39 Works

Data from: Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drive morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae)

Vicente García-Navas, Marta Rodriguez-Rey, Petter Z. Marki & Les Christidis
Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric...

Data from: Incidence of influenza A(H3N2) virus infections in Hong Kong in a longitudinal sero-epidemiological study, 2009-2015

Vivian W. I. Wei, Jessica Y. T. Wong, Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera, Kin On Kwok, Vicky J. Fang, Ian G. Barr, J. S. Malik Peiris, Steven Riley & Benjamin J. Cowling
Background: Many serologic studies were done during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, to estimate the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections, but there are few comparative estimates of the incidence of influenza A(H3N2) virus infections during epidemics. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal serologic study in Hong Kong. We collected sera annually and tested samples from 2009-13 by HAI against the A/Perth/16/2009(H3N2) virus, and samples from 2013-15 against the A/Victoria/361/2011(H3N2) virus using the hemagglutination...

Data from: Combining optimization and simulation modelling to measure the cumulative impacts of prescribed fire and wildfire on vegetation species diversity

Matthew P. Chick, Alan York, Holly Sitters, Julian Di Stefano & Craig R. Nitschke
1. Growth-stage optimisation (GSO) offers a new approach to biodiversity conservation in fire-prone regions through estimating the optimal distribution of vegetation growth stages that maximises a species diversity index. This optimal growth-stage structure provides managers an operational goal explicitly linked to a positive conservation outcome but does not define the fire regime needed to achieve it. 2. We paired GSO with LANDIS II, a landscape succession and disturbance simulation model, to (1) estimate the optimal...

Data from: Trait-dependant tolerance of bats to urbanisation: a global meta-analysis

Kirsten Jung & Caragh Grace Threlfall
Urbanization is a severe threat to global biodiversity, often leading to taxonomic and functional homogenization. However, current urban ecology research has focused mostly on urban birds and plants, limiting our ability to make generalisations about the drivers of urban biodiversity globally. To address this gap, we conducted a global meta-analysis of 87 studies, including 180 bat species (Chiroptera) from urban areas in Asia, Australia, Europe, North & South America. We aimed to 1) understand the...

Data from: An experimental test of whether pyrodiversity promotes mammal diversity in a northern Australian savanna

Hugh F. Davies, Michael A. McCarthy, Willie Rioli, José Puruntatameri, Willie Roberts, Colin Kerinaiua, Vivian Kerinauia, Kim Brooks Womatakimi, Alan N. Andersen & Brett P. Murphy
1. The increasing awareness that a fire regime that promotes biodiversity in one system can threaten biodiversity in another has resulted in a shift away from fire management based on vague notions of maximising pyrodiversity, towards determining the optimal fire regime based on the demonstrated requirements of target species. 2. We utilised a long-running, replicated fire experiment on Melville Island, the largest island off the northern Australian coast, to test the importance of pyrodiversity for...

Data from: Multiple refugia from penultimate glaciations in East Asia demonstrated by phylogeography and ecological modelling of an insect pest

Wei Song, Li-Jun Cao, Bing-Yan Li, Ya-Jun Gong, Ary A. Hoffmann & Shu-Jun Wei
Background: Refugial populations in Quaternary glaciations are critical to understanding the evolutionary history and climatic interactions of many extant species. Compared with the well-studied areas of Europe and Northern America, refugia of species in eastern Asia remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the phylogeographic history of a globally important insect pest, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, in its native range of China. Results: Genetic structure analyses unveiled three distinct groups and a set of...

Data from: Adaptation to reef habitats through selection on the coral animal and its associated microbiome

Madeleine J.H. Van Oppen, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro Frade, Lesa M. Peplow, Sarah E. Boyd, Hieu T. Nim, Line K. Bay & Madeleine J. H. Van Oppen
Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction-site-associated sequencing [RAD-seq]), and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using...

Data from: The microstructure of white feathers predicts their visible and near-infrared reflectance properties

Devi Stuart-Fox, Elizabeth Newton, Raoul A. Mulder, Liliana D'Alba, Matthew D. Shawkey, Branislav Igic & Liliana D’Alba
Research on the optical properties of animal integuments, including fur, feather, skin and cuticle, has focussed almost exclusively on animal-visible wavelengths within the narrow range of 300 - 700 nm. By contrast, the near-infrared (NIR) portion of direct sunlight, spanning 700 - 2600 nm, has been largely ignored despite its potentially important thermal consequences. We quantified variation in visible and NIR reflectance and transmission for white body contour feathers of 50 bird species, and examined...

Data from: From ornament to armament or loss of function? Breeding plumage acquisition in a genetically monogamous bird

Marie Fan, Niki Teunissen, Michelle L. Hall, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Sjouke A. Kingma, Michael Roast, Kaspar Delhey & Anne Peters
1. The evolution of conspicuous male traits is thought to be driven by female mate choice or male-male competition. These two mechanisms are often viewed as distinct processes, with most studies focusing on female choice. 2. However, both mechanisms of sexual selection can act simultaneously on the same trait (i.e. dual function) and/or interact in a synergistic or conflicting way. Dual function-traits are commonly assumed to originate through male-male competition before being used in female...

