13 Works

Data from: Selection analysis on the rapid evolution of a secondary sexual trait

Swanne P. Gordon, David Reznick, Jeffrey D. Arendt, Allen Roughton, Michelle N. Ontiveros Hernandez, Paul Bentzen, Andrés López-Sepulcre & Jeff D. Arendt
Evolutionary analyses of population translocations (experimental or accidental) have been important in demonstrating speed of evolution because they subject organisms to abrupt environmental changes that create an episode of selection. However, the strength of selection in such studies is rarely measured, limiting our understanding of the evolutionary process. This contrasts with long-term, mark–recapture studies of unmanipulated populations that measure selection directly, yet rarely reveal evolutionary change. Here, we present a study of experimental evolution of...

Data from: Edge influence on vegetation at natural and anthropogenic edges of boreal forests in Canada and Fennoscandia

Karen A. Harper, S. Ellen Macdonald, Michael S. Mayerhofer, Shekhar R. Biswas, Per-Anders Esseen, Kristoffer Hylander, Katherine J. Stewart, Azim U. Mallik, Pierre Drapeau, Bengt-Gunnar Jonsson, Daniel Lesieur, Jari Kouki & Yves Bergeron
1. Although anthropogenic edges are an important consequence of timber harvesting, edges due to natural disturbances or landscape heterogeneity are also common. Forest edges have been well-studied in temperate and tropical forests, but less so in less productive, disturbance-adapted boreal forests. 2. We synthesized data on forest vegetation at edges of boreal forests and compared edge influence among edge types (fire, cut, lake/wetland; old vs. young), forest types (broadleaf vs. coniferous) and geographic regions. Our...

Data from: Population genetic structure within and among seasonal site types in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis)

Laura N. L. Johnson, Brenna A. McLeod, Lynne E. Burns, Krista Arseneault, Timothy R. Frasier & Hugh G. Broders
During late summer and early autumn, temperate bats migrate from their summering sites to swarming sites, where mating likely occurs. However, the extent to which individuals of a single summering site migrate to the same swarming site, and vice versa, is not known. We examined the migratory connectivity between summering and swarming sites in two temperate, North American, bat species, the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis). Using mitochondrial...

Data from: Individual, unit, and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas

Shane Gero, Hal Whitehead & Luke Rendell
The ‘social complexity hypothesis’ suggests that complex social structure is a driver of diversity in animal communication systems. Sperm whales have a hierarchically structured society in which the largest affiliative structures, the vocal clans, are marked on ocean-basin scales by culturally transmitted dialects of acoustic signals known as ‘codas’. We examined variation in coda repertoires among both individual whales and social units—the basic element of sperm whale society—using data from nine Caribbean social units across...

Data from: Plant essential oils synergize and antagonize toxicity of different conventional insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Nicoletta Faraone, N. Kirk Hillier & G. Christopher Cutler
Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated...

Data from: The double-edged sword of immune defence and damage control: do food availability and immune challenge alter the balance?

Zachary R. Stahlschmidt, Madison Acker, Ilya Kovalko & Shelley A. Adamo
1.Animal immune systems must adaptively balance aggressive immune resistance (ability to destroy pathogens) with infection tolerance (ability to withstand the negative effects of infection; e.g., immunopathology or damage due to pathogen metabolism). 2.Insects offer unique insight into this balancing act because phenoloxidase (PO)-mediated melanisation is a key feature of immune resistance, but PO activation obligates the production of non-specific reactive species that can cause self-damage. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) can provide protection against such reactive...

Data from: Pollen limitation and its influence on natural selection through seed set

Magdalena P. Bartkowska & Mark O. Johnston
Stronger pollen limitation should increase competition among plants, leading to stronger selection on traits important for pollen receipt. The few explicit tests of this hypothesis, however, have provided conflicting support. Using the arithmetic relationship between these two quantities, we show that increased pollen limitation will automatically result in stronger selection (all else equal) although other factors can alter selection independently of pollen limitation. We then test the hypothesis using two approaches. First, we analyze published...

