125 Works

Introduction - Visual Representations of Femininities and Masculinities

Karl Kaser

„… und dass man nicht einfach das von zu Hause nachredet“

Wolfgang Weirer, Eva Wenig & Senol Yagdi
Im Teilprojekt „Konzeption und Durchführung von interreligiösen Unterrichtsbausteinen“ werden – im Rahmen des Grazer Projektes „Integration durch interreligiöse Bildung“ – interreligiöse Lehr-/Lernsettings mit Methoden der empirischen Unterrichtsforschung sowie mit LehrerInneninterviews und Gruppengesprächen mit SchülerInnen analysiert und interpretiert. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse fließen einerseits in den weiteren Prozess des Projektes ein, andererseits leisten sie einen theoriegenerierenden Beitrag zur fachdidaktischen Entwicklungsforschung im Rahmen einer interreligiösen Fachdidaktik. Bislang wurden bereits an einigen exemplarischen Schulstandorten zeitlich begrenzt interreligiöse Unterrichtseinheiten im...

Wirklichkeit und Erfahrbarkeit digitaler Welten

Daniel Pachner
Der Begriff „Virtualität“ nimmt eine besondere Stellung in der Frage nach der Digitalisierung ein, obwohl es für ihn keine einheitliche Verwendungsweise gibt. Unter Befürwortern wie Gegnern dieses Prozesses mutiert das Virtuelle entweder zum Zauberwort, durch das alles möglich erscheint, oder wird zum Kennzeichen einer Entwicklung, die den Schein untrennbar mit der Realität vermischt. Mithilfe des Strukturansatzes von Gilles Deleuze, bei dem der Begriff der Virtualität eine klare Funktion innehat, wird in diesem Beitrag versucht, die...

Data from: Complete mitochondrial DNA replacement in a Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish

Bruno Nevado, Stephan Koblmüller, Christian Sturmbauer, Jos Snoeks, Jaime Usano-Alemany & Erik Verheyen
We used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from specimens collected throughout Lake Tanganyika to clarify the evolutionary relationship between Lamprologus callipterus and Neolamprologus fasciatus. The nuclear data supports the reciprocal monophyly of these two shell breeding lamprologine cichlids. However, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences show that 1) L. callipterus includes two divergent and geographically disjunct (North-South) mtDNA lineages; and that 2) N. fasciatus individuals cluster in a lineage sister group to the northern lineage of L....

Data from: Water level fluctuations and metapopulation dynamics as drivers of genetic diversity in populations of three Tanganyikan cichlid fish species

Bruno Nevado, Selma Mautner, Christian Sturmbauer & Erik Verheyen
Understanding how genetic variation is generated and maintained in natural populations, and how this process unfolds in a changing environment, remains a central issue in biological research. In this work, we analyzed patterns of genetic diversity from several populations of three cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika in parallel, using the mitochondrial DNA control region. We sampled populations inhabiting the littoral rocky habitats in both very deep, and very shallow areas of the lake. We hypothesized...

Data from: Evolution of body shape in sympatric versus non-sympatric Tropheus populations of Lake Tanganyika

Michaela Kerschbaumer, Philipp Mitteroecker & Christian Sturmbauer
Allopatric speciation often yields ecologically equivalent sister species, so that their secondary admixis enforces competition. The shores of Lake Tanganyika harbor about 120 distinct populations of the cichlid genus Tropheus, but only some are sympatric. When alone, Tropheus occupies a relatively broad depth zone, but in sympatry, fish segregate by depth. To assess the effects of competition, we studied the partial co-occurrence of Tropheus moorii ‘Kaiser’ and ‘Kirschfleck’ with Tropheus polli. A previous study demonstrated...

Data from: Shifting barriers and phenotypic diversification by hybridisation

Kristina M. Sefc, Karin Mattersdorfer, Angelika Ziegelbecker, Nina Neuhüttler, Oliver Steiner, Walter Goessler & Stephan Koblmüller
The establishment of hybrid taxa relies on reproductive isolation from the parental forms, typically achieved by ecological differentiation. Here, we present an alternative mechanism, in which shifts in the strength and location of dispersal barriers facilitate diversification by hybridisation. Our case study concerns the highly diverse, stenotopic rock-dwelling cichlids of the African Great Lakes, many of which display geographic colour pattern variation. The littoral habitat of these fish has repeatedly been restructured in the course...

