64 Works

Floral spectral reflectance data for: Floral color properties of serpentine seep assemblages depend on community size and species richness

Kathryn LeCroy, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Matthew Koski, Nathan Morehouse & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Functional traits, particularly those that impact fitness, can shape the ecological and evolutionary relationships among coexisting species of the same trophic level. Thus, examining these traits and properties of their distributions (underdispersion, overdispersion) within communities can provide insights into key ecological interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) involved in community assembly. For instance, the distribution of floral colors in a community may reflect pollinator-mediated interactions between sympatric plant species, and the phylogenetic distribution of color can inform...

Paradise under threat: Safeguarding and enhancing the local cultural economy in rural landscapes of Mallorca, Crete, and Samoa

Carla Chifos, Bartomeu Deya, Diane Menzies & Dexell Aita
Islands with traditional villages and rural landscapes are major attractors to tourism. The heritage, local products and cultural landscapes are a significant part of the draw of visitors. However, it is these aspects of the island that, even if they are formally protected, often suffer from the high demands of tourism. Add the threats of climate change and you have places that suffer from unexpected interference with a way of life and a disturbance of...

Data from: The adaptive genomic landscape of beak morphology in Darwin’s finches

Lucinda P. Lawson & Kenneth Petren
Beak shape in Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza) is emblematic of natural selection and adaptive radiation, yet our understanding of the genetic basis of beak shape variation, and thus the genetic target of natural selection, is still evolving. Here we reveal the genomic architecture of beak shape variation using genomewide comparisons of four closely related and hybridizing species across 13 islands subject to parallel natural selection. Pairwise contrasts among species were used to identify a large...

Data from: The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes

Dimitrios Floudas, Manfred Binder, Robert Riley, Kerrie Barry, Robert A. Blanchette, Bernard Henrissat, Angel T. Martínez, Robert Ortillar, Joseph W. Spatafora, Jagjit S. Yadav, Andrea Aerts, Isabelle Benoit, Alex Boyd, Alexis Carlson, Alex Copeland, Pedro M. Coutinho, Ronald P. De Vries, Patricia Ferreira, Keisha Findley, Brian Foster, Jill Gaskell, Dylan Glotzer, Paweł Górecki, Joseph Heitman, Cedar Hesse … & David S. Hibbett
Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non–lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as...

Data from: The costs and benefits of tolerance to competition in Ipomoea purpurea, the common morning glory

Lindsay Chaney & Regina S. Baucom
Tolerance to competition has been hypothesized to reduce the negative impact of plant-plant competition on fitness. Although competitive interactions are a strong selective force, an analysis of net selection on tolerance to competition is absent in the literature. Using fifty-five full/half-sibling families from 18 maternal lines in the crop weed Ipomoea purpurea we measured fitness and putative tolerance traits when grown with and without competition in an agricultural field. We tested for the presence of...

Data from: Crinoid assemblages from the Fort Payne Formation (late Osagean, early Viséan, Mississippian) from Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama

Elyssa B. Krivicich, William I. Ausich & David L. Meyer
The Mississippian Fort Payne Formation of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama is well known for its abundant crinoids and a diverse array of autochthonous and allochthonous carbonate and siliciclastic facies. Using Principal Coordinate Analysis and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling, it is demonstrated that distinct, contemporaneous, and geographically adjacent autochthonous facies in south-central Kentucky supported distinct crinoid assemblages. The two carbonate buildup facies had different assemblages dominated by camerate crinoids, carbonate channel-fill deposits were dominated by advanced cladid...

Data from: A pleiotropic interaction between vision loss and hypermelanism in Astyanax mexicanus cave x surface hybrids

Joshua B. Gross, Amanda K. Powers, Erin M. Davis & Shane A. Kaplan
Background Cave-dwelling animals evolve various traits as a consequence of life in darkness. Constructive traits (e.g., enhanced non-visual sensory systems) presumably arise under strong selective pressures. The mechanism(s) driving regression of features, however, are not well understood. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses in Astyanax mexicanus Pachón cave x surface hybrids revealed phenotypic effects associated with vision and pigmentation loss. Vision QTL were uniformly associated with reductions in the homozygous cave condition, however pigmentation QTL demonstrated...