Data from: Echoes of a distant time: effects of historical processes on contemporary genetic patterns in Galaxias platei in Patagonia

Iván Vera-Escalona, Daniel E. Ruzzante & Evelyn Habit
Interpreting the genetic structure of a metapopulation as the outcome of gene flow over a variety of timescales is essential for the proper understanding of how changes in landscape affect biological connectivity. Here we contrast historical and contemporary connectivity in two metapopulations of the freshwater fish Galaxias platei in northern and southernmost Patagonia where paleolakes existed during the Holocene and Pleistocene, respectively. Contemporary gene flow was mostly high and asymmetrical in the northern system while...

Data from: Adaptation and acclimation of aerobic exercise physiology in Lake Whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis)

Anne C. Dalziel, Nicolas Martin, Martin Laporte, Helga Guderley & Louis Bernatchez
The physiological mechanisms underlying local adaptation in natural populations of animals, and whether the same mechanisms contribute to adaptation and acclimation, are largely unknown. Therefore, we tested for evolutionary divergence in aerobic exercise physiology in laboratory bred, size-matched crosses of ancestral, benthic, normal Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and derived, limnetic, more actively-swimming ‘dwarf’ ecotypes. We acclimated fish to constant swimming (emulating limnetic foraging) and control conditions (emulating normal activity levels) to simultaneously study phenotypic plasticity....

Data from: Ten days of darkness causes temporary blindness during an early critical period in higher mammals

Donald E. Mitchell, Nathan A. Crowder, Kaitlyn Holman, Matthew Smithen & Kevin R. Duffy
Extended periods of darkness have long been used to study how the mammalian visual system develops in the absence of any instruction from vision. Because of the relative ease of implementation of darkness as a means to eliminate visually driven neural activity, it has usually been imposed earlier in life and for much longer periods than was the case for other manipulations of the early visual input used for study of their influences on visual...

Data from: Spatial patterns and predictors of trophic control in marine ecosystems

Daniel G. Boyce, Kenneth T. Frank, Boris Worm & William C. Leggett
A key question in ecology is under which conditions ecosystem structure tends to be controlled by resource availability vs. consumer pressure. Several hypotheses derived from theory, experiments and observational field studies have been advanced, yet a unified explanation remains elusive. Here, we identify common predictors of trophic control in a synthetic analysis of 52 observational field studies conducted within marine ecosystems across the Northern Hemisphere and published between 1951 and 2014. Spatial regression analysis of...

Data from: Do stressful conditions make adaptation difficult? Guppies in the oil-polluted environments of southern Trinidad

Gregor Rolshausen, Dawn A. T. Phillip, Denise M. Beckles, Ali Akbari, Subhasis Ghoshal, Patrick B. Hamilton, Charles R. Tyler, Alan G. Scarlett, Indar Ramnarine, Paul Bentzen & Andrew P. Hendry
The ability of populations to rapidly adapt to new environments will determine their future in an increasingly human-modified world. Although meta-analyses do frequently uncover signatures of local adaptation, they also reveal many exceptions. We suggest that particular constraints on local adaptation might arise when organisms are exposed to novel stressors, such as anthropogenic pollution. To inform this possibility, we studied the extent to which guppies (Poecilia reticulata) show local adaptation to oil pollution in southern...

Data from: The potential for spatial distribution indices to signal thresholds in marine fish biomass

Emilie Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Nancy L. Shackell & Jeffrey A. Hutchings
The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with...

Registration Year

  • 2015
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • Dalhousie University
    13
  • Bedford Institute of Oceanography
    2
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
    1
  • University of the West Indies
    1
  • Acadia University
    1
  • University of Eastern Finland
    1
  • University of Wollongong
    1
  • Saint Mary's University
    1
  • University of Alberta
    1
  • Mid Sweden University
    1