163 Works

Development and Validation of Quality of Life Measurement Tools Used in Older Peoples’ Care Homes: a scoping review protocol

Adeela Usman, Sarah Lewis, P. Clarkson & Adam Gordon

Self‐Assembly, Adaptive Response, and in , out‐ Stereoisomerism of Large Orthoformate Cryptands

Max von Delius, Henrik Löw, Elena Mena‐Osteritz, Kathleen M. Mullen & Christof Jäger
Abstract We report on triethylene glycol-based orthoformate cryptands, which adapt their bridgehead configurations in response to metal templates and intramolecular hydrogen bonding in a complex ma...

Review of Networking and Tangible Security Techniques for Domestic IoT Devices and Initial Ideas

Sameh Zakhary, Neelima Sunil & Dereak McAuley

Elemental concentrations in representative species of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants and associated soils in terrestrial Mediterranean ecosystems in Spain

J. Guillén, M. Izquierdo, S. Young, C. Wells, C.L. Barnett, N.A. Beresford, A. Baeza, A. Salas, A. Muñóz-Serrano, J.M. Corrales-Vázquez, J.G. Muñoz-Muñoz, E. Tovar & J.S. Chaplow
Data comprise stable element concentrations in terrestrial Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and corresponding whole-body concentration ratios determined in two different Mediterranean ecosystems: a Pinewood and a Dehesa (grassland with disperse tree cover). The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) RAPs considered in the Pinewood ecosystem were Pine Tree and Wild Grass; whereas in the Dehesa ecosystem those considered were Deer, Rat, Earthworm, Bee, Frog, Duck and Wild Grass. The data include: elemental concentrations in...

Measurement of labile metal in soils. Chemical extraction and isotopic dilution data

J. Garforth, E.H. Bailey, A.M. Tye, S.D. Young & S. Lofts
This dataset contains the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, extracted from four soils, using the chemical extractants: 0.43 M HNO3, 0.43 M CH3COOH, 1 M CaCl2 and 0.05 M Na2H2EDTA (MExt mg/kg). The concentrations of isotopically exchangeable (labile) Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb (EValue mg/kg) are also given. Additionally, the concentrations of isotopically exchangeable soil metal, measured when the soils when suspended in each of the above extractants (EExt mg/kg), are...

AI3SD Video: Skills4Scientists - Poster & Careers Symposium - Poster Compilation

András Vekassy, Aspen Fenzl, Erhan Gulsen, Hewan Zewdu, Jamie Longio, Maximilian Hoffman, Rhyan Barrett, Rubaiyat Khondaker, Anna Catton, Hongyang Dong, Kevin Calvache, Kaylee Patel, King Wong, Louis Greenhalgh, Rebecca Jane Clements, Thomas Allam, Sarah Scripps, Gavin Man, Samuel Munday, Michael Blakey, Graeme M. Day, Chris-Kriton Skylaris, Simon J. Coles, Stephen Gow & William Brocklesby
This video forms part of the Skills4Scientists Series which has been organised as a joint venture between the Artificial Intelligence for Scientific Discovery Network+ (AI3SD) and the Physical Sciences Data-Science Service (PSDS). This series ran over summer 2021 and aims to educate and improve scientists skills in a range of areas including research data management, python, version control, ethics, and career development. This series is primarily aimed at final year undergraduates / early stage PhD...

Data from: Predator size affects the intensity of mutual interference in a predatory mirid

Nikos Papanikolaou, Sofia Dervisoglou, Argyro Fantinou, Theodore Kypraios, Valmari Giakoumaki & Dionysios Perdikis
Interference competition occurs when access to an available resource is negatively affected by interactions with other individuals, where mutual interference involves individuals of the same species. The interactive phenomena among individuals may be size-dependent, since body size is a major factor that may alter prey consumption rates and ultimately the dynamics and structure of food webs. A study was initiated in order to evaluate the effect of mutual interference in the prey-specific attack rates and...

A Bayesian method of evaluating discomfort due to glare: The effect of order bias from a large glare source

Toby Cheung, Michael Kent, Stefano Schiavon & Aleksandra Lipczyńska
to be confrim

Nucleotide alignments of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection following whole genome duplication in Arabidopsis lyrata/A.arenosa.

