315 Works

Data from: Functional responses of insectivorous bats to increasing housing density support 'land-sparing' rather than ‘land-sharing’ urban growth strategies

Fiona M. Caryl, Linda F. Lumsden, Rodney Van Der Ree & Brendan A. Wintle
Debates about ‘land-sparing’ and ‘land-sharing’ strategies for conserving biodiversity in cities provide an overly simplistic characterization of alternate planning options. Increased urbanization manifests in a number of ways and sophisticated analyses of how species respond to urban environments are required before generalizations about the relative merits of either planning strategy should be made. We investigated how insectivorous bats respond to housing density (a measure of urbanization intensity) and a range of habitat variables by modelling...

Data from: Measurement of systemic mitochondrial function in advanced primary open-angle glaucoma and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

Nicole J. Van Bergen, Jonathan G. Crowston, Jamie E. Craig, Kathryn P. Burdon, Lisa S. Kearns, Shiwani Sharma, Alex W. Hewitt, David A. Mackey & Ian A. Trounce
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to...

Data from: Restricting access to invasion hubs enables sustained control of an invasive vertebrate

Mike Letnic, Jonathan K. Webb, Tim J. Jessop & Tim Dempster
Biological invasions often occur through expansion of satellite populations that become established at ‘invasion hubs’. Invasion hubs can result from random dispersal events, but frequently arise when invading individuals actively choose habitats using cues that signify high-quality environments where the fitness consequences are positive. Theoretical studies suggest that targeted control at invasion hubs can effectively suppress the populations and impacts of invaders. In arid Australia, small dams that provide water for livestock function as invasion...

Data from: Ornament size and colour as alternative strategies for effective communication in gliding lizards

Danielle A. Klomp, Terry Ord, Indraneil Das, Arvin Diesmos, Norhayati Ahmad, Devi Stuart-Fox & T. J. Ord
Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament's colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding...

Data from: Does predation risk affect mating behavior? An experimental test in dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica)

Amanda M. Franklin, Devi Stuart-Fox & Zoe E. Squires
Introduction: One of the most important trade-offs for many animals is that between survival and reproduction. This is particularly apparent when mating increases the risk of predation, either by increasing conspicuousness, reducing mobility or inhibiting an individual’s ability to detect predators. Individuals may mitigate the risk of predation by altering their reproductive behavior (e.g. increasing anti-predator responses to reduce conspicuousness). The degree to which individuals modulate their reproductive behavior in relation to predation risk is...

Data from: Ontogenetic and interspecific scaling of consumption in insects

James L. Maino & Michael R. Kearney
The uptake of resources from the environment is a basic feature of all life. Consumption rate has been found to scale with body size with an exponent close to unity across diverse organisms. However, past analyses have ignored the important distinction between ontogenetic and interspecific size comparisons. Using principles of dynamic energy budget theory, we present a mechanistic model for the body mass scaling of consumption, which separates interspecific size effects from ontogenetic size effects....

Data from: The emergent geography of biophysical dispersal barriers across the Indo-West Pacific

Eric A. Treml, Jason Roberts, Patrick N. Halpin, Hugh P. Possingham & Cynthia Riginos
Aim: To discover and evaluate potential dispersal barriers across the Indo-West Pacific Ocean and to develop spatially explicit hypotheses regarding the location of barriers and their capacity to filter taxa. Additionally, to compare model predictions with previously described barriers and build a more thorough understanding of the region's biogeographic patterns. Location: The reefs of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean, from 100 to 170°E and from 30°N to 30°S. Methods: A biophysical larval dispersal model was used...

Data from: Prescribed burning protects endangered tropical heathlands of the Arnhem Plateau, northern Australia

Brett P. Murphy, Mark A. Cochrane & Jeremy Russell-Smith
1. There are concerns that frequent intense fires are reducing biodiversity on the Arnhem Plateau within Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. Since the 1980s, prescribed burning in the early dry season has aimed to reduce the extent of late dry season wildfires. A programme of more strategic prescribed burning has been undertaken since 2007, aiming to increase intervals between fires affecting heathland and rain forest communities. 2. We assess the effectiveness of prescribed burning in...

Data from: Broadband onset inhibition can suppress spectral splatter in the auditory brainstem

Martin J. Spencer, David A. X. Nayagam, Janine C. Clarey, Antonio G. Paolini, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N. Burkitt & David B. Grayden
In vivo intracellular responses to auditory stimuli revealed that, in a particular population of cells of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) of rats, fast inhibition occurred before the first action potential. These experimental data were used to constrain a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model of the neurons in this circuit. The post-synaptic potentials of the VNLL cell population were characterized using a method of triggered averaging. Analysis suggested that these inhibited VNLL cells...

