoscape and the target migratory animal. We initially constructed a δ15NBase isoscape in the North Pacific by bulk and compound-specific isotope analyses of copepods (n =...

Testing trait plasticity over the range of spectral composition of sunlight in forb species differing in shade tolerance

Qing-Wei Wang, T. Matthew Robson, Marta Pieristè, Michio Oguro, Riichi Oguchi, Yoshinori Murai & Hiroko Kurokawa
Although sunlight is essential for plant growth and development, the relative importance of each spectral region in shaping functional traits is poorly understood, particularly in dynamic light environments such as forest ecosystems. We examined responses of 25 functional traits from groups of 11 shade-intolerant and 12 understorey shade-tolerant forb species grown outdoors under five filter treatments differing in spectral transmittance: (1) transmitting c 95% of solar radiation; (2) attenuating ultraviolet-B (UV-B); (3) attenuating all UV;...

Genetic diversity and the origin of commercial plantation of Indonesian teak on Java Island

Eko Prasetyo, Widiyatno Widiyatno, Sapto Indrioko, Mohammad Na'iem, Tetsuya Matsui, Ayumi Matsuo, Yoshihisa Suyama & Yoshihiko Tsumura
Teak (Tectona grandis) has been widely planted in 70 tropical countries because of the utility and value of its wood. This species was introduced to Indonesia more than 100 years ago, and large plantations - covering 1.2 million ha – can be found on Java Island. However, little information currently exists about the genetic diversity and origin of these trees. We collected plant materials from three regions across Java Island (east, central, and west), and...

Museomics for reconstructing historical floristic exchanges: Divergence of Stone Oaks across Wallacea

Joeri Strijk, Hoang Thi Bin Thi Bin, Ferry Slik, Rahayu Sukri, Yoshihisa Suyama, Shuichiro Tagane, Jan Wieringa, Tetsukazu Yahara & Damien Hinsinger
Natural history collections and tropical tree diversity are treasure troves of biological and evolutionary information, but its accessibility is impeded by several properties. DNA in historical specimens generally occurs in a highly fragmented state, complicating the recovery of high-grade genetic material for scientific studies. Our understanding of hyperdiverse, wide-spread tree assemblages suffers from patchy information on distributions, phenology and paucity of diagnostic characters. This prohibits rapid identification and the strengthening of taxonomic frameworks and in...

Data from: Time-dependent decline of body-specific attention to the paretic limb in chronic stroke patients

Naoki Aizu, Yutaka Oouchida & Shin-Ichi Izumi
Objective: To examine whether reduced body-specific attention to paretic limb is found in chronic stroke patients in the time-dependent manner. Methods: Twenty-one patients with chronic hemiparesis (10 left and 11 right hemiparesis) after subcortical stroke and 18 age-matched healthy controls were recruited in this study. Standard neuropsychological examinations showed no clear evidence of spatial neglect in all patients. In order to quantitatively measure the spatial attention to paretic hand, a visual detection task for detecting...

Data from: UV bullseye contrast of Hemerocallis flowers attracts hawkmoths but not swallowtail butterflies

Shun K. Hirota, Nozomu Miki, Akiko A. Yasumoto & Tetsukazu Yahara
The colour and patterns of animal-pollinated flowers are known to have effects on pollinator attraction. In this study, the relative importance of flower colour and colour contrast patterns on pollinator attraction was examined in two pollinator groups, swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths using two Hemerocallis species; butterfly-pollinated H. fulva and hawkmoth-pollinated H. citrina, having reddish and yellowish flowers in human vision, respectively. Flowers of both species have UV bullseye patterns, composed of UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting...

Data from: Simulation of the nodal flow of mutant embryos with small number of cilia: comparison of mechanosensing and vesicle transport hypotheses

Toshihiro Omori, Katja Winter, Kyosuke Shinohara, Hiroshi Hamada & Takuji Ishikawa
Left-right (L-R) asymmetry in the body plan is determined by nodal flow in vertebrate embryos. Shinohara et al. used Dpcd and Rfx3 mutant mouse embryos and showed that only a few cilia were sufficient to achieve L-R asymmetry. However, the mechanism underlying the breaking of symmetry by such weak ciliary flow is unclear. The flow-mediated signals related to L-R asymmetry have not been clarified; there are two models for L-R symmetry breaking: vesicle transport and...

Data from: Divergence before and after the isolation of islands: phylogeography of the Bradybaena land snails on the Ryukyu Islands of Japan

Takahiro Hirano, Yuichi Kameda, Takumi Saito & Satoshi Chiba
Aim: Vicariance events have been proposed as a major source of lineage divergence on continental islands, whereas dispersal events followed by isolation have been proposed as the major cause on oceanic islands. However, organisms on continental islands may include taxa with characteristics similar to those on oceanic islands. Lineage divergence unassociated with the geological events that separated islands may also have occurred. This study addresses these possibilities through morphological and molecular phylogeographic analyses of land...

Data from: Florivory defence: are phenolic compounds distributed differently within perianths?

Michio Oguro, Saya Nakano, Tomoyuki Itagaki & Satoki Sakai
Plants might allocate chemical defenses unequally within attractive units of flowers including petals, sepals, and bracts because of variations in the probability of florivory. Based on the optimal defense theory, which predicts that plants allocate higher chemical defenses to tissues with higher probabilities of herbivore attack, we predicted that distal parts and sepals would have higher chemical defense allocations than proximal parts and petals. To test this prediction, we compared total phenolics and condensed tannins...

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