Data from: High fidelity: extra-pair fertilisations in eight Charadrius plover species are not associated with parental relatedness or social mating system

Kathryn H. Maher, Luke J. Eberhart-Phillips, András Kosztolányi, Natalie Dos Remedios, María Cristina Carmona-Isunza, Medardo Cruz-López, Sama Zefania, James J. H. St Clair, Monif AlRashidi, Michael A. Weston, Martín A. Serrano-Meneses, Oliver Krüger, Joseph I. Hoffmann, Tamás Székely, Terry Burke, Clemens Küpper & Joseph I. Hoffman
Extra-pair paternity is a common reproductive strategy in many bird species. However, it remains unclear why extra-pair paternity occurs and why it varies among species and populations. Plovers (Charadrius spp.) exhibit considerable variation in reproductive behaviour and ecology, making them excellent models to investigate the evolution of social and genetic mating systems. We investigated inter- and intra-specific patterns of extra-pair parentage and evaluated three major hypotheses explaining extra-pair paternity using a comparative approach based on...

Data from: Early Miocene marine ostracods from southwestern India: implications for their biogeography and the closure of the Tethyan Seaway

Moriaki Yasuhara, Yuanyuan Hong, Skye Yunshu Tian, Wing Ki Chong, Rachel Wai Ching Chu, Hisayo Okahashi, Markus Reuter, Werner E. Piller & Mathias Harzhauser
Twenty-six genera and 34 species of early Miocene Indian shallow-marine ostracods were examined for taxonomy and paleobiogeography. A new genus Paractinocythereis and new species Costa ponticulocarinata were described. Early Miocene Indian ostracod fauna shows strong affinity to Eocene–Miocene Eastern and Western Tethyan ostracod faunas and Miocene–Recent Indo-Pacific ostracod fauna, supporting the Hopping Hotspot Hypothesis that Tethyan biodiversity hotspot have shifted eastward through Arabia to Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) together with concomitant biogeographic shifts of the Tethyan...

Data from: How to quantify (the response to) sexual selection on traits

Jonathan M. Henshaw, Michael D. Jennions & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Natural selection operates via fitness components like mating success, fecundity and longevity, which can be understood as intermediaries in the causal process linking traits to fitness. Sexual selection occurs when traits influence mating or fertilisation success, which, in turn, influences fitness. We show how to quantify both these steps in a single path analysis, leading to better estimates of the strength of sexual selection. Our model controls for confounding variables, such as body size or...

Autoantibodies against the prion protein in individuals with PRNP mutations

Karl Frontzek, Manfredi Carta, Marco Losa, Mirka Epskamp, Georg Meisl, Alice Anane, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Ulrike Camenisch, Joaquín Castilla, Stéphane Haïk, Tuomas Knowles, Ewald Lindner, Andreas Lutterotti, Eric Vallabh Minikel, Ignazio Roiter, Jiri G. Safar, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Dana Žáková, Simone Hornemann & Adriano Aguzzi
Objective. To determine whether naturally occurring autoantibodies against the prion protein are present in individuals with genetic prion disease mutations and controls, and if so, whether they are protective against prion disease. Methods. In this case-control study, we collected 124 blood samples from individuals with a variety of pathogenicPRNPmutations and 78 control individuals with a positive family history of genetic prion disease but lacking disease-associatedPRNPmutations. Antibody reactivity was measured using an indirect ELISA for the...

Data from: HExT, a software supporting tree-based screens for hybrid taxa in multilocus datasets, and an evaluation of the homoplasy excess test

Kevin Schneider, Stephan Koblmüller & Kristina Maria Sefc
The homoplasy excess test (HET) is a tree-based screen for hybrid taxa in multilocus nuclear phylogenies. Homoplasy between a hybrid taxon and the clades containing the parental taxa reduces bootstrap support in the tree. The HET is based on the expectation that excluding the hybrid taxon from the data set increases the bootstrap support for the parental clades, whereas excluding non-hybrid taxa has little effect on statistical node support. To carry out a HET, bootstrap...

Data from: The core microbiome bonds the Alpine bog vegetation to a transkingdom metacommunity

Anastasia Bragina, Christian Berg & Gabriele Berg
Bog ecosystems fulfil important functions in Earth's carbon and water turnover. While plant communities and their keystone species Sphagnum have been well studied, less is known about the microbial communities associated with them. To study our hypothesis that bog plants share an essential core of their microbiome despite their different phylogenetic origins, we analysed four plant community plots with 24 bryophytes, vascular plants and lichen species in two Alpine bogs in Austria by 16S rDNA...

