164 Works

Data from: Change in quality of life for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome following referral to a gastroenterologist: a cohort study

Caroline Canavan, Joe West & Timothy Card
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional condition, considerably reduces quality of life (QoL) and referral to gastroenterology is common. Until now, however, the impact of seeing a gastroenterologist for IBS on patients’ QoL and utility has not been assessed. Methods: Patients referred with “probable IBS” to the Nottingham Treatment Centre between October 2012 and March 2014 were invited to complete a QoL questionnaire (EuroQol–5 Dimension) before their first appointment. Patients with confirmed IBS...

Data from: Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions

Geoffrey Gilfillan, Jessica Vitale, John Weldon McNutt & Karen McComb
Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed...

Data from: Evidence for Batesian mimicry in a polymorphic hoverfly

Malcolm Edmunds & Tom Reader
Palatable Batesian mimics are avoided by predators because they resemble noxious or defended species. The striking resemblance of many hoverflies to noxious Hymenoptera is a “textbook” example of Batesian mimicry, but evidence that selection by predators has shaped the evolution of hoverfly patterns is weak. We looked for geographical and temporal trends in frequencies of morphs of the polymorphic hoverfly Volucella bombylans that would support the hypothesis that these morphs are Batesian mimics of different...

Data from: A view from above: A view from above: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a new tool for assessing liana infestation in tropical forest canopies

Catherine E. Waite, Geertje M.F. Van Der Heijden, Richard Field, Doreen S. Boyd & Geertje M. F. Van Der Heijden
1. Tropical forests store and sequester large quantities of carbon, mitigating climate change. Lianas (woody vines) are important tropical forest components, most conspicuous in the canopy. Lianas reduce forest carbon uptake and their recent increase may, therefore, limit forest carbon storage with global consequences for climate change. Liana infestation of tree crowns is traditionally assessed from the ground, which is labour-intensive and difficult, particularly for upper canopy layers. 2. We used a light-weight unmanned aerial...

Relationships between immune gene expression and circulating cytokine levels in wild house mice

Stuart Young, Jonathan Fenn, Elena Arriero, Ann Lowe, Benoit Poulin, Andrew MacColl & Jan Bradley
1. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been commonly used to measure gene expression in a number of research contexts, but the measured RNA concentrations do not always represent the concentrations of active proteins which they encode. This can be due to transcriptional regulation or post-translational modifications, or localisation of immune environments, as can occur during infection. However, in studies using free-living non-model species, such as in ecoimmunological research, qPCR may be the only available option to...

The impact of smoking status on the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

Kimberley Sonnex, Hanna Alleemudder & Roger Knaggs
Objectives: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce exacerbation rates and the decline in lung function in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is evidence that smoking causes ‘steroid resistance’ and thus reduces the effect of ICS. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effect of smoking on efficacy of ICS in COPD in terms of lung function and exacerbation rates. Design: Systematic review Data Sources: An electronic database search of PubMed, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase...

Prior exposure to long day photoperiods alters immune responses and increases susceptibility to parasitic infection in stickleback

James Whiting, Muayad Mahmud, Janette Bradley & Andrew MacColl
Seasonal disease and parasitic infection are common across organisms, including humans, and there is increasing evidence for intrinsic seasonal variation in immune systems. Changes are orchestrated through organisms’ physiological clocks using cues such as day length. Ample research in diverse taxa has demonstrated multiple immune responses are modulated by photoperiod, but to date, there have been few experimental demonstrations that photoperiod cues alter susceptibility to infection. We investigated the interactions among photoperiod history, immunity, and...

Abundance of Anolis bicaorum, and niche measurements of plots on the island Utila, Honduras

Emma Higgins, Doreen Boyd, Tom Brown, Sarah Owen & Adam Algar
The question of what controls animal abundance has always been fundamental to ecology, but given rapid environmental change, understanding the drivers and mechanisms governing abundance is more important than ever. Here, we determine how multidimensional environments and niches interact to determine population abundance along a tropical habitat gradient. Focusing on the endemic lizard Anolis bicaorum on the island of Utila (Honduras), we evaluate direct and indirect effects of three interacting niche axes on abundance: thermal...

Data for: Mapping the evolution of accurate Batesian mimicry of social wasps in hoverflies

Alice Leavey, Christopher Taylor, Matthew Symonds, Francis Gilbert & Tom Reader
Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) provide an excellent opportunity to study the evolution of Batesian mimicry, where defenceless prey avoid predation by evolving to resemble defended ‘model’ species. While some hoverflies beautifully resemble their hymenopteran models, others seem to be poor mimics or are apparently non-mimetic. The reasons for this variation are still enigmatic despite decades of research. Here, we address this issue by mapping social-wasp mimicry across the phylogeny of Holarctic hoverflies. Using the ‘distance transform’...

Pervasive admixture and the spread of a large-lipped form in a cichlid fish radiation

Will Sowersby, José Cerca, Bob Wong, Topi Lehtonen, David Chapple, Mariana Leal-Cardin, Marta Barluenga & Mark Ravinet
Adaptive radiations have proven important for understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying biological diversity. The convergence of form and function, as well as admixture and adaptive introgression, are common in adaptive radiations. However, distinguishing between these two scenarios remains a challenge for evolutionary research. The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) is a prime example of adaptive radiation, with phenotypic diversification occurring at various stages of genetic differentiation. One species, A. labiatus, has large fleshy...

Dataset for estimation of the biotic and climatic niche breadths and geographic range size of beech (Fagus) species worldwide

Qiong Cai, Erik Welk, Chengjun Ji, Wenjing Fang, Francesco Maria Sabatini, Jianxiao Zhu, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Fabio Attorre, Juan Antonio Campos, Andraž Čarni, Milan Chytrý, Süleyman Çoban, Jürgen Dengler, Jiri Dolezal, Richard Field, József Pál Frink, Hamid Gholizadeh, Adrian Indreica, Ute Jandt, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jonathan Lenoir, Robert K. Peet, Remigiusz Pielech, Michele De Sanctis … & Helge Bruelheide
This dataset could be used to test whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship, as posited by the “niche breadth hypothesis”, exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. There are many ways to estimate niche breadth. Here, we estimated biotic and climatic niche breadths per species using plot‐based co‐occurrence data and climate data, respectively. The range sizes of the...

Corine land cover changes between 2012 and 2018 for the UK, Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey

B. Cole, B. De La Barreda, A. Hamer, T. Codd, M. Payne, L. Chan, G. Smith & H. Balzter
This dataset is the Corine Land Cover (CLC) change map between 2012 and 2018, consisting of 44 classes in the hierarchical three level Corine nomenclature. The Corine land cover changes between 2012 and 2018 for the UK, Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey dataset forms part of the Corine Land Cover Maps collection and is produced within the frame of the Copernicus programme on land monitoring. Corine Land Cover (CLC) provides consistent information on land...

Ammonium Complexes of Orthoester Cryptands Are Inherently Dynamic and Adaptive

Oleksandr Shyshov, Max von Delius, Xiang Wang, Christof Jäger & Marko Hanževački
Fluxional chemical species such as bullvalene have been a valuable source of inspiration and fundamental insight into the nature of chemical bonds. A supramolecular analogue of bullvalene, i.e., a “fluxional host–guest system”, in which the ensemble of a well-defined host and guest is engaged in continuous, degenerate constitutional rearrangements, is still elusive, however. Here, we report experimental and computational evidence for guest-induced dynamic covalent rearrangements in the ammonium complexes of self-assembled orthoester cryptands. This unique...

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