13 Works

Local adaptation across a complex bioclimatic landscape in two montane bumble bee species

Jason Jackson, Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeffrey Lozier
Understanding evolutionary responses to variation in temperature and precipitation across species ranges is of fundamental interest given ongoing climate change. The importance of temperature and precipitation for multiple aspects of bumble bee (Bombus) biology, combined with large geographic ranges that expose populations to diverse environmental pressures, make these insects well-suited for studying local adaptation. We analyzed genome-wide sequence data from two widespread bumble bees, Bombus vosnesenskii and Bombus vancouverensis, using multiple Environmental Association Analysis methods...

Spatial variation in early-winter snow cover determines local dynamics in a network of alpine butterfly populations

Jens Roland & Stephen Matter
Snow cover is an extremely variable but critical component of alpine environments. We use long term population data on multiple small populations of the alpine butterfly Parnassius smintheus, combined with high-resolution satellite imagery of meadows, to show a strong link between fine-scale spatial and temporal variation in early-winter snow cover and annual change in butterfly population size, accounting for up to 80 percent of the variation in annual population change. Snow cover in early winter...

Experimental modification of morphology reveals the effects of the zygosphene-zygantrum joint on the range of motion of snake vertebrae

Derek Jurestovsky, Bruce Jayne & Henry Astley
Variation in joint shape and soft tissue can alter range of motion (ROM) and create trade-offs between stability and flexibility. The shape of the distinctive zygosphene–zygantrum joint of snake vertebrae has been hypothesized to prevent axial torsion (twisting), but its function has never been tested experimentally. We used experimental manipulation of morphology to determine the role of the zygosphene–zygantrum articulation by micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning and 3D printing two mid-body vertebrae with unaltered shape and...

Field evidence for colour mimicry overshadowing morphological mimicry

David Outomuro, Alberto Corral-Lopez, Javier Edo Varg, Yiselle P. Cano-Cobos, Rafael Losada & Emilio Realpe
1. Imperfect mimicry may be maintained when the various components of an aposematic signal have different salience for predators. Experimental laboratory studies provide robust evidence for this phenomenon. Yet, evidence from natural settings remains scarce. 2. We studied how natural bird predators assess multiple features in a multicomponent aposematic signal in the Neotropical “clear wing complex” mimicry ring, dominated by glasswing butterflies. 3. We evaluated two components of the aposematic signal, wing colouration and wing...

Data from: Comparisons of Late Ordovician ecosystem dynamics before and after the Richmondian Invasion reveal consequences of invasive species in benthic marine paleocommunities

Hannah Kempf, Ian Castro, Ashley Dineen, Carrie Tyler & Peter Roopnarine
A thorough understanding of how communities respond to extreme changes, such as biotic invasions, is essential to manage ecosystems today. Here we constructed fossil food webs to identify changes in Late Ordovician (Katian) shallow marine paleocommunity structure and functioning before and after the Richmondian Invasion, a well-documented ancient invasion. Food webs were compared using descriptive metrics and Cascading Extinction on Graphs models. Richness at intermediate trophic levels was underrepresented when using only data from the...

Weight Matters: African American Sorority Women Speak up About Body Image

Robin Arnsperger Selzer

Implications for evolutionary trends from the pairing frequencies among golden-winged and blue-winged warblers and their hybrids

John Confer, Cody Porter, Kyle Aldinger, Ronald Canterbury, Jeffery Larkin & Darin McNeil
Extensive range loss for the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) has occurred in areas of intrusion by the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera) potentially related to their close genetic relationship. We compiled data on social pairing from nine studies for 2,679 resident Vermivora to assess evolutionary divergence. Hybridization between pure phenotypes occurred with 1.2% of resident males for sympatric populations. Pairing success rates for Golden-winged Warblers was 83% and for Blue-winged Warblers was 77%. Pairing success for...

Data from: Evolutionary and phylogenetic insights from a nuclear genome sequence of the extinct, giant subfossil koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi

Stephanie Marciniak, Mehreen R. Mughal, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, Heritiana Randrianatoandro, Brooke E. Crowley, Christina M. Bergey, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Jeannot Randrianasy, Brigitte M. Raharivololona, Stephan C. Schuster, Ripan S. Malhi, Anne D. Yoder, , Logan Kistler & George H. Perry
No endemic Madagascar animal with body mass >10 kg survived a relatively recent wave of extinction on the island. From morphological and isotopic analyses of skeletal ‘subfossil’ remains we can reconstruct some of the biology and behavioral ecology of giant lemurs (primates; up to ~160 kg), elephant birds (up to ~860 kg), and other extraordinary Malagasy megafauna that survived well into the past millennium. Yet much about the evolutionary biology of these now extinct species...

Demographic fluctuations lead to rapid and cyclic shifts in genetic structure among populations of an alpine butterfly, Parnassius smintheus

Maryam Jangjoo, Stephen Matter, Jens Roland & Nusha Keyghobadi
Many populations, especially in insects, fluctuate in size and periods of particularly low population size can have strong effects on genetic variation. Effects of demographic bottlenecks on genetic diversity of single populations are widely documented. Effects of bottlenecks on genetic structure among multiple inter-connected populations are less studied, as are genetic changes across multiple cycles of demographic collapse and recovery. We take advantage of a long-term dataset comprising demographic, genetic, and movement data from a...

A closer look at invasiveness and relatedness: life histories, temperature and establishment success of four congeners

Jennifer Rehage, Eric Maurer, Laura Lopez & Andy Sih
Successful invasive species are often closely related to other invasive species suggesting that shared traits contribute to their invasion success. Alternatively, related species can differ in invasiveness, where some are highly invasive yet congeners seem unable to invade. Here, we compared the traits and establishment abilities of two highly successful invasive species, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki to those of two close relatives, G. geiseri and G. hispaniolae. Using laboratory experiments, we compared low temperature...

Biogeographic parallels in thermal tolerance and gene expression variation under temperature stress in a widespread bumble bee

Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Herndon, Jason Jackson, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeff Lozier
Global temperature changes have emphasized the need to understand how species adapt to thermal stress across their ranges. Genetic mechanisms may contribute to variation in thermal tolerance, providing evidence for how organisms adapt to local environments. We determine physiological thermal limits and characterize genome-wide transcriptional changes at these limits in bumble bees using laboratory-reared Bombus vosnesenskii workers. We analyze bees reared from latitudinal (35.7–45.7°N) and altitudinal (7–2154 m) extremes of the species’ range to correlate...

Positive genetic covariance between male sexual ornamentation and fertilizing capacity

Michal Polak, Jorge L. Hurtado-Gonzales, Joshua Benoit, Kassie J. Hooker & Frances Tyler
Postcopulatory sexual selection results from variation in competitive fertilization success among males, and comprises powerful evolutionary forces that operate after the onset of mating [1, 2]. Theoretical advances in the field of sexual selection addressing the build-up and co-evolutionary consequences of genetic coupling [3-5], motivate the hypothesis that indirect postcopulatory sexual selection may promote evolution of male secondary sexual traits—those traits traditionally ascribed to mate choice and male fighting [6, 7]. A crucial prediction of...

(Re)Imagining (Re)Habilitation

Elizabeth Lanphier, Takunda Matose & Abu Ali Abdur'Rahman
In this article we argue that developing programs focused on rehabilitation in the setting of mass incarceration is an incoherent goal given that rehabilitation presupposes prior habilitation. Yet, histories of social and personal trauma render this initial habilitation illusive, at best, for much of the population that ends up incarcerated in a setting such as death row. Our claim is that traumatic histories can impede development and lead to antisocial consequences to such an extent...

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