326 Works

Data from: Context-dependent expression of the foraging gene in field colonies of ants: the interacting roles of age, environment and task

Krista K. Ingram, Deborah M. Gordon, Daniel A. Friedman, Michael Greene, John Kahler & Swetha Peteru
Task allocation among social insect workers is an ideal framework for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural plasticity because workers of similar genotype adopt different behavioural phenotypes. Elegant laboratory studies have pioneered this effort, but field studies involving the genetic regulation of task allocation are rare. Here, we investigate the expression of the foraging gene in harvester ant workers from five age- and task-related groups in a natural population, and we experimentally test how exposure...

Data from: Sexual conflict over mating in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as indicated by experimental manipulation of genitalia

Christopher R. Friesen, Emily J. Uhrig, Mattie K. Squire, Robert T. Mason & Patricia L. R. Brennan
Sexual conflict over mating can result in sex specific morphologies and behaviors that allow each sex to exert control over the outcome of reproduction. Genital traits, in particular, are often directly involved in conflict interactions. Via genital manipulation, we experimentally investigated whether genital traits in red-sided garter snakes influence copulation duration and formation of a copulatory plug. The hemipenes of male red-sided garter snakes have a large basal spine that inserts into the female cloaca...

Data from: Extensive introgression in a malaria vector species complex revealed by phylogenomics

Michael C. Fontaine, James B. Pease, Aaron Steele, Robert M. Waterhouse, Daniel E. Neafsey, Igor V. Sharakhov, Xiofang Jiang, Andrew B. Hall, Flaminia Catteruccia, Evdoxia Kakani, Sarah N. Mitchell, Yi-Chieh Wu, Hilary A. Smith, R. Rebecca Love, Mara K. Lawniczak, Michel A. Slotman, Scott J. Emrich, Matthew W. Hahn & Nora J. Besansky
Introgressive hybridization is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon, but its role in evolution remains contested. Here we use newly available reference genome assemblies to investigate phylogenetic relationships and introgression in a medically important group of Afrotropical mosquito sibling species. We have identified the correct species branching order to resolve a contentious phylogeny, and show that lineages leading to the principal vectors of human malaria were among the first to split. Pervasive autosomal introgression between...

Data from: The effects of food limitation on life history tradeoffs in pregnant male Gulf pipefish

Kimberly A. Paczolt & Adam G. Jones
Syngnathid fishes (pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons) are characterized by a unique mode of paternal care in which embryos develop on or in the male’s body, often within a structure known as a brood pouch. Evidence suggests that this pouch plays a role in mediating postcopulatory sexual selection and that males have some control over the events occurring within the pouch during the pregnancy. These observations lead to the prediction that males should invest differently in...

Data from: An evaluation of the hybrid speciation hypothesis for Xiphophorus clemenciae based on whole genome sequences

Molly Schumer, Rongfeng Cui, Bastien Boussau, Ronald Brice Walter, Gil G. Rosenthal & Peter Andolfatto
Once thought rare in animal taxa, hybridization has been increasingly recognized as an important and common force in animal evolution. In the past decade, a number of studies have suggested that hybridization has driven speciation in some animal groups. We investigate the signature of hybridization in the genome of a putative hybrid species, Xiphophorus clemenciae, through whole genome sequencing of this species and its hypothesized progenitors. Based on analysis of this data, we find that...

Data from: Metabolic rate is canalized in the face of variable life history and nutritional environment

Rebecca M. Clark, Anthony J. Zera & Spencer T. Behmer
Despite its central importance in organismal physiology, we have poor understanding of how metabolic rate is influenced by two key factors – food nutritional content and an organism's physiological characteristics. We examined how variation in nutrients and physiological aspects of life history affect standard metabolic rate in Gryllus firmus cricket morphs that differ dramatically in flight capability and early-age fecundity. Newly moulted female morphs were fed one of 13 diets that differed in concentrations of...

Data from: Description of a soft-bodied invertebrate with microcomputed tomography and revision of the genus Chtonobdella (Hirudinea: Haemadipsidae)

Michael Tessler, Amalie Barrio, Elizabeth Borda, Rebecca Rood-Goldman, Morgan Hill & Mark E. Siddall
Two-jawed (duognathous) terrestrial leeches in the Haemadipsidae are major pests across their wide geographic range, represented by numerous endemic species in Australia and across many islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. However, haemadipsid taxonomy, based largely on externally visible characters, remains in conflict with phylogenetic relationships. We capitalize on the power of microcomputed tomography (μCT), allowing for the first description of an extant soft-bodied species – Chtonobdella tanae sp. n. – using this technology....

Data from: A redescription and phylogenetic analysis based on new material of the fossil newts Taricha oligocenica Van Frank, 1955 and Taricha lindoei Naylor, 1979 (Amphibia, Salamandridae) from the Oligocene of Oregon.

John J. Jacisin & Samantha S.B. Hopkins
Complete body fossils of salamanders are relatively rare, but provide critical information on the evolutionary roots of extant urodele clades. We describe new specimens of the fossil salamandrids Taricha oligocenica Van Frank, 1955, and Taricha lindoei Naylor, 1979, from the Oligocene Mehama and John Day Formations of Oregon that illustrate aspects of skeletal morphology previously unseen in these taxa, and contribute to our understanding of population-level variation. Morphological analysis of these specimens supports the classification...

