315 Works

Data from: Genomic evidence for role of inversion 3RP of Drosophila melanogaster in facilitating climate change adaptation

Rahul V. Rane, Lea Rako, Siu Fai Lee, Ary A. Hoffmann & Martin Kapun
Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are common in animals and plants, and recent models suggest that alternative arrangements spread by capturing different combinations of alleles acting additively or epistatically to favour local adaptation. It is also thought that inversions typically maintain favoured combinations for a long time by suppressing recombination between alternative chromosomal arrangements. Here, we consider patterns of linkage disequilibrium and genetic divergence in an old inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster (In(3R)Payne) known to be associated...

Data from: Elevated [CO2] mitigates the effect of surface drought by stimulating root growth to access sub-soil water

Shihab Uddin, Markus Löw, Shahnaj Parvin, Glenn J. Fitzgerald, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Roger Armstrong, Garry O’Leary & Michael Tausz
Through stimulation of root growth, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) may facilitate access of crops to sub-soil water, which could potentially prolong physiological activity in dryland environments, particularly because crops are more water use efficient under elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]). This study investigated the effect of drought in shallow soil versus sub-soil on agronomic and physiological responses of wheat to e[CO2] in a glasshouse experiment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yitpi) was grown in split-columns with...

Data from: Evolutionary potential of multiple measures of upper thermal tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Sandra Hangartner & Ary A. Hoffmann
Thermal tolerance influences the distribution and abundance of many species, but the adaptive capacity of species to increase upper thermal tolerance is poorly understood. Given that patterns of heat tolerance can strongly depend on assay method, it is crucial to get a better understanding of genetic variances and correlations among different heat tolerance components. This study tests for correlated responses in different heat tolerance assays in Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased heat tolerance following...

Data from: Population structure and gene flow in the global pest, Helicoverpa armigera

Craig J. Anderson, Wee T. Tay, Angela McGaughran, Karl Gordon & Tom K. Walsh
Helicoverpa armigera is a major agricultural pest that is distributed across Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia. This species is hypothesized to have spread to the Americas 1.5 million years ago, founding a population that is at present, a distinct species, Helicoverpa zea. In 2013, H. armigera was confirmed to have re-entered South America via Brazil and subsequently spread. The source of the recent incursion is unknown and population structure in H. armigera is poorly resolved,...

Data from: Genetic rescue increases fitness and aids rapid recovery of an endangered marsupial population

Andrew R. Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A. Hoffmann, Anthony Van Rooyen, Tom Kelly & Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after...

Data from: Effectiveness and safety of 1 vs 4 h blood pressure profile with clinical and laboratory assessment for the exclusion of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: a retrospective study in a university affiliated maternity hospital

Elizabeth Anne McCarthy, Thomas A. Carins, Yolanda Hannigan, Nadia Bardien, Alexis Shub & Susan P. Walker
Objective: We asked whether 60 compared with 240 min observation is sufficiently informative and safe for pregnancy day assessment (PDAC) of suspected pre-eclampsia (PE). Design: A retrospective study of 209 pregnant women (475 PDAC assessments, 6 months) with routinely collected blood pressure (BP), symptom and laboratory information. We proposed a 60 min screening algorithm comprising: absence of symptoms, normal laboratory parameters and ≤1high-BP reading (systolic blood pressure, SBP 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic...

Data from: Ecological incumbency impedes stochastic community assembly in Holocene foraminifera from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea

Claire E. Reymond, Michael Bode, Willem Renema & John M. Pandolfi
Persistence in the structure of ecological communities can be predicted both by deterministic and by stochastic theory. Evaluating ecological patterns against the neutral theory of biodiversity provides an appropriate methodology for differentiating between these alternatives. We traced the history of benthic foraminiferal communities from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. From the well-preserved uplifted reef terrace at Bonah River we reconstructed the benthic foraminiferal communities during a 2200-year period (9000–6800 yr B.P.) of reef building...

Data from: Extensive variation, but not local adaptation in an Australian alpine daisy

Megan J. Hirst, Jason P. Sexton & Ary A. Hoffmann
Alpine plants often occupy diverse habitats within a similar elevation range, but most research on local adaptation in these plants has focused on elevation gradients. In testing for habitat-related local adaptation, local effects on seed quality and initial plant growth should be considered in designs that encompass multiple populations and habitats. We tested for local adaptation across alpine habitats in a morphologically variable daisy species, Brachyscome decipiens, in the Bogong High Plains in Victoria, Australia....

