56 Works

A comparative analysis of analytical techniques for rapid oil spill identification

Alina T. Roman‐Hubers, Thomas J. McDonald, Erin S. Baker, Ivan Rusyn & Weihsueh Chiu
The complex chemical composition of crude oils presents many challenges for rapid chemical characterization in the case of a spill. A number of approaches are currently used to “fingerprint” petroleum‐derived samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) is the most common, albeit not very rapid, technique; however, with GC‐MS alone, it is difficult to resolve the complex substances in crude oils. This study examined the potential application of ion mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry (IMS‐MS), coupled...

ISIMIP3b ocean input data

Matthias Büchner
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3b part of the third simulation round is dedicated to a quantification of climate-related risks at different levels of global warming and socio-economic change. ISIMIP3b group I simulations are based on historical...

What Should Post-Pandemic Religion Look Like?

Heidi A. Campbell & Troy Shepherd

Short-term treatment of golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs with rAAVrh74.MCK.GALGT2 induces muscle glycosylation and utrophin expression but has no significant effect on muscle strength

Paul Martin, Deborah Zygmunt, Anna Ashbrook, Sonia Hamilton, Davin Packer, Sharla Birch, Amanda Bettis, Cynthia Balog-Alvarez, Lee-Jae Guo, Peter Nghiem & Joe Kornegay
We have examined the effects of intravenous (IV) delivery of rAAVrh74.MHCK7.GALGT2 in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). After baseline testing, GRMD dogs were treated at 3 months of age and reassessed at 6 months. This 3-6 month age range is a period of rapid disease progression, thus offering a relatively short window to establish treatment efficacy. Measures analyzed included muscle AAV transduction, GALGT2 transgene expression, GALGT2-induced glycosylation, muscle...

Two new hybrid populations expand the swordtail hybridization model system

Daniel Powell, Ben Moran, Bernard Kim, Shreya Banerjee, Stepfanie Aguillon, Paola Fascinetto-Zago, Quinn Langdon & Molly Schumer
Natural hybridization events provide unique windows into the barriers that keep species apart as well as the consequences of their breakdown. Here we characterize hybrid populations formed between the northern swordtail fish Xiphophorus cortezi and X. birchmanni from collection sites on two rivers. We use simulations and new genetic reference panels to develop sensitive and accurate local ancestry calling in this novel system. Strikingly, we find that hybrid populations on both rivers consist of two...

Season of prescribed fire determines grassland restoration outcomes after fire exclusion and overgrazing

Erin N. Novak, Michelle Bertelsen, Dick Davis, Devin M. Grobert, Kelly G. Lyons, Jason P. Martina, W. Matt McCaw, Matthew O'Toole & Joseph W. Veldman
Fire exclusion and mismanaged grazing are globally important drivers of environmental change in mesic C4 grasslands and savannas. Although interest is growing in prescribed fire for grassland restoration, we have little long-term experimental evidence of the influence of burn season on the recovery of herbaceous plant communities, encroachment by trees and shrubs, and invasion by exotic grasses. We conducted a prescribed fire experiment (seven burns between 2001 and 2019) in historically fire-excluded and overgrazed grasslands...

Omnivory in predatory ladybird beetles is widespread and driven by an appetite for sterols

Todd Ugine, Stuart Krasnoff & Spencer Behmer
1. Animals maintain physiological and behavioral systems that allow them to detect and consume specific macro- and micronutrients to maximize their fitness. One common physiological system is the nutrient-state-dependent or demand-driven appetite. These systems are well described for macronutrient regulation, but not for micronutrients. 2. Sterols are essential micronutrients that all animals need to survive. They are the backbone of many hormones, important in cell signaling, and an integral component of cell membranes. 3. Lady...

Can prescribed fires restore C4 grasslands invaded by a C3 woody species and a co-dominant C3 grass species?

Jim Ansley, Thomas Boutton & Emily Hollister
Prescribed fire is used to reduce woody plant invasion and restore herbaceous production and diversity in grasslands and savannas worldwide. Here we determined if a concentrated series of repeated-winter, repeated-summer, or alternate-season (winter and summer) fires in a short timeframe (“transition fires”) could catalyze the restoration of C4 perennial grasses in Southern Great Plains, USA grasslands that had become dominated by a fire-tolerant C3 woody N2-fixer (honey mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa) and a C3 perennial bunchgrass...

