69 Works

Data from: New perspectives on transitions between ecological-evolutionary subunits in the \"type interval\" for Coordinated Stasis

, James J. Zambito, Carlton E. Brett, Sarah E. Kolbe & Arnold I. Miller
Northern Appalachian Basin deposits and associated fossils have served as exemplars for ecological-evolutionary investigations, and as the reference interval for the concept of coordinated stasis. Here, we examine faunal and environmental changes within the uppermost Hamilton and lowermost Genesee Groups of the late Middle Devonian succession of New York State. Dramatic diversity loss, faunal migrations, and ecological restructuring recognized in these strata have been used previously to define the end of the Hamilton ecological-evolutionary subunit,...

Data from: Landscape structure and the genetic effects of a population collapse

Serena A. Caplins, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Claudia Ciotir, Jens Roland, Stephen F. Matter & Nusha Keyghobadi
Both landscape structure and population size fluctuations influence population genetics. While independent effects of these factors on genetic patterns and processes are well studied, a key challenge is to understand their interaction, as populations are simultaneously exposed to habitat fragmentation and climatic changes that increase variability in population size. In a population network of an alpine butterfly, abundance declined 60–100% in 2003 because of low over-winter survival. Across the network, mean microsatellite genetic diversity did...

Data from: Albinism in phylogenetically and geographically distinct populations of Astyanax cavefish arises through the same loss-of-function Oca2 allele

Joshua B. Gross & Horst Wilkens
The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, comprises 29 populations of cave-adapted fish distributed across a vast karst region in northeastern Mexico. These populations have a complex evolutionary history, having descended from "old" and "young" ancestral surface-dwelling stocks that invaded the region ~8 MYa and ~2.1 MYa, respectively. This study investigates a set of captive, pigmented Astyanax cavefish collected from the Micos cave locality in 1970, in which albinism appeared over the last two decades. We combined...

Data from: A 454 survey reveals the community composition and core microbiome of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) across an urban landscape

Matthew Meriweather, Sara Matthews, Rita Rio & Regina S. Baucom
Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not...

Data from: Segregation of male sterility alleles across a species boundary

Stephen G. Weller, Ann K. Sakai, Theresa M. Culley, Loan Duong & Rachel E. Danielson
Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea...

Data from: A high-density linkage map for Astyanax mexicanus using genotyping-by-sequencing technology

Brian M. Carlson, Samuel W. Onusko & Joshua B. Gross
The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, is a unique model system consisting of cave-adapted and surface-dwelling morphotypes which diverged >1My ago. This remarkable natural experiment has enabled powerful genetic analyses of cave adaptation. Here, we describe the application of next-generation sequencing technology to the creation of a high-density linkage map. Our map comprises over 2200 markers populating 25 linkage groups constructed from genotypic data generated from a single genotyping-by-sequencing project. We leveraged emergent genomic and transcriptomic...

Demographic fluctuations lead to rapid and cyclic shifts in genetic structure among populations of an alpine butterfly, Parnassius smintheus

Maryam Jangjoo, Stephen Matter, Jens Roland & Nusha Keyghobadi
Many populations, especially in insects, fluctuate in size and periods of particularly low population size can have strong effects on genetic variation. Effects of demographic bottlenecks on genetic diversity of single populations are widely documented. Effects of bottlenecks on genetic structure among multiple inter-connected populations are less studied, as are genetic changes across multiple cycles of demographic collapse and recovery. We take advantage of a long-term dataset comprising demographic, genetic, and movement data from a...

A closer look at invasiveness and relatedness: life histories, temperature and establishment success of four congeners

Jennifer Rehage, Eric Maurer, Laura Lopez & Andy Sih
Successful invasive species are often closely related to other invasive species suggesting that shared traits contribute to their invasion success. Alternatively, related species can differ in invasiveness, where some are highly invasive yet congeners seem unable to invade. Here, we compared the traits and establishment abilities of two highly successful invasive species, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki to those of two close relatives, G. geiseri and G. hispaniolae. Using laboratory experiments, we compared low temperature...

Data from: An examination of fitness costs of glyphosate resistance in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

Catherine L. Debban, Sara Okum, Kathleen E. Pieper, Ariana Wilson & Regina S. Baucom
Fitness costs are frequently invoked to explain the presence of genetic variation underlying plant defense across many types of damaging agents. Despite the expectation that costs of resistance are prevalent, however, they have been difficult to detect in nature. To examine the potential that resistance confers a fitness cost, we examined the survival and fitness of genetic lines of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, that diverged in the level of resistance to the herbicide...

Data from: An empirical review: characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation

Benjamin J. Merritt, Theresa M. Culley, Alina Avanesyan, Richard Stokes & Jessica Brzyski
During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A)...