Data from: Anticipatory flexibility: larval population density in moths determines male investment in antennae, wings and testes

Tamara L. Johnson, Matthew R.E. Symonds, Mark A. Elgar & Matthew R. E. Symonds
Developmental plasticity provides individuals with a distinct advantage when the reproductive environment changes dramatically. Variation in population density, in particular, can have profound effects on male reproductive success. Females may be easier to locate in dense populations, but there may be a greater risk of sperm competition. Thus, males should invest in traits that enhance fertilization success over traits that enhance mate location. Conversely, males in less dense populations should invest more in structures that...

Data from: Geographic variation in hybridization and ecological differentiation between three syntopic, morphologically similar species of montane lizards

Margaret L. Haines, Jane Melville, Joanna Sumner, Nick Clemann, David G. Chapple & Devi Stuart-Fox
To understand factors shaping species boundaries in closely related taxa, a powerful approach is to compare levels of genetic admixture at multiple points of contact and determine how this relates to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as genetic, morphological and ecological differentiation. In the Australian Alps, the threatened alpine bog skink Pseudemoia cryodroma co-occurs with two morphologically and ecologically similar congeners, P. entrecasteauxii and P. pagenstecheri, and all three species are suspected to hybridize. We...

Data from: Perception of contextual size illusions by honeybees in restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions

Scarlett R. Howard, Aurore Avargues-Weber, Jair Eduardo Garcia Mendoza, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adrian G. Dyer & Jair E. Garcia
How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested...

Data from: Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs

Luisa C. Teasdale, Martin Stevens & Devi Stuart-Fox
Intraspecific colour variation is common in nature and can vary from the coexistence of discrete colour variants in polymorphic species to continuous variation. Whether coloration is continuous or discrete is often ambiguous and many species exhibit a combination of the two. The nature of the variation (discrete or continuous) has implications for both the genetic basis of the colour variation and the evolutionary processes generating and maintaining it. Consequently, it is important to qualify the...

Data from: Plasmodium vivax diversity and population structure across four continents

Cristian Koepfli, Priscila T. Rodrigues, Tiago Antao, Pamela Orjuela-Sánchez, Peter Van Den Eede, Dionicia Gamboa, Nguyen Van Hong, Jorge Bendezu, Annette Erhart, Céline Barnadas, Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Didier Menard, Carlo Severini, Michela Menegon, Baki Y. M. Nour, Nadira Karunaweera, Ivo Mueller, Marcelo U. Ferreira, Ingrid Felger & Bakri Y. M. Nour
Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Directional cultural change by modification and replacement of memes

Gonçalo C Cardoso & Jonathan W Atwell
Evolutionary approaches to culture remain contentious. A source of contention is that cultural mutation may be substantial and, if it drives cultural change, then current evolutionary models are not adequate. But we lack studies quantifying the contribution of mutations to directional cultural change. We estimated the contribution of one type of cultural mutations – modification of memes - to directional cultural change using an amenable study system: learned birdsongs in a species that recently entered...

Data from: Early-life telomere length predicts lifespan and lifetime reproductive success in a wild bird

Justin R. Eastwood, Michelle L. Hall, Niki Teunissen, Sjouke A. Kingma, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Marie Fan, Michael Roast, Simon Verhulst & Anne Peters
Poor conditions during early development can initiate trade-offs that favour current survival at the expense of somatic maintenance and subsequently, future reproduction. However, the mechanisms that link early and late life-history are largely unknown. Recently it has been suggested that telomeres, the nucleoprotein structures at the terminal end of chromosomes, could link early-life conditions to lifespan and fitness. In wild purple-crowned fairy-wrens, we combined measurements of nestling telomere length (TL) with detailed life-history data to...

Data from: The scaling of population persistence with carrying capacity does not asymptote in populations of a fish experiencing extreme climate variability

Richard S.A. White, Brendan A. Wintle, Peter A. McHugh, Douglas J. Booker, Angus R. McIntosh & Richard S. A. White
Despite growing concerns regarding increasing frequency of extreme climate events and declining population sizes, the influence of environmental stochasticity on the relationship between population carrying capacity and time-to-extinction has received little empirical attention. While time-to-extinction increases exponentially with carrying capacity in constant environments, theoretical models suggest increasing environmental stochasticity causes asymptotic scaling, thus making minimum viable carrying capacity vastly uncertain in variable environments. Using empirical estimates of environmental stochasticity in fish metapopulations, we showed that...

Data from: Do evolutionary constraints on thermal performance manifest at different organizational scales?

