The existence of consistent individual differences in behaviour (‘animal personality’) has been well documented in recent years. However, how such individual variation in behaviour is maintained over evolutionary time is an ongoing conundrum. A well-studied axis of animal personality is individual variation along a bold–shy continuum, where individuals differ consistently in their propensity to take risks. A predation-risk cost to boldness is often assumed, but also that the reproductive benefits associated with boldness lead to...
Data from: Measuring the immune system of the three-spined stickleback - examining natural variation in the laboratory and the wildShaun Robertson, Janette E. Bradley, Andrew D.C. MacColl & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Current understanding of the immune system comes primarily from laboratory-based studies. There has been substantial interest in examining how it functions in the wild, but studies have been limited by a lack of appropriate assays and study species. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) provides an ideal system in which to advance the study of wild immunology, but requires the development of suitable immune assays. We demonstrate that meaningful variation in the immune response of...
Identifying the factors generating ecomorphological diversity within species can provide a window into the nascent stages of ecological radiation. Sexual dimorphism is an obvious axis of intraspecific morphological diversity that could affect how environmental variation leads to ecological divergence among populations. In this paper we test for sex-specific responses in how environmental variation generates phenotypic diversity within species, using the generalist lizard Gallotia galloti on Tenerife (Canary Islands). We evaluate two hypotheses: the first proposes...
During steady fixation, observers make small fixational saccades at a rate of around 1-2 per second. Presentation of a visual stimulus triggers a biphasic modulation in fixational saccade rate – an initial inhibition followed by a period of elevated rate and a subsequent return to baseline. Here we show that, during passive viewing, this rate signature is highly sensitive to small changes in stimulus contrast. By training a linear support vector machine to classify trials...
Plant-derived compounds and other natural substances are a rich potential source of compounds that kill or attenuate pathogens that are resistant to current antibiotics. Medieval societies used a range of these natural substances to treat conditions clearly recognizable to the modern eye as microbial infections, and there has been much debate over the likely efficacy of these treatments. Our interdisciplinary team, comprising researchers from both sciences and humanities, identified and reconstructed a potential remedy for...
Data from: Cost-effectiveness of a specialist geriatric medical intervention for frail older people discharged from acute medical units: economic evaluation in a two-centre randomised controlled trial (AMIGOS)Lukasz Tanajewski, Matthew Franklin, Georgios Gkountouras, Vladislav Berdunov, Judi Edmans, Simon Conroy, Lucy E. Bradshaw, John R. F. Gladman & Rachel A. Elliott
Background: Poor outcomes and high resource-use are observed for frail older people discharged from acute medical units. A specialist geriatric medical intervention, to facilitate Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, was developed to reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes and associated high resource-use in this group in the post-discharge period. Objective: To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of a specialist geriatric medical intervention for frail older people in the 90 days following discharge from an acute medical unit,...
Data from: Economic evaluation of a general hospital unit for older people with delirium and dementia (TEAM randomised controlled trial)Lukasz Tanajewski, Matthew Franklin, Georgios Gkountouras, Vladislav Berdunov, Rowan H. Harwood, Sarah E. Goldberg, Lucy E. Bradshaw, John R. F. Gladman & Rachel A. Elliott
Background: One in three hospital acute medical admissions is of an older person with cognitive impairment. Their outcomes are poor and the quality of their care in hospital has been criticised. A specialist unit to care for older people with delirium and dementia (the Medical and Mental Health Unit, MMHU) was developed and then tested in a randomised controlled trial where it delivered significantly higher quality of, and satisfaction with, care, but no significant benefits...
Animals use signals to coordinate a wide range of behaviours, from feeding offspring to predator avoidance. This poses an evolutionary problem, because individuals could potentially signal dishonestly to coerce others into behaving in ways that benefit the signaller. Theory suggests that honest signalling is favoured when individuals share a common interest and signals carry reliable information. Here, we exploit the opportunities offered by bacterial signalling, to test these predictions with an experimental evolution approach. We...
Data from: Change in quality of life for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome following referral to a gastroenterologist: a cohort studyCaroline Canavan, Joe West & Timothy Card
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional condition, considerably reduces quality of life (QoL) and referral to gastroenterology is common. Until now, however, the impact of seeing a gastroenterologist for IBS on patients’ QoL and utility has not been assessed. Methods: Patients referred with “probable IBS” to the Nottingham Treatment Centre between October 2012 and March 2014 were invited to complete a QoL questionnaire (EuroQol–5 Dimension) before their first appointment. Patients with confirmed IBS...
Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environmentsVenera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...
Data from: Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fishBen B. Chapman, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Anders P. Nilsson, Christian Skov, Lars-Anders Hansson & Jakob Brodersen
1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare...
This dataset contains nutrient chemistry data from 14 lakes in the Arctic region: 4 in Russia and Alaska and 3 in Greenland and Norway. Nutrient chemistry was measured on one occasion only at each lake, with date of collection ranging from 01/04/2011 to 14/03/2014. The following nutrients were measured: total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, chlorophyll a, silicate, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulphate, chloride and dissolved organic carbon. All nutrients were measured...
University of Nottingham12
Institute of Biology1
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology1
University of Malaya1
University of Edinburgh1
University of Southampton1
University of Gothenburg1
Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología1
University College London1