325 Works

Data from: Evaluating temporal and spatial transferability of a tidal inundation model for foraging waterbirds

Marisa Martinez, Leonardo Calle, Stephanie Romanach & Dale Gawlik
For ecosystem models to be applicable outside their context of development, temporal and spatial transferability must be demonstrated. This presents a challenge for modeling intertidal ecosystems where spatiotemporal variation arises at multiple scales. Models specializing in tidal dynamics are generally inhibited from having wider ecological applications by coarse spatiotemporal resolution or high user competency. The Tidal Inundation Model of Shallow-water Availability (TiMSA) uniquely simulates tides to empirically derive a time-integrated measure of availability for a...

Population structure, patterns of natal dispersal, and demographic history in a declining aerial insectivore, the purple martin Progne subis

Evelien De Greef, Wesley Brashear, Kira Delmore & Kevin Fraser
Genetic variation is a fundamental component of biodiversity, and studying population structure, gene flow, and demographic history can help guide conservation strategies for many species. Like other aerial insectivores, the purple martin (Progne subis) is in decline, and yet their genetic background remains largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed population structure in the nominate eastern subspecies (P. s. subis) with relation to natal dispersal and examined historical genetic patterns in all three...

Small, odd and old: The mysterious Tarsius pumilus is the most basal Sulawesi tarsier

Laura Hagemann, Nanda Grow, Yvonne Bohr, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Yulius Duma, Sharon Gursky & Stefan Merker
In this study we present the first genetic evidence of the phylogenetic position of Tarsius pumilus, the mountain tarsier of Sulawesi, Indonesia. This mysterious primate is the only Eastern tarsier species that occurs exclusively in cloud forests above 1800 m asl. It exhibits striking morphological peculiarities – most prominently its extremely reduced body size, which led to the common name of “pygmy tarsier”. However, our results indicate that T. pumilus is not an aberrant form...

The Digital Divide, Digital Reluctance and Its Impact on Pandemic Churches

Heidi Campbell & Mandy M. Jordan

Data from: Network analysis of sea turtle movements and connectivity: a tool for conservation prioritization

Connie Y. Kot, Susanne Åkesson, Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto, Diego Fernando Amorocho Llanos, Marina Antonopoulou, George H. Balazs, Warren R. Baverstock, Janice M. Blumenthal, Annette C. Broderick, Ignacio Bruno, Ali Fuat Canbolat, Paolo Casale, Daniel Cejudo, Michael S. Coyne, Corrie Curtice, Sarah DeLand, Andrew DiMatteo, Kara Dodge, Daniel C. Dunn, Nicole Esteban, Angela Formia, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes, Ei Fujioka, Julie Garnier, Matthew H. Godfrey … & Patrick N. Halpin
Aim: Understanding the spatial ecology of animal movements is a critical element in conserving long-lived, highly mobile marine species. Analysing networks developed from movements of six sea turtle species reveals marine connectivity and can help prioritize conservation efforts. Location: Global. Methods: We collated telemetry data from 1,235 individuals and reviewed the literature to determine our dataset’s representativeness. We used the telemetry data to develop spatial networks at different scales to examine areas, connections, and their...

Echinoderm sperm swimming and fertilization

Mike Nishizaki, Sara Leuchtenberger, Maris Daleo, Peter Gullickson, Andi Delgado & Carly Lo
In an era of climate change, impacts on the marine environment include warming and ocean acidification. These effects can be amplified in shallow coastal regions where conditions often fluctuate widely. This type of environmental variation is potentially important for many nearshore species that are broadcast spawners, releasing eggs and sperm into the water column for fertilization. We conducted two experiments to investigate: 1) the impact of water temperature on sperm swimming characteristics and fertilization rate...

London Stage Database

Mattie Burkert, Will Daland, Emma Hallock, Todd Hugie, Lauren Liebe, Derek Miller, Dustin Olsen & Ben R. Schneider Jr.
Recovered files, and documents and archival data used to revitalize the London Stage Information Bank, which was completed in the 1970s but had become technologically obsolete.

Habitat complexity and complex signal function – exploring the role of ornamentation

Dustin Wilgers, J. Colton Watts & Eileen Hebets
Animals often communicate in complex, heterogeneous environments, leading to hypothesized selection for increased detectability or discriminability in signaling traits. The extent to which secondary sexual ornaments have evolved to overcome the challenges of signaling in complex environments, however, remains understudied, especially in comparison to their role as indicator traits. This study tested the hypothesis that the condition-dependent secondary sexual ornamentation in the wolf spider Rabidosa rabida functions to increase detectability/discriminability in visually complex environments. We...