Ben L. Phillips, John Llewelyn, Amberlee Hatcher, Stewart Macdonald & Craig Moritz
The two foremost hypotheses on the evolutionary constraints on an organism's thermal sensitivity – the hotter-is-better expectation, and the specialist–generalist trade-off – have received mixed support from empirical studies testing for their existence. Could these conflicting results reflect confusion regarding the organizational level (i.e. species > population > individual) at which these constraints should manifest? We propose that these evolutionary constraints should manifest at different organizational levels because of differences in their underlying causes and...

Data from: Prevalence and correlates of anemia among adolescents in Nepal: findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey

Binaya Chalise, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Ranju Kumari Mehta, Meghnath Dhimal, Femila Sapkota, Suresh Mehata, Khem Bahadur Karki, Donya Madjdian, George Patton & Susan Sawyer
Anemia is regarded as major public health problem among adolescents in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) but there is limited primary data in many countries, including Nepal. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of anemia in a nationally representative sample of adolescents within the 2014 National Adolescent Nutrition Survey in Nepal. A total of 3780 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were selected from a cross-sectional survey through multi-stage cluster sampling. Structured interviews, anthropometric...

Data from: Independently evolved and gene flow‐accelerated pesticide resistance in two‐spotted spider mites

Pan Shi, Li-Jun Cao, Ya-Jun Gong, Ling Ma, Wei Song, Jin-Cui Chen, Ary Hoffmann & Shu-Jun Wei
Pest species are often able to develop resistance to pesticides used to control them, depending on how rapidly resistance can emerge within a population or spread from another resistant population. We examined the evolution of bifenazate resistance in China in the two‐spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus uticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), one of the most resistant arthropods, by using bioassays, detection of mutations in the target cytb gene, and population genetic structure analysis using microsatellite markers....

Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum

Amy E. Zanne, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, David A. Coomes, Jugo Ilic, Steven Jansen, Simon L. Lewis, Regis B. Miller, Nathan G. Swenson, Michael C. Wiemann & Jerome Chave
Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on...

Data from: Seascape genomics reveals adaptive divergence in a connected and commercially important mollusc, the greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata), along a longitudinal environmental gradient

Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Nick A. Robinson, Anthony M. Hart, Lachlan W. S. Strain & Luciano B. Beheregaray
Populations of broadcast spawning marine organisms often have large sizes and are exposed to reduced genetic drift. Under such scenarios, strong selection associated with spatial environmental heterogeneity is expected to drive localized adaptive divergence, even in the face of connectivity. We tested this hypothesis using a seascape genomics approach in the commercially important greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata). We assessed how its population structure has been influenced by environmental heterogeneity along a zonal coastal boundary in...

Data from: A genetic assessment of the human-facilitated colonization history of black swans in Australia and New Zealand

Valeria Montano, Wouter F.D. Van Dongen, Micheal A. Weston, Raoul A. Mulder, Randall W. Robinson, Mary Cowling, Patrick-Jean Guay & Michael A. Weston
Movement of species beyond their indigenous distribution can fundamentally alter the conservation status of the populations involved. If introductions are human-facilitated, introduced species could be considered pests. Characterizing the colonization history of introduced species can, therefore, be critical to formulating the objectives and nature of wildlife management strategies. The black swan (Cygnus atratus) is native to Australia but is considered a reintroduced species in New Zealand, where the endemic population was reported extinct during the...

Data from: Spatio-temporal changes in the structure of an Australian frog hybrid zone: a 40 year perspective

Katie Louise Smith, Joshua Miles Hale, Laurène Gay, Michael R. Kearney, Jeremy J. Austin, Kirsten M. Parris, Jane Melville & Michael Kearney
Spatio-temporal studies of hybrid zones provide an opportunity to test evolutionary hypotheses of hybrid zone maintenance and movement. We conducted a landscape genetics study on a classic hybrid zone of the south-eastern Australian frogs, Litoria ewingii and L. paraewingi. This hybrid zone has been comprehensively studied since the 1960s, providing the unique opportunity to directly assess changes in hybrid zone structure across time. We compared both mtDNA and male advertisement call data from two time...

Data from: Application of wMelPop Wolbachia strain to crash local populations of Aedes aegypti

Scott A. Ritchie, Michael Townsend, Chris J. Paton, Ashley G. Callahan & Ary A. Hoffmann
The endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia pipientis (wMel strain) has been successfully established in several populations of Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. The virulent Wolbachia strain wMelPop is known to cause several pathological impacts (increased egg mortality, life shortening, etc.) reducing overall fitness in the mosquito Ae. aegypti. Increased egg mortality could substantially reduce egg banks in areas with a lengthy monsoonal dry season, and be employed to eliminate local populations. We tested this application under...

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