Paul Seear, Martin France, Catherine Gregory, Darren Heavens, Roswitha Schmickl, Levi Yant & James Higgins
In this study we performed a genotype-phenotype association analysis of meiotic stability in ten autotetraploid Arabidopsis lyrata and A. lyrata/A. arenosa hybrid populations collected from the Wachau region and East Austrian Forealps. The aim was to determine the effect of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection upon adaptation to whole genome duplication. Individual plants were genotyped by high-throughput sequencing of the eight meiosis genes (ASY1, ASY3, PDS5b, PRD3, REC8, SMC3, ZYP1a/b) implicated in synaptonemal complex...

Data from: Co-foundress confinement elicits kinship effects in a naturally sub-social parasitoid

Ian C. W. Hardy, Daniela Lupi & Mohamed K. Abdi
Kinship among interacting individuals is often associated with sociality and also with sex ratio effects. Parasitoids in the bethylid genus Goniozus are sub-social, with single foundress females exhibiting post-ovipositional maternal care via short-term aggressive host and brood defence against conspecific females. Due to local mate competition (LMC) and broods normally being produced by a single foundress, sex ratios are female biased. Contests between adult females are, however, not normally fatal and aggression is reduced when...

Data from: Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies

Simon Gächter & Jonathan F. Schulz
Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people’s social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around...

Data from: Diets of giants: the nutritional value of sauropod diet during the Mesozoic

Fiona L. Gill, Juergen Hummel, A. Reza Sharifi, Alexandra P. Lee & Barry H. Lomax
A major uncertainty in estimating energy budgets and population densities of extinct animals is the carrying capacity of their ecosystems, constrained by net primary productivity (NPP) and its digestible energy content. The hypothesis that increases in NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 contributed to the unparalleled size of the sauropods has recently been rejected, based on modern studies on herbivorous insects that imply a general, negative correlation of diet quality and increasing CO2. However, the...

Data from: Phenological shifts in hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae): linking measurement and mechanism

Christopher Hassall, Jennifer Owen, Francis S. Gilbert & Francis Gilbert
An understanding of ecological and evolutionary responses to global environmental change requires both a robust measurement of the change that is occurring and a mechanistic framework for understanding the drivers of that change. Such a requirement provides a challenge because biological monitoring is often ad hoc, and mechanistic experiments are often performed under highly simplified conditions. This study integrates multiple datasets to evaluate our current knowledge of the measurement and mechanism of phenological shifts in...

Data from: GlobTherm, a global database on thermal tolerances for aquatic and terrestrial organisms

Joanne M. Bennett, Piero Calosi, Susana Clusella-Trullas, Brezo Martínez, Jennifer Sunday, Adam C. Algar, Miguel B. Araújo, Bradford A. Hawkins, Sally Keith, Ingolf Kühn, Carsten Rahbek, Laura Rodríguez, Alexander Singer, Fabricio Villalobos, Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga & Ignacio Morales-Castilla
How climate affects species distributions is a longstanding question receiving renewed interest owing to the need to predict the impacts of global warming on biodiversity. Is climate change forcing species to live near their critical thermal limits? Are these limits likely to change through natural selection? These and other important questions can be addressed with models relating geographical distributions of species with climate data, but inferences made with these models are highly contingent on non-climatic...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP data unveils the globalization of domesticated pigs

Bin Yang, Leilei Cui, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Aleksei Traspov, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Natalia Zinovieva, Lawrence B. Schook, Alan Archibald, Kesinee Gatphayak, Christophe Knorr, Alex Triantafyllidis, Panoraia Alexandri, Gono Semiadi, Olivier Hanotte, Deodália Dias, Peter Dovč, Pekka Uimari, Laura Iacolina, Massimo Scandura, Martien A. M. Groenen, Lusheng Huang & Hendrik-Jan Megens
Background: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global...

Data from: Acquisition of germ plasm accelerates vertebrate evolution.

Teri Evans, Christopher M. Wade, Frank A. Chapman, Andrew D. Johnson & Matthew Loose
Primordial germ cell (PGC) specification occurs either by induction from pluripotent cells (epigenesis) or by a cell-autonomous mechanism mediated by germ plasm (preformation). Among vertebrates, epigenesis is basal, whereas germ plasm has evolved convergently across lineages and is associated with greater speciation. We compared protein-coding sequences of vertebrate species that employ preformation with their sister taxa that use epigenesis and demonstrate that genes evolve more rapidly in species containing germ plasm. Furthermore, differences in rates...

Data from: Parasites contribute to ecologically dependent postmating isolation in the adaptive radiation of three spined stickleback

Aliya El Nagar & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Spatial variation in parasitic infections is common, and has the potential to drive population divergence and the reproductive isolation of hosts. However, despite support from theory and model laboratory systems, little strong evidence has been forthcoming from the wild. Here, we show that parasites are likely to cause reproductive isolation in the adaptive radiation of three-spined stickleback. Adjacent wild populations on the Scottish island of North Uist differ greatly and consistently in the occurrence of...

