315 Works

Data from: An antibody screen of a Plasmodium vivax antigen library identifies novel merozoite proteins associated with clinical protection

Camila T. França, Jessica B. Hostetler, Sumana Sharma, Michael T. White, Enmoore Lin, Benson Kiniboro, Andreea Waltmann, Andrew W. Darcy, Connie S. Li Wai Suen, Peter Siba, Christopher L. King, Julian C. Rayner, Rick M. Fairhurst, Ivo Mueller & Connie S. N. Li Wai Suen
Background. Elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria would be greatly facilitated by the development of an effective vaccine. A comprehensive and systematic characterization of antibodies to P. vivax antigens in exposed populations is useful in guiding rational vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings. In this study, we investigated antibodies to a large library of P. vivax entire ectodomain merozoite proteins in 2 Asia-Pacific populations, analysing the relationship of antibody levels with markers of current and cumulative malaria exposure,...

Cracks in the mirror hypothesis: high specularity does not reduce detection or predation risk

Amanda Franklin, Katrina Rankin, Laura Ospina-Rozo, Iliana Medina, Jair Garcia, Leslie Ng, Caroline Dong, Lu-Yi Wang, Anne Aulsebrook & Devi Stuart-Fox
Some animals, including certain fish, beetles, spiders and Lepidoptera chrysalises, have such shiny or glossy surfaces that they appear almost mirror-like. A compelling but unsubstantiated hypothesis is that a highly specular or mirror-like appearance enhances survival by reflecting the surrounding environment and reducing detectability. We tested this hypothesis by asking human participants to wear a mobile eye-tracking device and locate highly realistic mirror-green and diffuse-green replica beetles against a variety of backgrounds in a natural...

Building data capacity in the not-for-profit sector: Interim report

Xiaofang Yao, Anthony McCosker, Kath Albury, Alexia Maddox & Jane Farmer

Single molecule tracking raw data: SOX18 and its dominant-negative mutant SOX18RaOp

Alex McCann, Jieqiong Lou, Mehdi Moustaqil, Matthew Graus, Ailisa Blum, Frank Fontaine, Hui Liu, Winnie Luu, Peter Koopman, Emma Sierecki, Yann Gambin, Frédéric Meunier, Zhe Liu, Elizabeth Hinde & Mathias Francois
Few genetically dominant mutations involved in human disease have been fully explained at the molecular level. In cases where the mutant gene encodes a transcription factor, the dominant-negative mode of action of the mutant protein is particularly poorly understood. Here, we studied the genome-wide mechanism underlying a dominant-negative form of the SOX18 transcription factor (SOX18RaOp) responsible for both the classical mouse mutant Ragged Opossum and the human genetic disorder Hypotrichosis-Lymphedema-Telangiectasia-Renal Syndrome. Combining three single-molecule imaging...

Data from: Iridescence untwined - Honey bees can separate hue variations in space and time

Leslie Ng, Laura Ospina-Rozo, Jair Garcia, Adrian Dyer & Devi Stuart-Fox
Iridescence is a phenomenon whereby the hue of a surface changes with viewing or illumination angle. Many animals display iridescence but it currently remains unclear whether relevant observers process iridescent color signals as a complex collection of colors (spatial variation), or as moving patterns of colors and shapes (temporal variation). This is important as animals may use only the spatial or temporal component of the signal, although this possibility has rarely been considered or tested....

Counting the bodies: estimating the numbers and spatial variation of Australian reptiles, birds and mammals killed by two invasive mesopredators

Alyson Stobo-Wilson, Brett Murphy, Sarah Legge, Hernan Caceres-Escobar, David Chapple, Heather Crawford, Stuart Dawson, Chris Dickman, Tim Doherty, Patricia Fleming, Stephen Garnett, Matthew Gentle, Thomas Newsome, Russell Palmer, Matthew Rees, Euan Ritchie, James Speed, John-Michael Stuart, Andres Suarez-Castro, Eilysh Thompson, Ayesha Tulloch, Jeff Turpin & John Woinarski
Aim: Introduced predators negatively impact biodiversity globally, with insular fauna often most severely affected. Here, we assess spatial variation in the number of terrestrial vertebrates (excluding amphibians) killed by two mammalian mesopredators introduced to Australia, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cat (Felis catus). We aim to identify prey groups that suffer especially high rates of predation, and regions where losses to foxes and/or cats are most substantial. Location: Australia Methods: We draw information...