Data from: Top carnivore decline has cascading effects on scavengers and carrion persistence

Calum X. Cunningham, Christopher N. Johnson, Leon A. Barmuta, Tracey Hollings, Eric J. Woehler & Menna E. Jones
Top carnivores have suffered widespread global declines, with well-documented effects on mesopredators and herbivores. We know less about how carnivores affect ecosystems through scavenging. Tasmania’s top carnivore, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), has suffered severe disease-induced population declines, providing a natural experiment on the role of scavenging in structuring communities. Using remote cameras and experimentally-placed carcasses, we show that mesopredators consume more carrion in areas where devils have declined. Carcass consumption by the two native...

Data from: Sleep-disordered breathing among patients admitted for inpatient video-EEG monitoring

Shobi Sivathamboo, Sarah Farrand, Zhibin Chen, Elise Jenna White, Andreas Pattichis, Callum Hollis, John Carino, Caitlin Jane Roberts, Thomas Minogue, Nigel Charles Jones, Raju Yerra, Christopher R. French, Piero Perucca, Patrick Kwan, Dennis Velakoulis, Terence John O'Brien & Jeremy Goldin
Objective: Examine the frequency and risk factors of sleep-disordered breathing in individuals with epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic events (PNES). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients admitted for inpatient video-EEG monitoring at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia between December 1, 2011 and July 31, 2017. Participants underwent routine clinical investigations during their monitoring period including polysomnography, neurocognitive testing, and screening instruments of daytime somnolence, sleep quality, and quality of life. Results: Our study...

Data from: Invasion history alters the behavioural consequences of immune system activation in cane toads.

Gregory P. Brown, Damian Holden, Richard Shine & Ben L. Phillips
1. Acute activation of the immune system often initiates a suite of behavioural changes. These ‘sickness behaviours’—involving lethargy and decreased activity—may be particularly costly on invasion fronts, where evolutionary pressures on dispersal favour individuals that move large distances. 2. We used a combination of field and laboratory studies to compare sickness behaviours of cane toads from populations differing in invasion history. To do this we stimulated immune system activation by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic...

Data from: Understanding co-occurrence by modelling species simultaneously with a Joint Species Distribution Model (JSDM)

Laura J. Pollock, Reid Tingley, William K. Morris, Nick Golding, Robert B. O'Hara, Kirsten M. Parris, Peter A. Vesk & Michael A. McCarthy
A primary goal of ecology is to understand the fundamental processes underlying the geographic distributions of species. Two major strands of ecology – habitat modelling and community ecology – approach this problem differently. Habitat modellers often use species distribution models (SDMs) to quantify the relationship between species’ and their environments without considering potential biotic interactions. Community ecologists, on the other hand, tend to focus on biotic interactions and, in observational studies, use co‐occurrence patterns to...

Data from: Generalized polyspike train: an EEG biomarker of drug-resistant idiopathic generalized epilepsy

Yanping Sun, Udaya Seneviratne, Piero Perucca, Zhibin Chen, Meng Kee Tan, Terence John O'Brien, Wendyl D'Souza & Patrick Kwan
Objective: To identify clinical and EEG biomarkers of drug resistance in adults with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Methods: We conducted a case-control study consisting of a discovery cohort and a replication cohort independently assessed at two different centres. In each centre patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy phenotype and generalized spike-wave discharges on EEG were classified as drug-resistant or drug-responsive. EEG changes were classified into pre-defined patterns and compared between the two groups in the discovery cohort....

Data from: Phylodynamic model adequacy using posterior predictive simulations

Sebastian Duchene, Remco Bouckaert, David A Duchene, Tanja Stadler & Alexei J Drummond
Rapidly evolving pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, accumulate genetic change at a similar timescale over which their epidemiological processes occur, such that it is possible to make inferences about their infectious spread using phylogenetic time-trees. For this purpose it is necessary to choose a phylodynamic model. However, the resulting inferences are contingent on whether the model adequately describes key features of the data. Model adequacy methods allow formal rejection of a model if it...

Data from: More than kin: subordinates foster strong bonds with relatives and potential mates in a social bird

Niki Teunissen, Sjouke Anne Kingma, Michelle L. Hall, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Jan Komdeur & Anne Peters
Social interactions shape relationships between individuals in complex societies. Affiliative interactions are associated with benefits and strengthen social bonds, while aggressive interactions are costly and negatively affect social bonds. Individuals may attempt to reduce aggressive encounters through submissive displays directed at higher-ranking individuals. Thus, fine-scale patterns of affiliative, aggressive and submissive interactions may reflect costly and beneficial social relationships within groups, providing insight into the benefits of group living and the mechanisms of conflict resolution....