Phytic acid modified N1923 solvent impregnated resins for adsorption of in(III)

Xuezhen Gao, Yuanyuan Wan, Junshen Liu, Xunyong Liu, Lei Guo & Shengxiao Zhang
In this paper, the primary amine extractant (N1923) was modified by phytic acid (PA), and then a novel solvent impregnated resins (SIRs) were prepared using PA modified N1923 as the extractant and styrene-divinylbenzene type macroreticular resin (HZ–803) as the support. Adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism of SIRs for In (III) was studied from hydrochloric acid medium. The SIRs were characterized by FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA and XPS. The effect of mass fraction of PA, solution...

Supplementary: Global continental and marine detrital εNd: an updated compilation for use in understanding marine Nd cycling

Suzanne Robinson, Ruza Ivanovic, Tina van de Flierdt, Cecile Blanchet, Kazuyo Tachikawa, Ellen E. Martin, Carys Falko, Trevor Williams, Lauren Gregoire, Yves Plancherel, Catherine Jeandel & Thomas Arsouze
Understanding the role of sediment-water interactions in the oceanic cycling of neodymium (Nd) isotopes is essential for its reliable use as a modern and palaeoceanographic tracer of ocean circulation. However, the exact processes that control Nd cycling in the ocean are poorly defined and require an up-to-date knowledge of the sources, sinks and transformation of this tracer to and within the ocean (e.g. as per the GEOTRACES core mission). We propose a considerable improvement of...

A Special Issue of the Journal of Regulatory Science on Genetically Modified Organisms

Ricardo Molins

Ephemeral habitat supports high alpha and beta diversity during drought in a subtropical semiarid wetland

Thethela Bokhutlo, Eduardo R. Cunha & Kirk O. Winemiller
Globally, the number of rivers with intermittent flow is increasing due to climate change and water abstraction for human consumption. Currently, our understanding of how hydrology in subtropical rivers with intermittent flow affects the structure and dynamics of aquatic communities is poorly understood. Here, we investigated how fish α and β-diversity patterns in intermittent channels in the lower reaches of the Okavango Delta respond to seasonal flooding and drought. Under low-flow conditions, ephemeral habitat had...

Short term grass bud response to high and low energy fires

Quinn Hiers
Increasingly, land managers have attempted to use extreme prescribed fire as a method to address woody plant encroachment in savanna ecosystems. The effect that these fires have on herbaceous vegetation is poorly understood. We experimentally examined immediate (<24hr) bud response of two dominant graminoids, a C3 caespitose grass, Nassella leucotricha, and a C4 stoloniferous grass, Hilaria belangeri, following fires of varying energy (J/m2) in a semi-arid savanna in the Edwards Plateau ecoregion of Texas. Treatments...

Reevaluating claims of ecological speciation in Halichoeres bivittatus

Dan Warren, Ron Eytan, Alex Dornburg, Teresa Iglesias, Matt Brandley & Peter Wainwright
Allopatry has traditionally been viewed as the primary driver of speciation in marine taxa, but the geography of the marine environment and the larval dispersal capabilities of many marine organisms render this view somewhat questionable. In marine fishes, one of the earliest and most highly cited empirical examples of ecological speciation with gene flow is the slippery dick wrasse, Halichoeres bivittatus. Evidence for this cryptic or incipient speciation event was primarily in the form of...

Data from: Predator performance and fitness Is dictated by herbivore prey type plus indirect effects of their host plant

Todd Ugine, Harsimran Gill, Nicolo Hernandez, Robert Grebenok, Spencer Behmer & John Losey
Animals, including herbivores and predators, use diet-mixing to balance their macro- and micronutrient intake. Recent work demonstrated that lady beetles fed only pea aphids from fava beans had reduced fitness caused by a deficiency of dietary sterols. However, beetles redressed this deficit by eating fava bean leaves. In the current study we used Coccinella septempunctata as a model to test the hypotheses that pea aphids are a poor sterol resource independent of their host plant,...

XYZ coordinates of middle lumbar vertebrae - 3D GM analysis for: A nearly complete lower back of Australopithecus sediba

Scott Williams & Prang Thomas
Adaptations of the lower back to bipedalism are frequently discussed but infrequently demonstrated in early fossil hominins. Newly discovered lumbar vertebrae contribute to a near-complete lower back of Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2), offering additional insights into posture and locomotion in Australopithecus sediba. We show that MH2 demonstrates a lower back consistent with lumbar lordosis and other adaptations to bipedalism, including an increase in the width of intervertebral articular facets from the upper to lower lumbar...