Local adaptation across a complex bioclimatic landscape in two montane bumble bee species

Jason Jackson, Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeffrey Lozier
Understanding evolutionary responses to variation in temperature and precipitation across species ranges is of fundamental interest given ongoing climate change. The importance of temperature and precipitation for multiple aspects of bumble bee (Bombus) biology, combined with large geographic ranges that expose populations to diverse environmental pressures, make these insects well-suited for studying local adaptation. We analyzed genome-wide sequence data from two widespread bumble bees, Bombus vosnesenskii and Bombus vancouverensis, using multiple Environmental Association Analysis methods...

Data from: Host conservatism, geography, and elevation in the evolution of a Neotropical moth radiation

Joshua P. Jahner, Matthew L. Forister, Thomas L. Parchman, Angela M. Smilanich, James S. Miller, Joseph S. Wilson, Thomas R. Walla, Eric J. Tepe, Lora A. Richards, Mario A. Quijano-Abril, Andrea E. Glassmire & Lee A. Dyer
The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion,...

Rare missense functional variants at COL4A1 and COL4A2 in sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage

Jaeyoon Chung, Graham Hamilton, Minsup Kim, Sandro Marini, Bailey Montgomery, Jonathan Henry, Art Cho, Devin Brown, Bradford Worrall, James Meschia, Scott Silliman, Magdy Selim, David Tirschwell, Chelsea Kidwell, Brett Kissela, Steven Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan, Joshua Goldstein, Carl Langefeld, Kristiina Rannikmae, Catherine Sudlow, Neshika Samarasekera, Mark Rodrigues, Rustam Salman, James Prendergast … & Christopher Anderson
Objective To test the genetic contribution of rare missense variants in COL4A1 and COL4A2 in which common variants are genetically associated with sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we performed rare variant analysis in multiple sequencing data for the risk for sporadic ICH. Methods We performed sequencing across 559Kbp at 13q34 including COL4A1 and COL4A2 among 2,133 individuals (1,055 ICH cases; 1,078 controls) in US-based and 1,492 individuals (192 ICH cases; 1,300 controls) from Scotland-based cohorts, followed...

The morphological diversity of the quadrate bone in squamate reptiles as revealed by high-resolution computed tomography and geometric morphometrics

Alessandro Palci, Michael Caldwell, Mark Hutchinson, Takuya Konishi & Michael Lee
We examined the morphological diversity of the quadrate bone in squamate reptiles (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians). The quadrate is the principal splanchnocranial element involved in suspending the lower jaw from the skull, and its shape is of particular interest because it is potentially affected by several factors, such as phylogenetic history, allometry, ecology, skull kinesis and hearing capabilities (e.g. presence or absence of a tympanic ear). Due to its complexity, the quadrate bone is also...

Data from: Genetic variation and structure in the neotropical tree, Manilkara zapota (L) P. Royen (Sapotaceae) used by the ancient Maya

K. M. Thompson, Theresa M. Culley, A. M. Zumberger & D. L. Lentz
Manilkara zapota is a tropical tree species that was used by the ancient Maya in construction of their temples and as a source for fruit. Although this has been supported by ethnographic and paleoethnobotanical data, we used genetic approaches to estimate variation and structure in modern populations of this neotropical tree species to discern if genetic patterns were consistent with earlier influences of ancient Maya management or if they could be explained by the natural...

Data from: Spinosity, regeneration, and targeting among Paleozoic crinoids and their predators

Valerie J.P. Syverson, Carlton E. Brett, Forest J. Gahn & Tomasz K. Baumiller
Evolving interactions between predators and prey constitute one of the major adaptive influences on marine animals during the Paleozoic. Crinoids and fish constitute a predator-prey system that may date back to at least the Silurian, as suggested by patterns of crinoid regeneration and spinosity in concert with changes in the predatory fauna. Here we present data on the frequency of breakage and regeneration in the spines of the Middle Devonian camerate Gennaeocrinus and Late Paleozoic...