Data from: The influence of potential stressors on oviposition site selection and subsequent growth, survival and emergence of the non-biting midge (Chironomus tepperi)

Robin Hale, Valentina Colombo, Molly Hoak, Vin Pettigrove & Stephen E. Swearer
Theory predicts that animals should prefer habitats where their fitness is maximized but some mistakenly select habitats where their fitness is compromised, that is, ecological traps. Understanding why this happens requires knowledge of the habitat selection cues animals use, the habitats they prefer and why, and the fitness costs of habitat selection decisions. We conducted experiments with a freshwater insect, the non‐biting midge Chironomus tepperi to ask: (a) whether females respond to potential oviposition cues,...

Data for: Convergent evolution of tail spines in squamate reptiles driven by microhabitat use

Till Ramm, Emily J. Roycroft & Johannes Müller
The repeated evolution of convergent or analogous traits is often used as evidence for adaptive evolution. Squamate reptiles show a high degree of convergence in a variety of morphological traits; however, the evolutionary mechanisms driving these patterns are not fully understood. Here we investigate the evolution of tail spines, a trait that evolved multiple times in evolutionarily independent clades of lizards. Taking a comparative phylogenetic approach, we use 2877 squamate species to demonstrate that the...

Climate more important than soils for predicting forest biomass at the continental scale

Alison Bennett, Trent Penman, Stefan Arndt, Stephen Roxburgh & Lauren Bennett
Above-ground biomass in forests is critical to the global carbon cycle as it stores and sequesters carbon from the atmosphere. Climate change will disrupt the carbon cycle hence understanding how climate and other abiotic variables determine forest biomass at broad spatial scales is important for validating and constraining Earth System models and predicting the impacts of climate change on forest carbon stores. We examined the importance of climate and soil variables to explaining above-ground biomass...

Mother’s curse and indirect genetic effects: do males matter to mitochondrial genome evolution?

Thomas Keaney, Heidi Wong, Damian Dowling, Theresa Jones & Luke Holman
Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was originally thought to prevent any response to selection on male phenotypic variation attributable to mtDNA, resulting in a male-biased mtDNA mutation load (‘mother’s curse’). However, the theory underpinning this claim implicitly assumes that a male’s mtDNA has no effect on the fitness of females he comes into contact with. If such ‘mitochondrially-encoded indirect genetics effects’ (mtIGEs) do in fact exist, and there is relatedness between the mitochondrial genomes...

Data from: Trait anticipatory pleasure predicts effort expenditure for reward

Joachim T. Geaney, Michael T. Treadway & Luke D. Smillie
Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire) from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment). In a university community sample (N = 97),...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Exploring the role of Micronesian islands in the maintenance of coral genetic diversity in the Pacific Ocean

Sarah W. Davies, Eric A. Treml, Carly D. Kenkel & Mikhail V. Matz
Understanding how genetic diversity is maintained across patchy marine environments remains a fundamental problem in marine biology. The Coral Triangle, located in the Indo-West Pacific, is the center of marine biodiversity and has been proposed as an important source of genetic diversity for remote Pacific reefs. Several studies highlight Micronesia, a scattering of hundreds of small islands situated within the North Equatorial Counter Current, as a potentially important migration corridor. To test this hypothesis, we...

