69 Works

Data from: Age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists

Kathrin LaFaver, Janis M. Miyasaki, Christopher M. Keran, Carol Rheaume, Lisa Gulya, Kerry H. Levin, Elaine C. Jones, Heidi B. Schwarz, Jennifer R. Molano, Amy Hessler, Divya Singhal, Tait D. Shanafelt, Jeff A. Sloan, Paul J. Novotny, Terrence L. Cascino & Neil A. Busis
Objective: To examine age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of men’s (n = 1,091) and women’s (n = 580) responses to a 2016 survey of US neurologists. Results: Emotional exhaustion in neurologists initially increased with age, then started to decrease as neurologists got older. Depersonalization decreased as neurologists got older. Fatigue and overall quality of life in neurologists initially worsened with age, then...

Data from: Weak and inconsistent associations between melanic darkness and fitness related traits in an insect

Siiri-Lii Sandre, Tanel Kaart, Nathan Morehouse & Toomas Tammaru
The idea that the fitness value of body colouration may be affected by biochemically mediated trade-offs has received much research attention. For example, melanisation is believed to interact with other fitness-related traits via competition for substrates, costs associated with the synthesis of melanin, or pleiotropic effects of the involved genes. However, genetic correlations between colouration and fitness-related traits remain poorly understood. Here we present a quantitative genetic study of a colouration trait correlated to melanin-based...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Spatial variation in early-winter snow cover determines local dynamics in a network of alpine butterfly populations

Jens Roland & Stephen Matter
Snow cover is an extremely variable but critical component of alpine environments. We use long term population data on multiple small populations of the alpine butterfly Parnassius smintheus, combined with high-resolution satellite imagery of meadows, to show a strong link between fine-scale spatial and temporal variation in early-winter snow cover and annual change in butterfly population size, accounting for up to 80 percent of the variation in annual population change. Snow cover in early winter...

Data from: Comparative and population mitogenomic analyses of Madagascar’s extinct, giant ‘subfossil’ lemurs

Logan Kistler, Aakrosh Ratan, Laurie R. Godfrey, Brooke E. Crowley, Cris E. Hughes, Runhua Lei, Yinqui Cui, Mindy L. Wood, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Haingoson Andriamialison, John J. McGraw, Lynn P. Tomsho, Stephan C. Schuster, Webb Miller, Edward E. Louis, Anne D. Yoder, Ripan S. Malhi, George H. Perry & Yinqiu Cui
Humans first arrived on Madagascar only a few thousand years ago. Subsequent habitat destruction and hunting activities have had significant impacts on the island's biodiversity, including the extinction of megafauna. For example, we know of 17 recently extinct ‘subfossil’ lemur species, all of which were substantially larger (body mass ∼11–160 kg) than any living population of the ∼100 extant lemur species (largest body mass ∼6.8 kg). We used ancient DNA and genomic methods to study...

Data from: Comparing taxonomic and geographic scales in the morphologic disparity of Ordovician through Early Silurian Laurentian Crinoids

Bradley Deline, William I. Ausich & Carlton E. Brett
Interpretations of morphologic radiations and macroevolutionary patterns are dependent on a priori choices of taxonomic and geographic scales of study. The results of disparity analysis at varying taxonomic (species and genus) and geographic (regional, biofacies, and community) scales are examined in a study of Ordovician though Early Silurian crinoids. Using discrete morphologic characters, we examined the disparity of 421 crinoids from 65 Laurentian biofacies. Crinoid disparity differs when analyzed at the regional and biofacies levels....

Data from: A century of genetic change and metapopulation dynamics in the Galápagos warbler finches (Certhidea)

Heather L Farrington & Ken Petren
Populations that are connected by immigrants play an important role in evolutionary and conservation biology, yet we have little direct evidence of how such metapopulations change genetically over evolutionary time. We compared historic (1895-1905) to modern (1988-2006) genetic variation in 11 populations of warbler finches at 14 microsatellite loci. Although several lines of evidence suggest that Darwin’s finches may be in decline, we found that the genetic diversity of warbler finches has not generally declined,...

Data from: The precopulatory function of male genital spines in Drosophila ananassae [Doleschall] (Diptera: Drosophilidae) revealed by laser surgery

Karl Grieshop & Michal Polak
That male genital morphology evolves via postcopulatory sexual selection is a widely held view. In contrast, the pre-copulatory sexual selection hypothesis for genital evolution has received less attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae promote competitive male copulation success. Using laser surgery to manipulate trait size, we demonstrate that incremental reductions of spine length progressively reduce male copulation success: males without spines failed entirely to copulate because of an...

