265 Works

Data from: Bison body size and climate change

Jeff M. Martin, Jim I. Mead & Perry S. Barboza
The relationship between body size and temperature of mammals is poorly resolved, especially for large keystone species such as bison (Bison bison). Bison are well-represented in the fossil record across North America, which provides an opportunity to relate body size to climate within a species. We measured the length of a leg bone (calcaneal tuber, DstL) in 849 specimens from 60 localities that were dated by stratigraphy and 14C decay. We estimated body mass (M)...

Data from: Resisting annihilation: relationships between functional trait dissimilarity, assemblage competitive power and allelopathy

Rika M. W. Muhl, Daniel L. Roelke, Tamar Zohary, Maria Moustaka-Gouni, Ulrich Sommer, Gabor Borics, Ursula Gaedke, Frances G. Withrow & Joydeb Bhattacharyya
Allelopathic species can alter biodiversity. Using simulated assemblages that are characterised by neutrality, lumpy coexistence and intransitivity, we explore relationships between within-assemblage competitive dissimilarities and resistance to allelopathic species. An emergent behaviour from our models is that assemblages are more resistant to allelopathy when members strongly compete exploitatively (high competitive power). We found that neutral assemblages were the most vulnerable to allelopathic species, followed by lumpy and then by intransitive assemblages. We find support for...

Data from: Spatial phylogenetics reveals evolutionary constraints on the assembly of a large regional flora

Daniel Spalink, Ricardo Kriebel, Pan Li, Matthew C. Pace, Bryan T. Drew, John G. Zaborsky, Jeffrey R. Rose, Chloe P. Drummond, Mary Ann Feist, William S. Alverson, Donald M. Waller, Kenneth M. Cameron, Thomas J. Givnish & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Premise of the study: We use spatial phylogenetics to analyze the assembly of the Wisconsin flora, linking processes of dispersal and niche evolution to spatial patterns in floristic and phylogenetic diversity, and testing whether phylogenetic niche conservatism can account for these patterns. Methods: We use digitized records and a new molecular phylogeny for all vascular plants in Wisconsin to estimate spatial variation in species richness and phylogenetic  and  diversity in a native flora...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals extensive reticulate evolution in Xiphophorus fishes

Rongfeng Cui, Molly Schumer, Karla Kruesi, Ronald Brice Walter, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G. Rosenthal & Ronald Walter
Hybridization is increasingly being recognized as a widespread process, even between ecologically and behaviorally divergent animal species. Determining phylogenetic relationships in the presence of hybridization remains a major challenge for evolutionary biologists, but advances in sequencing technology and phylogenetic techniques are beginning to address these challenges. Here we reconstruct evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), a group of species characterized by remarkable morphological diversity and behavioral barriers to interspecific mating. Past attempts to...

Data from: Nonlinear dynamics forecasting of obstructive sleep apnea onsets

Trung Q. Le & Satish T. S. Bukkapatnam
Recent advances in sensor technologies and predictive analytics are fueling the growth in point-of-care (POC) therapies for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other sleep disorders. The effectiveness of POC therapies can be enhanced by providing personalized and real-time prediction of OSA episode onsets. Previous attempts at OSA prediction are limited to capturing the nonlinear, nonstationary dynamics of the underlying physiological processes. This paper reports an investigation into heart rate dynamics aiming to predict in real...

Data from: Process-based simulation of prairie growth

Cody J. Zilverberg, Jimmy Williams, Curtis Jones, Keith Harmoney, Jay Angerer, Loretta J. Metz & William Fox
When field research is cost- or time-prohibitive, models can inform decision-makers regarding the impact of agricultural policy on production and the environment, but process-based models that simulate animal-plant-soil interaction and ecosystem services in grazing lands are rare. In the U.S.A., APEX (Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender) is a model commonly used to inform policy on cropland, but its ability to simulate grazinglands was less robust. Therefore, we enhanced the APEX model’s plant growth module to improve its...

Data from: The effects of tourist and boat traffic on parrot geophagy in lowland Peru

Alan T. K. Lee, Stuart J. Marsden, Emma Tatum-Hume & Donald J. Brightsmith
Ecotourism generates important revenue in many developing economies, but poorly regulated ecotourism can threaten the long-term viability of key biological resources. We determined the effects of tourism, boat traffic, and natural disturbances on parrot geophagy (soil consumption) across seven riverine claylicks in the lowlands of Madre de Dios, Peru. Claylick use significantly decreased when visitors did not follow good practice guidelines and tourist numbers exceeded the capacity of the observation blinds. Otherwise, tourist presence and...