Data from: Correlates of extinction risk in squamate reptiles: the relative importance of biology, geography, threat and range size

Monika Böhm, Rhiannon Williams, Huw R. Bramhall, Kirsten M. McMillan, Ana D. Davidson, Andrés Garcia, Lucie M. Bland, Jon Bielby & Ben Collen
Aim Evaluating the relative roles of biological traits and environmental factors that predispose species to an elevated risk of extinction is of fundamental importance to macroecology. Identifying species that possess extinction-promoting traits allows targeted conservation action before precipitous declines occur. Such analyses have been carried out for several vertebrate groups, with the notable exception of reptiles. We identify traits correlating with high extinction risk in squamate reptiles, assess whether these differ with geography, taxonomy and...

Data from: The Pillars of Hercules as a bathymetric barrier to gene-flow promoting isolation in a global deep-sea shark (Centroscymnus coelolepis)

Diana Catarino, Halvor Knutsen, Ana Veríssimo, Esben Moland Olsen, Per Erik Jorde, Gui Menezes, Hanne Sannæs, David Stanković, Joan Batista Company, Francis Neat, Roberto Danovaro, Antonio Dell'Anno, Bastien Rochowski, Sergio Stefanni, Joan Baptista Company & Hanne Sannaes
Knowledge of the mechanisms limiting connectivity and gene-flow in deep-sea ecosystems is limited, especially for deep-sea sharks. The Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis) is a globally distributed and Near Threatened deep-sea shark. C. coelolepis population structure was studied using 11 nuclear microsatellite markers and a 497 bp fragment from the mtDNA Control Region. High levels of genetic homogeneity across the Atlantic (ΦST=-0.0091, FST= 0.0024, P > 0.05) were found suggesting one large population unit at this...

Data from: Differentiating founder and chronic HIV envelope sequences

John M. Murray, Stephen Maher, Talia Mota, Kazuo Suzuki, Anthony D. Kelleher, Rob J. Center & Damian Purcell
Significant progress has been made in characterizing broadly neutralizing antibodies against the HIV envelope glycoprotein Env, but an effective vaccine has proven elusive. Vaccine development would be facilitated if common features of early founder virus required for transmission could be identified. Here we employ a combination of bioinformatic and operations research methods to determine the most prevalent features that distinguish 78 subtype B and 55 subtype C founder Env sequences from an equal number of...

Data from: Local adaptation and divergence in colour signal conspicuousness between monomorphic and polymorphic lineages in a lizard

Claire A. McLean, Adnan Moussalli & Devi Stuart-Fox
Population differences in visual environment can lead to divergence in multiple components of animal coloration including signalling traits and colour patterns important for camouflage. Divergence may reflect selection imposed by different receivers (conspecifics, predators), which depends in turn on the location of the colour patch. We tested for local adaptation of two genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages of a rock-inhabiting lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, by comparing the visual contrast of colour patches to different receivers in...

Data from: Wings or winds: inferring bat migration in a stepping-stone archipelago

Nicole Weyeneth, Steven M Goodman, Belinda Appleton, Rebecca Wood & Manuel Ruedi
Eocene ocean currents and prevailing winds correlate with over-water dispersals of terrestrial mammals from Africa to Madagascar. Since the Early Miocene (about 23 Ma), these currents flowed in the reverse direction, from the Indian Ocean towards Africa. The Comoro Islands are equidistant between Africa and Madagascar and support an endemic land vertebrate fauna that shares recent ancestry predominantly with Madagascar. We examined whether gene flow in two Miniopterus bat species endemic to the Comoros and...

Data from: Landscape context explains changes in the functional diversity of regenerating forests better than climate or species richness

Michael Sams, Hao Ran Lai, Stephen Bonser, Peter Vesk, Robert Kooyman, Daniel Metcalfe, John W. Morgan, Margaret Mayfield, M. A. Sams, D. J. Metcalfe, R. M. Kooyman & P. A. Vesk
Aim A rich literature on forest succession provides general expectations for the steps forests go through while reassembling after disturbance, yet we still have a surprisingly poor understanding of why the outcomes of forest recovery after logging (or other disturbances) vary so extensively. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that regional species pool, system productivity, climate and landscape structure are important drivers of forest reassembly outcomes. Location Transect 1,500 km in length along the...