Data from: Island-wide aridity did not trigger recent megafaunal extinctions in Madagascar

Brooke E. Crowley, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, George H. Perry, Brendan J. Culleton, Douglas J. Kennett, Michael R. Sutherland, Karen E. Samonds & David A. Burney
Researchers are divided about the relative importance of people versus climate in triggering the Late Holocene extinctions of the endemic large-bodied fauna on the island of Madagascar. Specifically, a dramatic and synchronous decline in arboreal pollen and increase in grass pollen ca. 1,000 years ago has been alternatively interpreted as evidence for aridification, increased human activity, or both. As aridification and anthropogenic deforestation can have similar effects on vegetation, resolving which of these factors (if...

Data from: Batocrinidae (Crinoidea) from the lower Mississippian (lower Viséan) Fort Payne Formation of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama: systematics, geographic occurrences, and facies distribution

William I. Ausich, Elizabeth C. Rhenberg & Davld L. Meyer
The Batocrinidae are characteristic faunal elements in lower Mississippian shallow-marine settings in North America. Recent delineation of objectively defined genera allows a reexamination of batocrinid species and their distribution in the Fort Payne Formation (early Viséan, late Osagean), a well-studied array of carbonate and siliciclastic facies. The Fort Payne batocrinid fauna has fourteen species assigned to six genera, plus hybrid specimens. Magnuscrinus spinosus (Miller and Gurley, 1895a) is reassigned to its original placement in Eretmocrinus....

Data from: Evaluating the postcopulatory sexual selection hypothesis for genital evolution reveals evidence for pleiotropic harm exerted by the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae

Karl Grieshop, Michal Polack & M. Polak
The contemporary explanation for the rapid evolutionary diversification of animal genitalia is that such traits evolve by post-copulatory sexual selection. Here, we test the hypothesis that the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae play an adaptive role in post-copulatory sexual selection. Whereas previous work on two Drosophila species shows that these spines function in precopulatory sexual selection to initiate genital coupling and promote male competitive copulation success, further research is needed to evaluate the potential...

Data from: Evidence for stratigraphy in molluscan death assemblages preserved in seagrass beds: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

Kelsey M. Arkle & Arnold I. Miller
Death assemblages that occupy the upper tens of centimeters of sediment in shallow-marine settings are often subject to extensive mixing, thereby limiting their usefulness in assessing environmentally mediated compositional changes through time in the local biota. Here, we provide evidence that dense, Thalassia-rich seagrass beds preserve a stratigraphic record of biotic variation because their dense root–rhizome mats inhibit mixing. We sampled benthic mollusk assemblages at seven localities in Thalassia-rich beds around St. Croix, USVI, collecting...

Data from: Genomic analysis of demographic history and ecological niche modeling in the endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

, Chih-Ming Hung, Pei-Jen Shaner, James Denvir, Megan Justice, Shang-Fang Yang, Terri L. Roth, David A. Oehler, Jun Fan, Swanthana Rekulapally, Donald A. Primerano & Herman L. Mays
The vertebrate extinction rate over the past century is approximately 22–100 times greater than background extinction rates, and large mammals are particularly at risk. Quaternary megafaunal extinctions have been attributed to climate change, overexploitation, or a combination of the two. Rhinoceroses (Family: Rhinocerotidae) have a rich fossil history replete with iconic examples of climate-induced extinctions, but current pressures threaten to eliminate this group entirely. The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is among the most imperiled mammals...

Data from: Ecological fidelity of functional traits based on species presence-absence in a modern mammalian bone assemblage (Amboseli, Kenya)

Joshua H. Miller, Anna Kay Behrensmeyer, Andrew Du, S. Kathleen Lyons, David Patterson, Anikó Tóth, Amelia Villaseñor, Erustus Kanga & Denné Reed
Comparisons between modern death assemblages and their source communities have demonstrated fidelity to species diversity across a variety of environments and taxonomic groups. However, differential species preservation and collection (including body-size bias) in both modern and fossil death assemblages may still skew the representation of other important ecological characteristics. Here, we move beyond live-dead taxonomic fidelity and focus on the recovery of functional ecology (how species interact with their ecosystem) at the community level for...

Data from: Gripping during climbing of arboreal snakes may be safe but not economical

Greg Byrnes & Bruce C. Jayne
On the steep surfaces that are common in arboreal environments, many types of animals without claws or adhesive structures must use muscular force to generate sufficient normal force to prevent slipping and climb successfully. Unlike many limbed arboreal animals that have discrete gripping regions on the feet, the elongate bodies of snakes allow for considerable modulation of both the size and orientation of the gripping region. We quantified the gripping forces of snakes climbing a...

Experimental modification of morphology reveals the effects of the zygosphene-zygantrum joint on the range of motion of snake vertebrae

Derek Jurestovsky, Bruce Jayne & Henry Astley
Variation in joint shape and soft tissue can alter range of motion (ROM) and create trade-offs between stability and flexibility. The shape of the distinctive zygosphene–zygantrum joint of snake vertebrae has been hypothesized to prevent axial torsion (twisting), but its function has never been tested experimentally. We used experimental manipulation of morphology to determine the role of the zygosphene–zygantrum articulation by micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning and 3D printing two mid-body vertebrae with unaltered shape and...