Data from: The contrasting phylodynamics of human influenza B viruses

Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Edward C. Holmes, Udayan Joseph, Mathieu Fourment, Yvonne C. F. Su, Rebecca Halpin, Raphael T. C. Lee, Yi-Mo Deng, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Xudong Lin, Tim Stockwell, Nadia B. Fedorova, Bin Zhou, Natalie Spirason, Denise K. Kühnert, Veronika Bošková, Tanja Stadler, Anna-Maria Costa, Dominic E. Dwyer, Q. Sue Huang, Lance C. Jennings, William Rawlinson, Sheena G. Sullivan, Aeron C. Hurt, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh … & Raphael TC Lee
A complex interplay of viral, host and ecological factors shape the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from...

Data from: Coupling biogeochemical tracers with fish growth reveals physiological and environmental controls on otolith chemistry

Gretchen L. Grammer, John R. Morrongiello, Christopher Izzo, Peter J. Hawthorne, John F. Middleton & Bronwyn M. Gillanders
Biogeochemical tracers found in the hard parts of organisms are frequently used to answer key ecological questions by linking the organism with the environment. However, the biogeochemical relationship between the environment and the biogenic structure becomes less predictable in higher organisms as physiological processes become more complex. Here, we use the simultaneous combination of biogeochemical tracers and fish growth analyzed with a novel modeling framework to describe physiological and environmental controls on otolith chemistry in...

Data from: Dendrogramma is a siphonophore

Timothy D. O'Hara, Andrew F. Hugall, Hugh MacIntosh, Kate M. Naughton, Alan Williams & Adnan Moussalli
Dendrogramma was the iconic deep-sea animal of 2014, voted among the top-ten new species described that year. The two species described are mushroom shaped animals, diploblastic, with an apparent gastrovascular system that extends from the base of the stalk to bifurcating canals that radiate through the flat disc. The authors could not assign the new genus to any known animal group with certainty, leading to numerous media reports that it belonged to an entirely new...

Data from: A superb solo, or a deviant duet? Overlapping songs in superb fairy-wrens

Claire J. Taylor, Michelle L. Hall, Kristal E. Cain & Naomi E. Langmore
Avian duets are formed when two birds coordinate their songs. Most research on the evolution and function of duetting has focused on species with highly coordinated duets, and less is known about the context and function of overlapping songs that are more loosely coordinated, in part due to the challenge of determining whether such vocalisations coincide by chance or through coordination between the partners. Here, we use field recordings and playback experiments to test whether...

Data from: From cryptic to colourful: evolutionary decoupling of larval and adult colour in butterflies

Iliana Medina, Regina Vega-Trejo, Thomas Wallenius, Matthew Symonds & Devi Stuart-Fox
Many animals undergo complete metamorphosis, where larval forms change abruptly in adulthood. Colour change during ontogeny is common, but there is little understanding of evolutionary patterns in these changes. Here we use data on larval and adult colour for 246 butterfly species (61% of all species in Australia) to test whether the evolution of colour is coupled between life stages. We show that adults are more variable in colour across species than caterpillars and that...

Data from: No link between nymph and adult colouration in shield bugs: weak selection by predators

Iliana Medina, Regina Vega-Trejo, Thomas Wallenius, Damien Esquerre, Constanza Leon, Daniela Perez & Megan Head
Many organisms use different anti-predator strategies throughout their life, but little is known about the reasons or implications of such changes. For years it has been suggested that selection by predators should favour uniformity in local warning signals. If this is the case, we would expect high resemblance in colour across life stages in aposematic animals where young and adults share similar morphology and habitat. In this study we used shield bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea) to...

Fatal and non-fatal events within 14 days after early, intensive mobilization post stroke

Julie Bernhardt, Karen Borschmann, Janice Collier, Amanda Thrift, Peter Langhorne, Sandy Middleton, Richard Lindley, Helen Dewey, Philip Bath, Catherine Said, Leonid Churilov, Fiona Ellery, Christopher Bladin, Christopher Reid, Judith Frayne, Velandai Srikanth, Stephen Read & Geoffrey Donnan
Objective: We examined fatal and non-fatal Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) at 14 days within AVERT. Method: A prospective, parallel group, assessor blinded, randomized international clinical trial comparing very early intensive mobilization training (VEM) with usual care (UC); with follow up to 3 months. Included: Patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke within 24 hours of onset and physiological parameters within set limits. Treatment with thrombolytics allowed. Excluded: Patients with severe premorbid disability and/or comorbidities. Interventions continued...

Data for: Socially cued anticipatory adjustment of female signalling effort in a moth

Kathryn McNamara
Juvenile population density has profound effects on subsequent adult development, morphology, and reproductive investment. Yet, little is known about how the juvenile social environment affects adult investment into chemical sexual signalling. Male gumleaf skeletonizer moths, Uraba lugens, facultatively increase investment into antennae (pheromone receiving structures) when reared at low juvenile population densities, but whether there is comparable adjustment by females into pheromone investment is not known. We investigate how juvenile population density influences the ‘calling’...