Reevaluating claims of ecological speciation in Halichoeres bivittatus

Dan Warren, Ron Eytan, Alex Dornburg, Teresa Iglesias, Matt Brandley, Peter Wainwright, Dan L. Warren, Ron I. Eytan, Teresa L. Iglesias, Matthew C. Brandley & Peter C. Wainwright
Allopatry has traditionally been viewed as the primary driver of speciation in marine taxa, but the geography of the marine environment and the larval dispersal capabilities of many marine organisms render this view somewhat questionable. In marine fishes, one of the earliest and most highly cited empirical examples of ecological speciation with gene flow is the slippery dick wrasse, Halichoeres bivittatus. Evidence for this cryptic or incipient speciation event was primarily in the form of...

Predictability and parallelism in the contemporary evolution of hybrid genomes

Quinn K. Langdon, Daniel L. Powell, Bernard Kim, Shreya M. Banerjee, Cheyenne Payne, Tristram O. Dodge, Ben Moran, Paola Fascinetto-Zago & Molly Schumer
Hybridization between species is widespread across the tree of life. As a result, many species, including our own, harbor regions of their genome derived from hybridization. Despite the recognition that this process is widespread, we understand little about how the genome stabilizes following hybridization, and whether the mechanisms driving this stabilization tend to be shared across species. Here, we dissect the drivers of variation in local ancestry across the genome in replicated hybridization events between...

XYZ coordinates of middle lumbar vertebrae - 3D GM analysis for: A nearly complete lower back of Australopithecus sediba

Scott Williams & Prang Thomas
Adaptations of the lower back to bipedalism are frequently discussed but infrequently demonstrated in early fossil hominins. Newly discovered lumbar vertebrae contribute to a near-complete lower back of Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2), offering additional insights into posture and locomotion in Australopithecus sediba. We show that MH2 demonstrates a lower back consistent with lumbar lordosis and other adaptations to bipedalism, including an increase in the width of intervertebral articular facets from the upper to lower lumbar...

Supplementary: Global continental and marine detrital εNd: an updated compilation for use in understanding marine Nd cycling

Suzanne Robinson, Ruza Ivanovic, Tina van de Flierdt, Cecile Blanchet, Kazuyo Tachikawa, Ellen E. Martin, Carys Falko, Trevor Williams, Lauren Gregoire, Yves Plancherel, Catherine Jeandel & Thomas Arsouze
Understanding the role of sediment-water interactions in the oceanic cycling of neodymium (Nd) isotopes is essential for its reliable use as a modern and palaeoceanographic tracer of ocean circulation. However, the exact processes that control Nd cycling in the ocean are poorly defined and require an up-to-date knowledge of the sources, sinks and transformation of this tracer to and within the ocean (e.g. as per the GEOTRACES core mission). We propose a considerable improvement of...

A Special Issue of the Journal of Regulatory Science on Genetically Modified Organisms

Ricardo Molins

Data from: Using trophic structure to reveal patterns of trait-based community assembly across niche dimensions

Daniel B. Fitzgerald, Kirk O. Winemiller, Mark H. Sabaj-Perez & Leandro M. Sousa
1. Trait-based approaches for studying community assembly have improved understanding of mechanisms; however, the challenge of interpreting process from pattern is complicated by the possibility of multiple mechanisms operating simultaneously. Different traits may influence the assembly process in different ways. Analyzing patterns of functional diversity among co-occurring species for each trait individually may aid interpretation of complex assembly processes; yet, few studies have tested whether patterns vary depending on trait function. 2. We used tropical...

Data from: Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea)

Carlos A. Santamaria, Mariana Mateos, Thomas J. DeWitt & Luis A. Hurtado
Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show...

Data from: Parrots consume sodium-rich palms in the sodium-deprived landscape of the Western Amazon Basin

Donald J. Brightsmith & Aimy Cáceres
Herbivorous animals face shortages of different minerals in different geographic areas. In the Amazon basin, sodium is often limiting, driving herbivores to seek supplemental sources. In the lowlands of the western Amazon basin, parrots commonly consume sodium-rich soils at clay licks but lick use varies widely among species and to date, parrots in the region have not been reported consuming other supplemental sodium sources. We document 11 species of psittacines consuming sodium-rich leaves and trunks...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of carangimorph fishes reveals flatfish asymmetry arose in a blink of the evolutionary eye

Richard C. Harrington, Brant C. Faircloth, Ron I. Eytan, W. Leo Smith, Thomas J. Near, Michael E. Alfaro & Matt Friedman
Background: Flatfish cranial asymmetry represents one of the most remarkable morphological innovations among vertebrates, and has fueled vigorous debate on the manner and rate at which strikingly divergent phenotypes evolve. A surprising result of many recent molecular phylogenetic studies is the lack of support for flatfish monophyly, where increasingly larger DNA datasets of up to 23 loci have yielded a polyphyletic or only weakly supported flatfish clade. Lack of resolution for flatfish relationships has been...