Data from: Plant functional types broadly describe water use strategies in the Caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest in northeast Brazil

Cynthia Wright, André Lima, Eduardo Souza, Jason West & Bradford Wilcox
In seasonally dry tropical forests, plant functional type can be classified as deciduous low wood density, deciduous high wood density, or evergreen high wood density species. While deciduousness is often associated with drought-avoidance and low wood density is often associated with tissue water storage, the degree to which these functional types may correspond to diverging and unique water use strategies has not been extensively tested. We examined (1) tolerance to water stress, measured by pre-dawn...

MCMC output files for: Quantitative characterization of population-wide tissue- and metabolite-specific variability in perchloroethylene toxicokinetics in male mice

Chimeddulam Dalaijamts, Joseph Cichocki, Yu-Syuan Luo, Ivan Rusyn & Weihsueh Chiu
Quantification of inter-individual variability is a continuing challenge in risk assessment, particularly for compounds with complex metabolism and multi-organ toxicity. Toxicokinetic variability for perchloroethylene (perc) was previously characterized across three mouse strains and in one mouse strain with various degrees of liver steatosis. To further characterize the role of genetic variability in toxicokinetics of perc, we applied Bayesian population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to the data on perc and metabolites in blood/plasma and tissues of...

Bat activity under three lighting treatments

Chad Seewagen & Amanda Adams
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a rapidly intensifying form of environmental degradation that can impact wildlife by altering light-mediated physiological processes that control a broad range of behaviors. Although nocturnal animals are most vulnerable, ALAN’s effects on North American bats have been surprisingly understudied. Most of what is known is based on decades-old observations of bats around street lights with traditional lighting technologies that have been increasingly replaced by energy-efficient broad-spectrum lighting, rendering our...

On the Identification of Power-Law Creep Parameters from Conical Indentation

Yupeng Zhang & Alan Needleman
Load and hold conical indentation responses calculated for materials having creep stress exponents of 1.15, 3.59 and 6.60 are regarded as input “experimental” responses. The creep parameters are identified using the Bayesian-type statistical approach of Zhang et al. [1] for noise-free and noise-contaminated data. A database for the Bayesian-type analysis is created using finite element calculations for a relatively coarse set of parameter values with interpolation used to create the refined database used for parameter...

Size normalized shell weights and measurements for Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Uvigerina peregrina from the Gulf of Alaska (IODP Exp 341) and associated environmental proxy data

Christina Belanger & Calie Payne
Here we use volume density (ρV) measurements as a metric of size-normalized weights for Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, a planktonic foraminifer, from upper OMZ and abyssal depth sites in the Gulf of Alaska over the past ~20,000 years to test for covariation between carbonate preservation and OMZ intensity. We find that dissolution of N. pachyderma is most intense at the upper OMZ site where oxygenation is generally lower than at the abyssal site. We also examine Uvigerina...

Genome-wide association mapping to identify genetic loci for cold tolerance and cold recovery during germination in rice

Michael Thomson, Ranjita Thapa & Endang Septiningsih
To investigate the genetic architecture underlying cold tolerance during germination in rice (Oryza sativa), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a novel diversity panel of 257 rice accessions from around the world and 5,185 SNP markers from a 7K SNP marker array. Genotyping was performed using a 7K Illumina iSelect custom-designed array by following the Infinium HD Array Ultra Protocol. The 7K array, called the C7AIR, was designed by Dr. Susan McCouch’s Lab...

Reduced habitat suitability and landscape connectivity in a songbird migratory divide

Hannah Justen, Julie Lee-Yaw & Kira Delmore
Aim Seasonal migration is a common phenomenon in animals and connects geographically distant ecosystems. Considerable variation has been documented in this behaviour and migratory divides (contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around ecological barriers) are an example of this. Migratory divides could have important implications for ecological speciation as hybrids in divides take intermediate routes and it has been predicted that these routes will be ecologically inferior as they bring hybrids...

C. rufifacies heat stress data

Travis Rusch
The increased severity and frequency of elevated temperatures due to climate change is changing species distributions and driving thermal selection for several species, but many potential effects are still unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of an acute thermal stress on the oviposition performance of the hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), an introduced species of ecological, economic, and forensic importance. Adult virgins were exposed to 25°C, 42°C, or 44°C for 1-h, and then...