Data from: ATN profiles among cognitively normal individuals and longitudinal cognitive outcomes

Anja Soldan, Corinne Pettigrew, Anne M. Fagan, Suzanne E. Schindler, Abhay Moghekar, Christopher Fowler, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven J. Collins, Cynthia M. Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Colin L. Masters, Sterling Johnson, John C. Morris, Marilyn Albert & Alden L. Gross
Objective. The amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (ATN) research framework for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was proposed to organize AD biomarkers and to stage AD across its preclinical and symptomatic phases. Applying this framework requires a large number of participants since the framework envisions eight biomarker profiles. This study examined the long-term cognitive trajectories of individuals with normal cognition at baseline and distinct ATN profiles. Methods. Pooling data across four cohort studies, 814 cognitively normal participants (mean baseline age=59·6 years)...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Technical note: rapid image-based field methods improve the quantification of termite mound structures and greenhouse-gas fluxes

Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, David De Souza, Lindsay B. Hutley & Stefan K. Arndt
Termite mounds (TMs) mediate biogeochemical processes with global relevance, such as turnover of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4). However, the complex internal and external morphology of TMs impede an accurate quantitative description. Here we present two novel field methods, photogrammetry (PG) and cross-section image analysis, to quantify TM external and internal mound structure of 29 TMs of three termite species. Photogrammetry was used to measure epigeal volume (VE), surface area (AE) and mound basal...

Data from: Rapid spread of a Wolbachia infection that does not affect host reproduction in Drosophila simulans cage populations

Peter Kriesner & Ary A. Hoffmann
Wolbachia endosymbionts that are maternally inherited can spread rapidly in host populations through inducing sterility in uninfected females, but some Wolbachia infections do not influence host reproduction yet still persist. These infections are particularly interesting because they likely represent mutualistic endosymbionts, spreading by increasing host fitness. Here we document such a spread in the wAu infection of Drosophila simulans. By establishing multiple replicate cage populations, we show that wAu consistently increased from an intermediate frequency...

Data from: Female ornamentation and the fecundity trade-off in a sex-role reversed pipefish

Kenyon B. Mobley, John R. Morrongiello, Matthew Warr, Dianne J. Bray, Bob B.M. Wong & Bob B. M. Wong
Sexual ornaments found only in females are a rare occurrence in nature. One explanation for this is that female ornaments are costly to produce and maintain and, therefore, females must trade-off resources related to reproduction to promote ornament expression. Here, we investigate whether a trade-off exists between female ornamentation and fecundity in the sex-role reversed, wide-bodied pipefish, Stigmatopora nigra. We measured two components of the disk-shaped, ventral-striped female ornament, body width and stripe thickness. After...

Data from: Functional responses of an apex predator and a mesopredator to an invading ungulate: Dingoes, red foxes and sambar deer in south-east Australia

David M. Forsyth, Peter Caley, Naomi E. Davis, A. David M. Latham, Andrew P. Woolnough, Luke P. Woodford, Kasey A. Stamation, Paul D. Moloney & Charlie Pascoe
Biological invasions by large herbivores involve the establishment of novel interactions with the receiving mammalian carnivore community, but understanding these interactions is difficult due to the large spatiotemporal scales at which such dynamics would occur. We quantified the functional responses of a native apex predator (the dingo (Canis familiaris), which includes wild dogs and their hybrids) and a non-native mesopredator (red fox; Vulpes vulpes) to an invading non-native ungulate (sambar deer; Cervus unicolor) in Australia....

Data from: The role of geospatial hotspots in the spatial spread of tuberculosis in rural Ethiopia: a mathematical modelling

Debebe Shaweno, James M. Trauer, Justin T. Denholm & Emma S. McBryde
Geospatial tuberculosis hotspots are hubs of TB transmission both within and across community groups. We aimed to quantify the extent to which these hotspots account for the spatial spread of TB in a high-burden setting. We developed spatially coupled models to quantify the spread of TB from geographic hotspots to distant regions in rural Ethiopia. The population was divided into three ‘patches’ based on their proximity to transmission hotspots, namely hotspots, adjacent regions and remote...

Data from: Longitudinal cognitive and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease

Eric McDade, Guoqiao Wang, Brian Andrew Gordon, Jason Hassenstab, Tammie L.S. Benzinger, Virginia Buckles, Anne M. Fagan, David M. Holtzman, Nigel J. Cairns, Alison M. Goate, Daniel S. Marcus, John C. Morris, Katrina Paumier, Chengjie Xiong, Ricardo Allegri, Sarah B. Berman, William Klunk, James Nobel, John Ringman, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin Farlow, Reisa Anne Sperling, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Stephen Salloway, Neil R. Graff-Radford … & Randall J. Bateman
Objective: To assess the onset, sequence and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. Methods: We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 (+/- 1.1) visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals’ estimated years...

Data from: Letting the “cat” out of the bag: pouch young development of the extinct Tasmanian tiger revealed by X-ray computed tomography

Axel H. Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R. Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N. Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A. Hipsley & Andrew J. Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    39

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    39

Affiliations

  • University of Melbourne
    39
  • Monash University
    7
  • University of Groningen
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • University of Adelaide
    2
  • University of California System
    2
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • University of Sydney
    2
  • University of Auckland
    2
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    2