Data from: Taxonomic revision of the flavopalliata species group of Signiphora (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae)

James B. Woolley & Anamaria Dal Molin
The flavopalliata species group of Signiphora Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) is revised. Twelve species are redescribed: Signiphora aleyrodis Ashmead, S. aspidioti Ashmead, S. borinquensis Quezada et al., S. coquilletti Ashmead, S. fax Girault, S. flavella Girault, S. flavopalliata Ashmead, S. lutea Rust, S. maculata Girault, S. merceti Malenotti, S. perpauca Girault and S. xanthographa Blanchard. Signiphora townsendi Ashmead is synonymized under S. aleyrodis n. syn.; Thysanus insularis Dozier and S. flavopalliata desantisi De Santis are synonymized...

Data from: Colony-level behavioral variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants

Alison A. Bockoven, Craig J. Coates & Micky D. Eubanks
Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and have significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behavior at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range...

Data from: Loss of genetic diversity, recovery, and allele surfing in a colonizing parasite, Geomydoecus aurei

James W. Demastes, David J. Hafner, Mark S. Hafner, Jessica E. Light & Theresa A. Spradling
Understanding the genetic consequences of changes in species distributions has wide-ranging implications for predicting future outcomes of climate change, for protecting threatened or endangered populations, and for understanding the history that has led to current genetic patterns within species. Herein, we examine the genetic consequences of range expansion over a 25-year period in a parasite (Geomydoecus aurei) that is in the process of expanding its geographic range via invasion of a novel host. By sampling...

Data from: Latitudinal gradients of parasite richness: a review and new insights from helminths of cricetid rodents

Whitney Preisser
The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), or the trend of higher species richness at lower latitudes, has been well documented in multiple groups of free‐living organisms. Investigations of the LDG in parasitic organisms are comparatively scarce. Here, I investigated latitudinal patterns of parasite diversity by reviewing published studies and by conducting a novel investigation of the LDG of helminths (parasitic nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes) of cricetid rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Using host‐parasite records from 175 parasite communities...

Data from: Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)

Gang Li, Brian W. Davis, Eduardo Eizirik & William J. Murphy
Interspecies hybridization has been recently recognized as potentially common in wild animals, but the extent to which it shapes modern genomes is still poorly understood. Distinguishing historical hybridization events from other processes leading to phylogenetic discordance among different markers requires a well-resolved species tree that considers all modes of inheritance, and overcomes systematic problems due to rapid lineage diversification by sampling large genomic character sets. Here we assessed genome-wide phylogenetic variation across a diverse mammalian...

Data from: Marking mosquitoes in their natural larval sites using 2H-enriched water: a promising approach for tracking over extended temporal and spatial scales

Roy Faiman, Adama Dao, Alpha Yaro, Moussa Diallo, Samake Djibril, Zana L. Sonogo, Yossi Ousmane, Margerie Sullivan, Laura Veru, Benjamin Krajacich, Asha Krishna, Joy Matthews, Christine France, Gabriel Hamer, Keith Hobson & Tovi Lehmann
1. Background. Tracking mosquitoes using current methods of mark-release-recapture are limited to small spatial and temporal scales exposing major gaps in understanding long-range movements and extended survival. Novel approaches to track mosquitoes may yield fresh insights into their biology which improves intervention activities to reduce disease transmission. Stable isotope enrichment of natural mosquito breeding sites allows large-scale marking of wild mosquitoes absent human handling. Mosquito larvae that develop in 2H-enriched water are expected to be...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) mitochondrial population genomics reveals structure, divergence, and evidence for heteroplasmy

Yvette A. Halley, David L. Oldeschulte, Eric K. Bhattarai, Joshua Hill, Richard P. Metz, Charles D. Johnson, Steven M. Presley, Rebekah E. Ruzicka, Dale Rollins, Markus J. Peterson, WIlliam J. Murphy & Christopher M. Seabury
Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences) versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA). Median joining (MJ) haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete) mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples....

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