Data from: Widespread variation in stable isotope trophic position estimates: patterns, causes, and potential consequences

Mackenzie Kjeldgaard, Jeremy Hewlett & Micky Eubanks
Stable isotope analysis is one of the most widely used techniques to estimate trophic position and provides fundamental insight into the structure and management of ecological communities. To account for the effects of geographic variation in isotope levels, trophic position is typically estimated relative to an isotope “baseline” (i.e., material representing geographic variation) using a methodology such as a formula or statistical analysis. There is, however, remarkable variation in the baselines and methodologies used to...

Data from: Optimising sample sizes for animal distribution analysis using tracking data

Takahiro Shimada, Michele Thums, Mark Hamann, Colin Limpus, Graeme Hays, Nancy FitzSimmons, Natalie Wildermann, Carlos Duarte & Mark Meekan
1. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of populations is fundamental to management plans for any species. When tracking data are used to describe distributions, it is sometimes assumed that the reported locations of individuals delineate the spatial extent of areas used by the target population. 2. Here, we examine existing approaches to validate this assumption, highlight caveats, and propose a new method for a more informative assessment of the number of tracked animals (i.e. sample...

Data from: Disparate patterns of movements and visits to points of interest located in urban hotspots across U.S. metropolitan cities during COVID-19

Qingchun Li
We examined the effect of social distancing on changes in visits to urban hotspot points of interest. In a pandemic situation, urban hotspots could be potential superspreader areas as visits to urban hotspots can increase the risk of contact and transmission of a disease among a population. We mapped origin-destination networks from census block groups to points of interest (POIs), such as restaurants, museums, and schools, in sixteen cities in the United States. We adopted...

Impact of Helicoverpa zea salivary GOX on stomatal conductance and volatile emission of host plants

Po-An Lin, Yintong Chen, Duverney Chaverra-Rodriguez, Chan Chin Heu, Nursyafiqi Bin Zainuddin, Jagdeep Singh Sidhu, Michelle Peiffer, Ching-Wen Tan, Anjel Helms, Donghun Kim, Jared Ali, Jason Rasgon, Jonathan Lynch, Charles Anderson & Gary Felton
This data set contain raw data associated with the manuscript titled "Silencing the alarm: An insect salivary enzyme closes plant stomata and inhibits volatile release". Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are widely recognized as ecologically important to plant. While the majority of studies focused on the induction of this “cry for help”, little is known about whether insect herbivores have evolved mechanisms to reduce the release of HIPVs. Here we show that a caterpillar (Helicoverpa zea)...

Raw in vitro screening data and R scripts for: A Bayesian method for population-wide cardiotoxicity hazard and risk characterization using an in vitro human model

Alexander Blanchette, Sarah Burnett, Fabian Grimm, Ivan Rusyn & Weihsueh Chiu
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes are an established model for testing potential chemical hazards. Inter-individual variability in toxicodynamic sensitivity has also been demonstrated in vitro; however, quantitative characterization of the population-wide variability has not been fully explored. We sought to develop a method to address this gap by combining a population-based iPSC-derived cardiomyocyte model with Bayesian concentration-response modeling. A total of 136 compounds, including 44 pharmaceuticals and 82 environmental chemicals, were tested in...

Data from: External temperature and distance from nearest entrance influence microclimates of cave and culvert roosting tri-colored bats Perimyotis subflavus

Samantha Leivers, Melissa Meierhofer, Brian Pierce, Jonah Evans & Michael Morrison
Many North American bat species hibernate in both natural and artificial roosts. Although hibernacula can have high internal climate stability, they still retain spatial variability in their thermal regimes, resulting in various ‘microclimates’ throughout the roost that differ in their characteristics (e.g., temperature, air moisture). These microclimate components can be influenced by factors such as the number of entrances, the depth of the roost, and distance to the nearest entrance of the roost. Tri-colored bats...

When Pastors put on the “Tech Hat”: How Churches Digitized during Covid-19

Heidi Campbell & Sophia Osteen

ISIMIP3b ocean input data

Matthias Büchner
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3b part of the third simulation round is dedicated to a quantification of climate-related risks at different levels of global warming and socio-economic change. ISIMIP3b group I simulations are based on historical...

Social Distancing in a World of Memes

Heidi Campbell

What Should Post-Pandemic Religion Look Like?

Heidi A. Campbell & Troy Shepherd

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