Female and male plumage colour is linked to parental quality, pairing and extra-pair mating in a tropical passerine

Ana V. Leitão, Michelle L. Hall & Raoul A. Mulder
Sexual selection has been proposed to drive the evolution of elaborate phenotypic traits in males, which often confer success in competition or mating. However, in many species both males and females display such traits, although studies investigating selection acting in both sexes are scarce. In this study, we investigated whether plumage ornamentation is sexually selected in female and male lovely fairy-wrens Malurus amabilis, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We found that female and male plumage colour...

Data from: A phylogeny for the Drosophila montium species group: a model clade for comparative analyses

William Conner, Emily Delaney, Michael Bronski, Paul Ginsberg, Timothy Wheeler, Kelly Richardson, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Kevin Kim, Masayoshi Watada, Ary Hoffmann, Michael Eisen, Artyom Kopp, Brandon Cooper & Michael Turelli
The Drosophila montium species group is a clade of 94 named species closely related to the model D. melanogaster species group. The montium species group is distributed over a broad geographic range throughout Asia, Africa, and Australasia. Species of this group possess a wide range of morphologies, mating behaviors, and endosymbiont associations, making this clade useful for comparative analyses. We use genomic data from 42 available species to estimate the phylogeny and relative divergence times...

Data from: Heating rates are more strongly influenced by near-infrared than visible reflectance in beetles

Lu-Yi Wang, Amanda M Franklin, Jay R Black & Devi Stuart-Fox
Adaptations to control heat transfer through the integument are a key component of temperature regulation in animals. However, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of how different optical and morphological properties of the integument affect heating rates. To address these gaps, we examined the effect of reflectivity in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared wavelengths, surface micro-sculpturing, effective area (area subjected to illumination) and cuticle thickness on radiative heat gain in jewel beetles (Buprestidae). We measured...

Ecological interactions shape the evolution of flower colour in communities across a temperate biodiversity hotspot

Alexander Skeels, Russell Dinnage, Iliana Medina & Marcel Cardillo
Processes driving the divergence of floral traits may be integral to the extraordinary richness of flowering plants and the assembly of diverse plant communities. Several models of pollinator-mediated floral evolution have been proposed; floral divergence may (i) be directly involved in driving speciation or may occur after speciation driven by (ii) drift or local adaptation in allopatry or (iii) negative interactions between species in sympatry. Here, we generate predictions for patterns of trait divergence and...

Superoxide is promoted by sucrose and affects amplitude of circadian rhythms in the evening

Michael Haydon, John Davey & Ángela Román
Plants must coordinate photosynthetic metabolism with the daily environment and adapt rhythmic physiology and development to match carbon availability. Circadian clocks drive biological rhythms which adjust to environmental cues. Products of photosynthetic metabolism, including sugars and reactive oxygen species (ROS), are closely associated with the plant circadian clock and sugars have been shown to provide metabolic feedback to the circadian oscillator. Here, we report a comprehensive sugar-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis and identify genes associated with...

Male-biased sexual selection, but not sexual dichromatism, predicts speciation in birds

Justin Cally, Devi Stuart-Fox, Luke Holman, James Dale & Iliana Medina
Sexual selection is thought to shape phylogenetic diversity by affecting speciation or extinction rates. However, the net effect of sexual selection on diversification is hard to predict, because many of the hypothesised effects on speciation or extinction have opposing signs and uncertain magnitudes. Theoretical work also suggests that the net effect of sexual selection on diversification should depend strongly on ecological factors, though this prediction has seldom been tested. Here, we test whether variation in...

Condition-dependent sexual reproduction is driven by benefits, not costs of sex

Isobel Booksmythe, Jessica Lever, Sally Drapes & Matthew Hall
Facultative sexual organisms must allocate resources to both asexual and sexual reproduction. Optimal patterns of investment in sex depend on the relative costs and benefits of each reproductive mode, and may consequently be context- and condition-dependent. Two proposed explanations for the observed variation in investment in sex among facultative sexual lineages invoke alternative condition-dependent scenarios. Under the ‘fitness-associated sex’ hypothesis, sex is predicted when individuals are in poor condition or experience stressful environments. Under the...

Data from: Environment predicts repeated body size shifts in a recent radiation of Australian mammals

Emily J. Roycroft, Jonathan A. Nations & Kevin C. Rowe
Closely related species that occur across steep environmental gradients often display clear body size differences, and examining this pattern is crucial to understanding how environmental variation shapes diversity. Australian endemic rodents in the Pseudomys Division (Muridae: Murinae) have repeatedly colonized the arid, monsoon, and mesic biomes over the last 5 million years. Using occurrence records, body mass data, and Bayesian phylogenetic models we test whether body mass of 31 species in the Pseudomys Division can...

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