Predictability and parallelism in the contemporary evolution of hybrid genomes

Quinn K. Langdon, Daniel L. Powell, Bernard Kim, Shreya M. Banerjee, Cheyenne Payne, Tristram O. Dodge, Ben Moran, Paola Fascinetto-Zago & Molly Schumer
Hybridization between species is widespread across the tree of life. As a result, many species, including our own, harbor regions of their genome derived from hybridization. Despite the recognition that this process is widespread, we understand little about how the genome stabilizes following hybridization, and whether the mechanisms driving this stabilization tend to be shared across species. Here, we dissect the drivers of variation in local ancestry across the genome in replicated hybridization events between...

Organizational structure and institutional types of community water systems in California

Kristin Dobbin & Amanda Fencl
Dataset accompanying Dobbin & Fencl (2021) publication entitled "Institutional diversity and safe drinking water provision in the United States" including secondary data from the U.S. EPA and California State Water Resources Control Board as well as the author-produced 26-type organizational structural and institutional coding of Community Water Systems in California.

Attractive males are cautious and better learners in the sailfin tetra

Kalebe Pinto, David Saenz, Elio Borghezan & Tiago Pires
A major component of Darwin's formulation of sexual selection theory is whether mate choice can contribute to the evolution of cognitive abilities. Although a correlation between cognition and attractive traits has commonly been reported, the processes that generate such associations remain elusive. Here, we investigated female preference, neophobia and spatial learning in the sailfin tetra, Crenuchus spilurus, a sexually dimorphic fish. Females chose the most ornamented males, which were also more neophobic. This is in...

The Digital Religion Yearbook 2021

Heidi Campbell

Habitat complexity and complex signal function – exploring the role of ornamentation

Dustin Wilgers, J. Colton Watts & Eileen Hebets
Animals often communicate in complex, heterogeneous environments, leading to hypothesized selection for increased detectability or discriminability in signaling traits. The extent to which secondary sexual ornaments have evolved to overcome the challenges of signaling in complex environments, however, remains understudied, especially in comparison to their role as indicator traits. This study tested the hypothesis that the condition-dependent secondary sexual ornamentation in the wolf spider Rabidosa rabida functions to increase detectability/discriminability in visually complex environments. We...

ISIMIP3b ocean input data

Matthias Büchner
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3b part of the third simulation round is dedicated to a quantification of climate-related risks at different levels of global warming and socio-economic change. ISIMIP3b group I simulations are based on historical...

Block-wise Variable Selection for Clustering via Latent States of Mixture Models

Beomseok Seo, Lin Lin & Jia Li
Mixture modeling is a major paradigm for clustering in statistics. In this paper, we develop a new block-wise variable selection method for clustering by exploiting the latent states of the hidden Markov model on variable blocks or the Gaussian mixture model. The variable blocks are formed by depth-first-search on a dendrogram created based on the mutual information between any pair of variables. It is demonstrated that the latent states of the variable blocks together with...

Tumor-associated neutrophils activated by tumor-derived CCL20 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 20) promote T cell immunosuppression via programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in breast cancer

Louis Boafo Kwantwi, Shujing Wang, Wenjun Zhang, Weidong Peng, Zeyu Cai, Youjing Sheng, Han Xiao, Xian Wang & Qiang Wu
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women despite the significant improvement in diagnosis and treatment. Tumor-associated neutrophils have been shown to suppress antitumor functions of the host. However, how breast cancer tumor microenvironment influences the phenotype and functions of neutrophils to potentiate T cell immunosuppression is unknown. Herein, neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were treated with supernatants from breast cancer cell lines or recombinant human CCL20. PD-L1 expression...

PLANT BREEDING PARTNERSHIP: A Metabolic Modeling-Based Strategy to Accelerate the Citrus Genetic Engineering Process

James Borneman
This is a New Investigator proposal led by Cristal Zuniga. The Long-Term Goal of this proposed project is to improve the economics, productivity, and sustainability of U.S. agriculture by using metabolic models to accelerate the engineering process of all crops. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, the Objective of this project is to use metabolic models to speed up the growth rate of two specific steps of the citrus engineering process in two commonly...

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  • 2021

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  • Texas A&M University
  • Zhejiang University
  • Central South University
  • Ningbo University
  • Tongji University
  • Union Hospital
  • Capital Medical University
  • Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
  • Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Chinese University of Hong Kong