Consumer movement dynamics as hidden drivers of stream habitat structure: suckers as ecosystem engineers on the night shift

Michael Booth, Nelson Hairston & Alex Flecker
Ecosystem engineers engineering can control the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and movement by engineering organisms within an ecosystem can transport mobilize resources across boundaries and distribute engineering effects. Movement patterns of fishes can cause physical changes to stream aquatic habitats though nesting or feeding, both of which often vary in space and time. Here we present evidence of ecosystem engineering by the Sonora sucker (Catostomus insignis), a dominant fish in streams of the...

Data from: Complex male mate choice in the brush-legged wolf spider Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz)

Timothy B. Meyer & George W. Uetz
Recent interest in male mate choice has prompted a re-examination of widely held beliefs regarding sex roles in animal mating systems. It is now known that males can be choosy based on female quality, but studies which directly compare aspects of female quality and their influence on male mate choice are relatively rare. The brush-legged wolf spider Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz) has a well-studied male courtship display, which shows evidence of male mate choice based on...

Field evidence for colour mimicry overshadowing morphological mimicry

David Outomuro, Alberto Corral-Lopez, Javier Edo Varg, Yiselle P. Cano-Cobos, Rafael Losada & Emilio Realpe
1. Imperfect mimicry may be maintained when the various components of an aposematic signal have different salience for predators. Experimental laboratory studies provide robust evidence for this phenomenon. Yet, evidence from natural settings remains scarce. 2. We studied how natural bird predators assess multiple features in a multicomponent aposematic signal in the Neotropical “clear wing complex” mimicry ring, dominated by glasswing butterflies. 3. We evaluated two components of the aposematic signal, wing colouration and wing...

Data from: Comparisons of Late Ordovician ecosystem dynamics before and after the Richmondian Invasion reveal consequences of invasive species in benthic marine paleocommunities

Hannah Kempf, Ian Castro, Ashley Dineen, Carrie Tyler & Peter Roopnarine
A thorough understanding of how communities respond to extreme changes, such as biotic invasions, is essential to manage ecosystems today. Here we constructed fossil food webs to identify changes in Late Ordovician (Katian) shallow marine paleocommunity structure and functioning before and after the Richmondian Invasion, a well-documented ancient invasion. Food webs were compared using descriptive metrics and Cascading Extinction on Graphs models. Richness at intermediate trophic levels was underrepresented when using only data from the...

Weight Matters: African American Sorority Women Speak up About Body Image

Robin Arnsperger Selzer

Implications for evolutionary trends from the pairing frequencies among golden-winged and blue-winged warblers and their hybrids

John Confer, Cody Porter, Kyle Aldinger, Ronald Canterbury, Jeffery Larkin & Darin McNeil
Extensive range loss for the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) has occurred in areas of intrusion by the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera) potentially related to their close genetic relationship. We compiled data on social pairing from nine studies for 2,679 resident Vermivora to assess evolutionary divergence. Hybridization between pure phenotypes occurred with 1.2% of resident males for sympatric populations. Pairing success rates for Golden-winged Warblers was 83% and for Blue-winged Warblers was 77%. Pairing success for...

Raw radiocarbon dates and stable carbon isotope values for individual bone specimens from Madagascar's Central Highlands.

Brooke Crowley, Laurie Godfrey, Karen Samonds & James Hansford
This commentary has no abstract.

Data from: Colour use by tiny predators: jumping spiders exhibit colour biases during foraging

Lisa Taylor, Emily Maier, Kevin Byrne, Zareen Amin & Nathan Morehouse
The evolution of many animal colours is thought to be driven by selection from visually guided predators. Yet research has largely focused on large vertebrate predators such as birds while ignoring smaller, terrestrial invertebrate predators. This is despite clear evidence that small invertebrate predators are important regulators of prey densities in a variety of ecosystems. Jumping spiders are small voracious predators that feed on a wide variety of prey in the field. They are capable...

Data from: Evolutionary and phylogenetic insights from a nuclear genome sequence of the extinct, giant subfossil koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi

Stephanie Marciniak, Mehreen R. Mughal, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, Heritiana Randrianatoandro, Brooke E. Crowley, Christina M. Bergey, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Jeannot Randrianasy, Brigitte M. Raharivololona, Stephan C. Schuster, Ripan S. Malhi, Anne D. Yoder, , Logan Kistler & George H. Perry
No endemic Madagascar animal with body mass >10 kg survived a relatively recent wave of extinction on the island. From morphological and isotopic analyses of skeletal ‘subfossil’ remains we can reconstruct some of the biology and behavioral ecology of giant lemurs (primates; up to ~160 kg), elephant birds (up to ~860 kg), and other extraordinary Malagasy megafauna that survived well into the past millennium. Yet much about the evolutionary biology of these now extinct species...

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