This study aims to investigate the effect of consolidation shear stress magnitude on the shear behaviour and noncoaxiality of soils. In previous drained bi-directional simple shear test on Leighton Buzzard sand, it is showed that the level of non-coaxiality, which is indicated by the angle difference between the principal axes of stresses and the corresponding principal axes of strain rate tensors, is increased by increasing angle difference between the direction of consolidation shear stress and...
Data from: Impact of person-centred care training and person-centred activities on quality of life, agitation, and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes: a cluster-randomised controlled trialClive Ballard, Anne Corbett, Martin Orrell, Gareth Williams, Esme Moniz-Cook, Renee Romeo, Bob Woods, Lucy Garrod, Ingelin Testad, Barbara Woodward-Carlton, Jennifer Wenborn, Martin Knapp & Jane Fossey
Background: Agitation is a common, challenging symptom affecting large numbers of people with dementia and impacting on quality of life (QoL). There is an urgent need for evidence-based, cost-effective psychosocial interventions to improve these outcomes, particularly in the absence of safe, effective pharmacological therapies. This study aimed evaluate the efficacy of a person-centered care and psychosocial intervention (WHELD) on QoL, agitation and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes, and to determine...
Aim Range-restricted species are of high conservation concern, and the way in which they interact with more widespread species has implications for their persistence. Here, we determine how the specialization of mutualistic interactions varies with respect to the geographic range size of plants and pollinators and assess how they respond to the introduction of the alien honeybee. We also compare network characteristics (connectance, specialization and nestedness) between an invaded low mountain and non-invaded high mountain...
Strong reciprocity explains prosocial cooperation by the presence of individuals who incur costs to help those who helped them (‘strong positive reciprocity’) and to punish those who wronged them (‘strong negative reciprocity’). Theories of social preferences predict that in contrast to ‘strong reciprocators’, self-regarding people cooperate and punish only if there are sufficient future benefits. Here, we test this prediction in a two-stage design. First, participants are classified according to their disposition towards strong positive...
Data from: Community-wide scan identifies fish species associated with coral reef services across the Indo-PacificEva Maire, Sébastien Villéger, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Andrew S. Hoey, Joshua Cinner, Sebastian C.A. Ferse, Catherine Aliaume, David J. Booth, David A. Feary, Michel Kulbicki, Stuart A. Sandin, Laurent Vigliola, David Mouillot & Sebastian C. A. Ferse
Determining whether many functionally complementary species or only a subset of key species are necessary to maintain ecosystem functioning and services is a critical question in community ecology and biodiversity conservation. Identifying such key species remains challenging, especially in the tropics where many species co-occur and can potentially support the same or different processes. Here, we developed a new community-wide scan (CWS) approach, analogous to the genome-wide scan, to identify fish species that significantly contribute,...
A Bayesian method of evaluating discomfort due to glare: The effect of order bias from a large glare sourceToby Cheung, Michael Kent, Stefano Schiavon & Aleksandra Lipczyńska
to be confrim
A major uncertainty in estimating energy budgets and population densities of extinct animals is the carrying capacity of their ecosystems, constrained by net primary productivity (NPP) and its digestible energy content. The hypothesis that increases in NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 contributed to the unparalleled size of the sauropods has recently been rejected, based on modern studies on herbivorous insects that imply a general, negative correlation of diet quality and increasing CO2. However, the...
How climate affects species distributions is a longstanding question receiving renewed interest owing to the need to predict the impacts of global warming on biodiversity. Is climate change forcing species to live near their critical thermal limits? Are these limits likely to change through natural selection? These and other important questions can be addressed with models relating geographical distributions of species with climate data, but inferences made with these models are highly contingent on non-climatic...
Data from: The significance of prey avoidance behaviour for the maintenance of a predator colour polymorphismHelena Ajuria Ibarra, Michael Kinahan, Julien Marcetteau, Andrew J.R. Mehigan, Ross O. Ziegelmeier, Tom Reader & Andrew J R Mehigan
The existence of conspicuous colour polymorphisms in animals provides an ideal opportunity to examine the mechanisms which determine genetic and phenotypic variation in populations. It is well known that directional and negative frequency-dependent selection by predators can influence the persistence of colour polymorphisms in their prey, but much less attention has been paid to the idea that prey behaviour could generate selection on predator colour morphs. In this study, we examine the role that avoidance...
Methane transport through an agricultural soil following pulse injection of isotopically-enriched methane in the sub-surfaceG. Shaw, B. S. Atkinson, W. Meredith, C. Snape, D. A. Lever & A. R. Hoch
Data comprise methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in soil following injection of discrete pulses of methane into subsoil (50 cm depth) below a spring wheat crop during the growing season. Supporting data on soil moisture, soil temperature and meteorology are provided. The data may be useful for testing models of methane and carbon dioxide transport and fate in temperate agricultural soils.
Data from: Environmental drivers of forest structure and stem turnover across Venezuelan tropical forestsEmilio Vilanova, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo, Armando Torres-Lezama, Gerardo Aymard, Luis Gámez, Cristabel Durán, Lionel Hernández, Rafael Herrera, Geertje Van Der Heijden, Oliver L. Phillips & Gregory J. Ettl
Using data from 50 long-term permanent plots from across Venezuelan forests in northern South America, we explored large-scale patterns of stem turnover, aboveground biomass (AGB) and woody productivity (AGWP), and the relationships between them and with potential climatic drivers. We used principal component analysis coupled with generalized least squares models to analyze the relationship between climate, forest structure and stem dynamics. Two major axes associated with orthogonal temperature and moisture gradients effectively described more than...
Data from: A genetics-based approach confirms immune associations with life history across multiple populations of an aquatic vertebrate (Gasterosteus aculeatus)James R. Whiting, Isabel S. Magalhaes, Abdul R. Singkam, Shaun Robertson, Daniele D'Agostino, Janette E. Bradley, Andrew D.C. MacColl & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Understanding how wild immune variation covaries with other traits can reveal how costs and trade-offs shape immune evolution in the wild. Divergent life history strategies may increase or alleviate immune costs, helping shape immune variation in a consistent, testable way. Contrasting hypotheses suggest that shorter life histories may alleviate costs by offsetting them against increased mortality; or increase the effect of costs if immune responses are traded off against development or reproduction. We investigated the...
Data from: A view from above: A view from above: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a new tool for assessing liana infestation in tropical forest canopiesCatherine E. Waite, Geertje M.F. Van Der Heijden, Richard Field, Doreen S. Boyd & Geertje M. F. Van Der Heijden
1. Tropical forests store and sequester large quantities of carbon, mitigating climate change. Lianas (woody vines) are important tropical forest components, most conspicuous in the canopy. Lianas reduce forest carbon uptake and their recent increase may, therefore, limit forest carbon storage with global consequences for climate change. Liana infestation of tree crowns is traditionally assessed from the ground, which is labour-intensive and difficult, particularly for upper canopy layers. 2. We used a light-weight unmanned aerial...
University of Nottingham13
University of Leeds2
Anglia Ruskin University1
Universidade Federal de Goiás1
London School of Economics and Political Science1
University of Sussex1
University of Washington1
Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana1
University of Glasgow1