Data from: Pivotal effect of early-winter temperatures and snowfall on population growth of alpine Parnassius smintheus butterflies

Jens Roland & Stephen F. Matter
Geographic range shifts in species’ distributions, due to climate change, imply altered dynamics at both their northern and southern range limits, or at upper and lower elevational limits. There is therefore a need to identify specific weather or climate variable(s), and life stages or cohorts on which they act, and how these affect population growth. Identifying such variables permits prediction of population increase or decline under a changing climate, and shifts in a species’ geographic...

Data from: Intraspecific phytochemical variation shapes community and population structure for specialist caterpillars

Andrea E. Glassmire, Christopher S. Jeffrey, Matthew L. Forister, Thomas L. Parchman, Chris C. Nice, Joshua P. Jahner, Joseph S. Wilson, Thomas R. Walla, Lora A. Richards, Angela M. Smilanich, Michael D. Leonard, Colin R. Morrison, Wilmer Simbaña, Luis A. Salagaje, Craig D. Dodson, Jim S. Miller, Eric J. Tepe, Santiago Villamarin-Cortez & Lee A. Dyer
Chemically mediated plant–herbivore interactions contribute to the diversity of terrestrial communities and the diversification of plants and insects. While our understanding of the processes affecting community structure and evolutionary diversification has grown, few studies have investigated how trait variation shapes genetic and species diversity simultaneously in a tropical ecosystem. We investigated secondary metabolite variation among subpopulations of a single plant species, Piper kelleyi (Piperaceae), using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to understand associations between plant phytochemistry...

Data from: Isotopic evidence for oligotrophication of terrestrial ecosystems

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Julieta Aranibar, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Brooke E. Crowley, Melissa A. Dawes, Sylvain Delzon, Alex Fajardo, Yunting Fang, Lei Fujiyoshi, Alan Gray, Rossella Guerrieri, Michael J. Gundale, David J. Hawke, Peter Hietz, Mathieu Jonard, Elizabeth Kearsley, Tanaka Kenzo, Mikhail Makarov, Sara Marañón-Jiménez, Terrence P. McGlynn, Brenden E. McNeil, Stella G. Mosher … & Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek
Human societies depend on an Earth System that operates within a constrained range of nutrient availability, yet the recent trajectory of terrestrial nitrogen (N) availability is uncertain. Examining patterns of foliar N concentrations ([N]) and isotope ratios (15N) from more than 42,000 samples acquired over 37 years, here we show that foliar [N] declined by 8% and foliar 15N declined by 0.8 – 1.9 ‰. Examining patterns across different climate spaces, foliar 15N declined across...

Data from: Does morphological variation buffer against extinction? A test using veneroid bivalves from the Plio-Pleistocene of Florida

Sarah E. Kolbe, Rowan Lockwood & Gene Hunt
Although morphological variation is known to influence the evolutionary fates of species, the relationship between morphological variation and survivorship in the face of extinction-inducing perturbations is poorly understood. Here, we investigate this relationship for veneroid bivalves in association with the Plio-Pleistocene extinction in Florida. Fourteen pairs of related species were selected for analysis, with each pair including one species that survived the Plio-Pleistocene extinction and another that became extinct during the interval. Morphological landmark data...

Data from: Camerate and disparid crinoids from the late Kinderhookian Meadville Shale, Cuyahoga Formation of Ohio

William I. Ausich & Edgar W. Roeser
Crinoids were first reported from the Cuyahoga Formation in northeastern Ohio by James Hall in 1863. However, these crinoids have essentially not been re-examined in detail since the late 18th century. With the restudy of classical and more recent collections, ten (nine camerate and one disparid) species-level taxa are recognized from the late Kinderhookian Cuyahoga Formation, including the camerates Amphoracrinus viminalis (Hall, 1863); Aorocrinus helice Hall, 1863; Aorocrinus meyeri n. sp.; Aryballocrinus martini n. sp.;...