Data from: Hallauer's Tusón: a decade of selection for tropical- to-temperate phenological adaptation in maize

Juliana E. C. Teixeira, Teclemariam Weldekidan, Natalia De Leon, Sherry Flint-Garcia, James B. Holland, Nick Lauter, Seth C. Murray, Wenwei Xu, David A. Hessel, Adrienne E. Kleintop, James A. Hawk, Arnel R. Hallauer & Randall J. Wisser
Crop species exhibit an astounding capacity for environmental adaptation, but genetic bottlenecks resulting from intense selection for adaptation and productivity can lead to a genetically vulnerable crop. Improving the genetic resiliency of temperate maize depends upon the use of tropical germplasm, which harbors a rich source of natural allelic diversity. Here, the adaptation process was studied in a tropical maize population subjected to 10 recurrent generations of directional selection for early flowering in a single...

Data from: Approaches to integrating genetic data into ecological networks

Elizabeth L. Clare, Aron J. Fazekas, Natalia V. Ivanova, Robin M. Floyd, Paul D.N. Hebert, Amanda M. Adams, Juliet Nagel, Rebecca Girton, Steven G. Newmaster, M. Brock Fenton & Paul D. N. Hebert
As molecular tools for assessing trophic interactions become common, research is increasingly focused on the construction of interaction networks. Here we demonstrate three key methods for incorporating DNA data into network ecology and discuss analytical considerations using a model consisting of plants, insects, bats and their parasites from the Costa Rican dry forest. The simplest method involves the use of Sanger sequencing to acquire long sequences to validate or refine field identifications, for example of...

Phylogenomic analysis sheds light on the evolutionary pathways towards acoustic communication in Orthoptera

Hojun Song, Olivier Béthoux, Seunggwan Shin, Alexander Donath, Harald Letsch, Shanlin Liu, Duane D. McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Bernhard Misof, Lars Podsiadlowski, Xin Zhou, Benjamin Wipfler & Sabrina Simon
Acoustic communication is enabled by the evolution of specialised hearing and sound producing organs. In this study, we performed a large-scale macroevolutionary study to understand how both hearing and sound production evolved and affected diversification in the insect order Orthoptera, which includes many familiar singing insects, such as crickets, katydids, and grasshoppers. Using phylogenomic data, we firmly establish phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages and divergence time estimates within Orthoptera, as well as the lineage-specific...

Data from: Floral bagging differentially affects handling behaviors and single-visit pollen deposition by honey bees and native bees

Jacob Cecala, Pierre Lau & Joan Leong
Measurements of pollinator performance are crucial to pollination studies, enabling researchers to quantify the relative value of different pollinator species to plant reproduction. One of the most widely employed measures of pollinator performance is single-visit pollen deposition, the number of conspecific pollen grains deposited to a stigma after one pollinator visit. To ensure a pollen-free stigma, experimenters must first bag flowers before exposing them to a pollinator. Bagging flowers, however, may unintentionally manipulate floral characteristics...

Data from: Bee phenology is predicted by climatic variation and functional traits

Michael Stemkovski, Will Pearse, Sean Griffin, Gabriella Pardee, Jason Gibbs, Terry Griswold, John Neff, Ryan Oram, Molly RightMyer, Cory Sheffield, Karen Wright, Brian Inouye, David Inouye & Rebecca Irwin
Climate change is shifting the environmental cues that determine the phenology of interacting species. Plant-pollinator systems may be susceptible to temporal mismatch if bees and flowering plants differ in their phenological responses to warming temperatures. While the cues that trigger flowering are well-understood, little is known about what determines bee phenology. Using Generalized Additive Models, we analyzed time-series data representing 67 bee species collected over nine years in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to perform the...

Data from: Risky roots and careful herbivores: Sustained herbivory by a root-feeding herbivore attenuates indirect plant defences

John Grunseich, Morgan Thompson, Allison Hay, Zachary Gorman, Michael Kolomiets, Micky Eubanks & Anjel Helms
Abstract Aboveground plant tissues produce characteristic blends of volatile compounds in response to insect herbivory. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) function in plant defence and mediate foraging decisions by herbivores and their natural enemies. The ecological roles of HIPVs as foraging cues for different trophic levels highlight an important conflict for herbivores that need to locate suitable host plants while avoiding competition and predation. Plant roots also emit HIPVs following herbivory, but our understanding of...

Data from: Genotype and male sterility phenotype data for An. coluzzii x An. quadriannulatus backcross

Kevin Deitz, Willem Takken & Michel Slotman
The Anopheles gambiae complex is comprised of eight morphologically indistinguishable species and has emerged as a model system for the study of speciation genetics due to the rapid radiation of its member species over the past two million years. Male hybrids between most An. gambiae complex species pairs are sterile, and some genotype combinations in hybrid males cause inviability. We investigated the genetic basis of hybrid male inviability and sterility between An. coluzzii and An....