Data from: Evidence for adaptive divergence of thermal responses among Bemisia tabaci populations from tropical Colombia following a recent invasion

F. Díaz, V. Muñoz-Valencia, D. L. Juvinao-Quintero, M. R. Manzano-Martínez, N. Toro-Perea, H. Cárdenas-Henao & A. A. Hoffmann
There is an increasing evidence that populations of ectotherms can diverge genetically in response to different climatic conditions, both within their native range and (in the case of invasive species) in their new range. Here, we test for such divergence in invasive whitefly Bemisia tabaci populations in tropical Colombia, by considering heritable variation within and between populations in survival and fecundity under temperature stress, and by comparing population differences with patterns established from putatively neutral...

Data from: Optimal nutrient exchange and immune responses operate in partner specificity in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

Jennifer L. Matthews, Camerron M. Crowder, Clinton A. Oakley, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Eli Meyer, Arthur R. Grossman, Virginia M. Weis & Simon K. Davy
The relationship between reef-building corals and phototrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is fundamental to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. It has been suggested that reef corals may adapt to climate change by changing their dominant symbiont type to a more thermally tolerant one, although the capacity for such a community shift is potentially hindered by the compatibility of different host-symbiont pairings. Here we combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to characterize the molecular, cellular,...

Data from: Directional dispersal has not evolved during the cane toad invasion

Gregory P. Brown, Benjamin L. Phillips & Richard Shine
1. The ability to disperse along a consistent compass heading strongly affects the rate and efficiency of an animal's displacement, and thus is under selection at the expanding edge of a biological invasion. 2. We used radiotelemetry to assess whether the dispersal direction of cane toads (Rhinella marina) changed as a function of time since invasion, by comparing (i) toads at a single site monitored annually for 10 years subsequent to toad arrival; (ii) toads...

Data from: Concordance in evolutionary history of threatened plant and insect populations warrant unified conservation management approaches

Melinda L. Moir, David J. Coates, W. Jason Kennington, Sarah Barrett, Gary S. Taylor & W. Jason Kensington
Threatened organisms may act as host to a suite of dependent organisms, which are potentially cothreatened, yet management is rarely coordinated between host and dependent species. Here, we test the congruency of patterns of genetic structure between two critically endangered interacting taxa; the feather-leaf banksia (Banksia brownii R.Br.), and its host-specific herbivorous plant-louse Trioza barrettae Taylor & Moir, to establish whether conservation actions should be implemented jointly for both species. We also examine the role...

Data from: Top carnivore decline has cascading effects on scavengers and carrion persistence

Calum X. Cunningham, Christopher N. Johnson, Leon A. Barmuta, Tracey Hollings, Eric J. Woehler & Menna E. Jones
Top carnivores have suffered widespread global declines, with well-documented effects on mesopredators and herbivores. We know less about how carnivores affect ecosystems through scavenging. Tasmania’s top carnivore, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), has suffered severe disease-induced population declines, providing a natural experiment on the role of scavenging in structuring communities. Using remote cameras and experimentally-placed carcasses, we show that mesopredators consume more carrion in areas where devils have declined. Carcass consumption by the two native...

Data from: How do different aspects of biodiversity change through time? A case study on an Australian bird community

Jian D. L. Yen, James R. Thomson, Jonathan M. Keith, David M. Paganin & Ralph Mac Nally
The study of ecological communities through time can reveal fundamental ecological processes and is key to understanding how natural and human pressures will affect biodiversity. Most studies of ecological communities through time consider only one or a few summary measures (e.g. species richness, total abundance), which might neglect important aspects of community structure or function. We studied temporal variation in several measures of species diversity, size diversity, and species composition in an intensively sampled bird...

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