Data from: Madagascar's ephemeral palaeo-grazer guild: who ate the ancient C4 grasses?

Laurie R. Godfrey & Brooke E. Crowley
Supplementary isotope and radiocarbon data on subfossil hippos and tortoises of MadagascarRaw and corrected d13C data and 14C and calibrated radiocarbon ages before present, and data sources for now-extinct Hippopotamus and Aldabrachelys on MadagascarSupplementary Table_for submission.xls

Tourism, Dams and Greed: Lessons from the destruction of a rural cultural landscape in Crete

Carla Chifos
Four thousand years of shaping the landscape, developing sustainable agricultural practices and products, and forming a symbiotic relationship with ecological systems in the Aposelemis Valley of Crete has been disrupted due to the building of a large dam in the heart of that landscape. The politics and decision-making that resulted in the building and implementation of this dam are already documented and analyzed in a recent paper (Chifos, et al, 2019). This paper re-examines what...

Impact of the COVID-19 Shutdown on Mental Health in Appalachia by Working Status

Erin N. Haynes, Timothy J. Hilbert, Susan C. Westneat, Kate Leger, Katie Keynton & Heather M. Bush
Introduction: To slow the spread of COVID-19 in the United States, businesses shutdown in Spring 2020. Research has indicated the impact on frontline workers, yet little is known about the impact on those who were not working outside the home or switched to working remotely. Purpose: The purpose of this report is to identify the financial and healthcare issues and mental health impact of the COVID-19 shutdown on Appalachians by worker categories. Methods: An online...

Data from: The evolutionary history of Darwin's finches: speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape

Heather L. Farrington, Lucinda P. Lawson, Courtney M. Clark & Kenneth Petren
Many classic examples of adaptive radiations take place within fragmented systems such as islands or mountains, but the roles of mosaic landscapes and variable gene flow in facilitating species diversification is poorly understood. Here we combine phylogenetic and landscape genetic approaches to understand diversification in Darwin's finches, a model adaptive radiation. We combined sequence data from 14 nuclear introns, mitochondrial markers, and microsatellite variation from 51 populations of all 15 recognized species. Phylogenetic species-trees recovered...

Individual and synergistic effects of male external genital traits in sexual selection

Eduardo Rodriguez-Exposito, Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez & Michal Polak
Male genital traits exhibit extraordinary inter-specific phenotypic variation. This remarkable and general evolutionary trend is widely considered to be the result of sexual selection. However, we still do not have a good understanding of whether or how individual genital traits function in different competitive arenas (episodes of sexual selection), or how different genital traits may interact to influence competitive outcomes. Here, we use an experimental approach based on high-precision laser phenotypic engineering to address these...

Data from: Age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists

Kathrin LaFaver, Janis M. Miyasaki, Christopher M. Keran, Carol Rheaume, Lisa Gulya, Kerry H. Levin, Elaine C. Jones, Heidi B. Schwarz, Jennifer R. Molano, Amy Hessler, Divya Singhal, Tait D. Shanafelt, Jeff A. Sloan, Paul J. Novotny, Terrence L. Cascino & Neil A. Busis
Objective: To examine age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of men’s (n = 1,091) and women’s (n = 580) responses to a 2016 survey of US neurologists. Results: Emotional exhaustion in neurologists initially increased with age, then started to decrease as neurologists got older. Depersonalization decreased as neurologists got older. Fatigue and overall quality of life in neurologists initially worsened with age, then...

Data from: Weak and inconsistent associations between melanic darkness and fitness related traits in an insect

Siiri-Lii Sandre, Tanel Kaart, Nathan Morehouse & Toomas Tammaru
The idea that the fitness value of body colouration may be affected by biochemically mediated trade-offs has received much research attention. For example, melanisation is believed to interact with other fitness-related traits via competition for substrates, costs associated with the synthesis of melanin, or pleiotropic effects of the involved genes. However, genetic correlations between colouration and fitness-related traits remain poorly understood. Here we present a quantitative genetic study of a colouration trait correlated to melanin-based...

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