Geography of artiodactyl locomotor morphology as an environmental predictor

Rachel Short & A. Michelle Lawing
Aim: We investigate locomotor function in artiodactyls, represented by calcaneal gear ratio, as it relates to multiple environments. Using an ecometrics approach, we develop a trait-environment model to investigate ecosystem level changes through time and to reconstruct past environments. We apply the trait-environment model to a case study of six sites in Kenya to evaluate changes over the past 100 years. Location: Global. Methods: Locomotor morphology was represented by calcaneal gear ratios measured as the...

A narrow window for geographic cline analysis using genomic data: effects of age, drift, and migration on error rates

Gaston Jofre & Gil Rosenthal
The use of genomic and phenotypic data to scan for outliers is a mainstay for studies of hybridization and speciation. Geographic cline analysis of natural hybrid zones is widely used to identify putative signatures of selection by detecting deviations from baseline patterns of introgression. As with other outlier-based approaches, demographic histories can make neutral regions appear to be under selection and vice versa. In this study, we use a forward-time individual-based simulation approach to evaluate...

Dataset from: Ardipithecus hand provides evidence that humans and chimpanzees evolved from an ancestor with suspensory adaptations

Thomas Cody Prang, Kristen Ramirez, Mark Grabowski & Scott Williams
The morphology and positional behavior of the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees are critical for understanding the evolution of bipedalism. Early 20th century anatomical research supported the view that humans evolved from a suspensory ancestor bearing some resemblance to apes. However, the hand of the 4.4 million-year-old hominin Ardipithecus ramidus, purportedly provides evidence that the hominin hand was derived from a more generalized form. Here we use morphometric and phylogenetic comparative methods to...

Natural variation in colony inbreeding does not influence susceptibility to a fungal pathogen in a termite

Pierre Andre Eyer, Carlos Aguero, Pierre-André Eyer, Jason Martin, Mark Bulmer & Edward Vargo
Reduced genetic diversity through inbreeding can negatively affect pathogen resistance. This relationship becomes more complicated in social species, such as social insects, since the chance of disease transmission increases with the frequency of interactions among individuals. However, social insects may benefit from social immunity, whereby individual physiological defenses may be bolstered by collective-level immune responses, such as grooming or sharing of antimicrobial substance through trophallaxis. We set out to determine whether differences in genetic diversity...

Ecosystem sulfur accumulation following woody encroachment drives a more open S-cycle in a subtropical savanna

Yong Zhou, Ayumi Hyodo & Thomas Boutton
Globally widespread woody encroachment into grass-dominated ecosystems has substantial consequences for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycles. Despite its significance as an essential macronutrient, however, little is known regarding potential changes in the sulfur (S) cycle. We quantified S concentrations, stoichiometric relationships, and δ34S values in the plant-soil environment to investigate landscape-scale changes in the S cycle following grassland-to-woodland transitions in a subtropical savanna. Plant tissues of woody species had significantly higher S...

The evolutionary history of sedges (Cyperaceae) in Madagascar

Isabel Larridon, Daniel Spalink, Pedro Jiménez-Mejías, José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Santiago Martín-Bravo & Marcial Escudero
Aim: Madagascar is renowned for its unparalleled biodiversity and endemism. With many ecosystems under threat, research is urgently needed on its unique plant diversity. This applies both to Madagascar’s forests and treeless vegetation types. Sedges (Cyperaceae) are among the top ten species-richest angiosperm families in Madagascar (310 native species, 38% endemic), of which two thirds occur in open habitats. We aimed to infer the evolutionary history of sedges in Madagascar, by estimating the number, age...

Comparative analysis of phenotypic plasticity sheds light on the evolution and molecular underpinnings of locust phase polyphenism

Hojun Song, Bert Foquet & Adrian Castellanos
Locusts exhibit one of nature’s most spectacular examples of complex phenotypic plasticity, in which changes in density cause solitary and cryptic individuals to transform into gregarious and conspicuous locusts forming large migrating swarms. We investigated how these coordinated alternative phenotypes might have evolved by studying the Central American locust and three closely related non-swarming grasshoppers in a comparative framework. By experimentally isolating and crowding during nymphal development, we induced density-dependent phenotypic plasticity and quantified the...

Whole genome analysis reveals aneuploidies in early pregnancy loss in the horse

Shilton Charlotte A., Anne Kahler, Brian W. Davis, James R. Crabtree, James Crowhurst, Andrew J. McGladdery, Claire Wathes, Terje Raudsepp & Amanda M. de Mestre

The Distanced Church: Reflections on Doing Church Online - mobile version

Mobile version. This eBook experiment creates an accessible international dialogue between church leaders, theologians, and media scholars. The Distanced Church is a collection of 30 essays exploring the challenges and opportunities created by the current global COVID-19 pandemic for religious groups, and churches having to move from offline to online gatherings. This collection was put together in just 3 week to enable it to be distributed to religious organizations and researchers seeking to navigate and...


Joel D. Kitchens, Kevin M. O'Sullivan & Tina Budzise-Weaver

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