Data from: Measuring β‐diversity by remote sensing: a challenge for biodiversity monitoring

Duccio Rocchini, Sandra Luque, Nathalie Pettorelli, Lucy Bastin, Daniel Doktor, Nicolò Faedi, Hannes Feilhauer, Jean-Baptiste Féret, Giles M. Foody, Yoni Gavish, Sergio Godinho, William E. Kunin, Angela Lausch, Pedro J. Leitao, Matteo Marcantonio, Markus Neteler, Carlo Ricotta, Sebastian Schmidtlein, Petteri Vihervaara, Martin Wegmann & Harini Nagendra
Biodiversity includes multiscalar and multitemporal structures and processes, with different levels of functional organization, from genetic to ecosystemic levels. One of the mostly used methods to infer bio- diversity is based on taxonomic approaches and community ecology theories. However, gathering extensive data in the field is difficult due to logistic problems, especially when aiming at modelling biodiversity changes in space and time, which assumes statistically sound sampling schemes. In this context, airborne or satellite remote...

Data from: Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming's lucky fungus

Daniel A. Henk, Carly E. Eagle, Kevin Brown, Marco A. Van Den Berg, Paul S. Dyer, Stephen W. Peterson & Matt C. Fisher
Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a putatively globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been shown to be genetically diverse, and possess mating-type genes. Here, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses show that this apparently ubiquitous fungus is actually composed of at least two genetically distinct species with only...

Data from: High throughput method for analysis of repeat number for 28 phase variable loci of Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168

Lea Lango-Scholey, Jack Aidley, Alexandra Woodacre, Michael A. Jones & Christopher D. Bayliss
Mutations in simple sequence repeat tracts are a major mechanism of phase variation in several bacterial species including Campylobacter jejuni. Changes in repeat number of tracts located within the reading frame can produce a high frequency of reversible switches in gene expression between ON and OFF states. The genome of C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 contains 29 loci with polyG/polyC tracts of seven or more repeats. This protocol outlines a method—the 28-locus-CJ11168 PV-analysis assay—for rapidly determining...

Data from: Quorum sensing and cheating in bacterial biofilms

Roman Popat, Shanika A. Crusz, Marco Messina, Paul Williams, Stuart A. West & Stephen P. Diggle
The idea from human societies that self-interest can lead to a breakdown of cooperation at the group level is sometimes termed the public goods dilemma. We tested this idea in the opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by examining the influence of putative cheats that do not cooperate via cell-to-cell signalling (quorum-sensing, QS). We found that: (i) QS cheating occurs in biofilm populations owing to exploitation of QS-regulated public goods; (ii) the thickness and density of...

Data from: Strong population structure in a species manipulated by humans since the Neolithic: the European fallow deer (Dama dama dama)

Karis H. Baker, Howard W.I. Gray, Veronica Ramovs, Despoina Mertzanidou, C Akin Peksen, C. Can Bilgin, Naomi Sykes & A.R. Hoelzel
Species that have been translocated and otherwise manipulated by humans may show patterns of population structure that reflect those interactions. At the same time, natural processes shape populations, including behavioural characteristics like dispersal potential and breeding system. In Europe, a key factor is the geography and history of climate change through the Pleistocene. During glacial maxima throughout that period, species in Europe with temperate distributions were forced south, becoming distributed among the isolated peninsulas represented...

Data from: The significance of prey avoidance behaviour for the maintenance of a predator colour polymorphism

Helena Ajuria Ibarra, Michael Kinahan, Julien Marcetteau, Andrew J.R. Mehigan, Ross O. Ziegelmeier, Tom Reader & Andrew J R Mehigan
The existence of conspicuous colour polymorphisms in animals provides an ideal opportunity to examine the mechanisms which determine genetic and phenotypic variation in populations. It is well known that directional and negative frequency-dependent selection by predators can influence the persistence of colour polymorphisms in their prey, but much less attention has been paid to the idea that prey behaviour could generate selection on predator colour morphs. In this study, we examine the role that avoidance...

Data from: From the animal house to the field: are there consistent individual differences in immunological profile in wild populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis)?

Elena Arriero, Klara M. Wanelik, Richard J. Birtles, Janette E. Bradley, Joseph A. Jackson, Steve Paterson & Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis,...

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