Data from: Geographic ranges of genera and their constituent species: structure, evolutionary dynamics, and extinction resistance

Michael Foote, Kathleen A. Ritterbush & Arnold I. Miller
We explore the relationships among the geographic ranges of genera, the ranges and positions of their constituent species, and the number of species they contain, considering variation among coeval genera and changes within genera over time. Measuring range size as the maximal distance, or extent, between occurrences within a taxon, we find that the range of the most widespread species is a good predictor of the range of the genus, and that the number of...

Data from: Geo-climatic factors drive diatom community distribution in tropical South American freshwaters

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Pedro M. Tapia, Meredith A. Kelly, Thomas V. Lowell & Sherilyn C. Fritz
1.Patterns that maintain and generate biodiversity of macro-organisms in the Neotropics are widely discussed in the scientific literature, yet the spatial ecology of microorganisms is largely unknown. The unique character of the tropical Andes and adjacent Amazon lowlands generates a wide gradient of environmental conditions to advance our understanding of what drives community assembly and diversity processes. 2.We analyzed the distribution patterns of benthic diatoms (unicellular siliceous algae) as a model group of microbial passive...

Data from: Ecological and phylogenetic variability in the spinalis muscle of snakes

Jessica L. Tingle, Gabriel E.A. Gartner, Bruce C. Jayne, , G. E. A. Gartner & T. Garland
Understanding the origin and maintenance of functionally important subordinate traits is a major goal of evolutionary physiologists and ecomorphologists. Within the confines of a limbless body plan, snakes are diverse in terms of body size and ecology, but we know little about the functional traits that underlie this diversity. We used a phylogenetically diverse group of 131 snake species to examine associations between habitat use, sidewinding locomotion, and constriction behavior with the number of body...

Data from: Nutritional geometry of paternal effects on embryo mortality

Michal Polak, Leigh W. SImmons, Joshua B. Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J. Simpson & Samantha M. Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and...

Data from: Variation in female mate preference in response to eavesdropping \"interloper\" males

Brent Stoffer, Maggie E. Williams & George W. Uetz
Eavesdropping by conspecific males that are competing for mates has been demonstrated across a variety of taxa. However, few studies have investigated how eavesdropping may actually impact female mating decisions. Specifically, females may change their mating preferences based on whether the eavesdropping male varies in its phenotype (e.g., expression of condition-indicating secondary sexual characters or courtship vigor) relative to the male that initiated courtship. We examined variation in female preferences in the context of eavesdropping...

Biogeographic parallels in thermal tolerance and gene expression variation under temperature stress in a widespread bumble bee

Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Herndon, Jason Jackson, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeff Lozier
Global temperature changes have emphasized the need to understand how species adapt to thermal stress across their ranges. Genetic mechanisms may contribute to variation in thermal tolerance, providing evidence for how organisms adapt to local environments. We determine physiological thermal limits and characterize genome-wide transcriptional changes at these limits in bumble bees using laboratory-reared Bombus vosnesenskii workers. We analyze bees reared from latitudinal (35.7–45.7°N) and altitudinal (7–2154 m) extremes of the species’ range to correlate...

Positive genetic covariance between male sexual ornamentation and fertilizing capacity

Michal Polak, Jorge L. Hurtado-Gonzales, Joshua Benoit, Kassie J. Hooker & Frances Tyler
Postcopulatory sexual selection results from variation in competitive fertilization success among males, and comprises powerful evolutionary forces that operate after the onset of mating [1, 2]. Theoretical advances in the field of sexual selection addressing the build-up and co-evolutionary consequences of genetic coupling [3-5], motivate the hypothesis that indirect postcopulatory sexual selection may promote evolution of male secondary sexual traits—those traits traditionally ascribed to mate choice and male fighting [6, 7]. A crucial prediction of...

(Re)Imagining (Re)Habilitation

Elizabeth Lanphier, Takunda Matose & Abu Ali Abdur'Rahman
In this article we argue that developing programs focused on rehabilitation in the setting of mass incarceration is an incoherent goal given that rehabilitation presupposes prior habilitation. Yet, histories of social and personal trauma render this initial habilitation illusive, at best, for much of the population that ends up incarcerated in a setting such as death row. Our claim is that traumatic histories can impede development and lead to antisocial consequences to such an extent...

Phytochemistry reflects different evolutionary history in traditional classes versus specialized structural motifs

Kathryn Uckele, Joshua Jahner, Eric Tepe, Lora Richards, Lee Dyer, Kaitlin Ochsenrider, Casey Philbin, Massuo Kato, Lydia Yamaguchi, Matthew Forister, Angela Smilanich, Craig Dodson, Christopher Jeffrey & Thomas Parchman
Foundational hypotheses addressing plant-insect codiversification and plant defense theory typically assume a macroevolutionary pattern whereby closely related plants have similar chemical profiles. However, numerous studies have documented variation in the degree of phytochemical trait lability, raising the possibility that phytochemical evolution is more nuanced than initially assumed. We utilize proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) data, chemical classification, and double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) to resolve evolutionary relationships and characterize the evolution of...

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