Data from: Adult sex ratio and operational sex ratio exhibit different temporal dynamics in the wild

María Cristina Carmona-Isunza, Sergio Ancona, Tamás Székely, Alfonso P. Ramallo-González, Medardo Cruz-López, Martín Alejandro Serrano-Meneses & Clemens Küpper
Adult sex ratio (ASR, the proportion of adult males in the adult population) and operational sex ratio (OSR, the proportion of sexually active males in the mating pool) are fundamental properties of breeding populations and they are often linked to mating systems and sexual selection. However, ASR and OSR emerge via different routes in a population and may exhibit different temporal patterns. Here, we use data from a well-monitored polygamous snowy plover Charadrius nivosus population...

Data from: Cuticular hydrocarbon cues of immune-challenged workers elicit immune activation in honeybee queens

Javier Hernandez Lopez, Ulrike Riessberger-Gallé, Karl Crailsheim, Wolfgang Schühly & Wolfgang Schuehly
Recently, evidence has shown that variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) profile allow healthy honeybees to identify diseased nestmates, eliciting agonistic responses in the former. Here, we determined whether these ‘immunologic cues’ emitted by diseased nestmates were only detected by workers, who consequently took hygienic measures and excluded these individuals from the colony, or whether queens were also able to detect these cues and respond accordingly. Healthy honeybee queens were exposed to (i) healthy, (ii)...

Data from: New MRI contrast agents based on silicon nanotubes loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

Roberto Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Petra Granitzer, Klemens Rumpf & Jeffery L. Coffer
This article describes the preparation and fundamental properties of a new possible material as a MRI contrast agent based on the incorporation of preformed iron oxide nanocrystals into hollow silicon nanotubes. Specifically, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Fe3O4 of two different average sizes (5 nm and 8 nm) were loaded into silicon nanotubes of two different shell thicknesses (40 nm and 70 nm). To achieve proper aqueous solubility, the nanotubes were functionalized with an outer polyethylene...

Book Review Christopher Partridge / Marcus Moberg (eds.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Religion and Popular Music

Anna-Katharina Höpflinger
www.jrfm.eu 2021, 7/1, 193–196

Diversity and biogeography of Mediterranean freshwater blennies (Blenniidae, Salaria)

Maximilian Wagner, Stamatis Zogaris, Patrick Berrebi, Jörg Freyhof, Stephan Koblmüller, Pierre Magnan & Martin Laporte
Aim: In the Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot freshwater fishes are key biogeographical indicators while their habitats are vulnerable to ongoing anthropogenic pressures. The freshwater blenny is a widespread endemic taxon in this area. However, our understanding of the overall diversity of specific populations and their phylogenetic relationships is sparse. Thus, we aim to investigate the genetic diversity, infer relationships among sampled populations related to major paleoenvironmental changes and suggest insights for future research and conservation targets....

Rezension zu: Bauinger, Renate u.a. (Hg.): Sternstunden Religionsunterricht. Erzählungen aus dem Schulalltag, Salzburg: Anton Pustet 2020.

Julia Brunner
Österreichisches Religionspädagogisches Forum 29 (2021) 1 • 316–318

LGBTIQ-Menschen als Zielscheiben aggressiver rechtspopulistischer und religiös-fundamentalistischer Angriffe und deren Kritik : Bedrohliche Warnsignale aus Ungarn

Rita Perintfalvi
Die Vorstellung von Geschlecht und der daran orientierte Gesellschaftsentwurf der Rechtspopulist*innen, der nun bereits in der Verfassung Ungarns verankert ist und anstatt mit fachpolitischen Argumenten religiös-biblisch begründet wird, führen für LGBTIQ-Menschen zu gesellschaftlicher Ausgrenzung und zu einer tiefen Verletzung ihrer Menschenwürde, wenn diese normierte Geschlechtsidentität zu einer „kulturellen Voraussetzung des Menschseins“ (Butler) wird. Denn so wird „eine bestimmte Auffassung von geschlechtlicher Identität zur Voraussetzung legitimen, nicht-korrekturbedürftigen Menschseins erhoben“ (Krannich). Eine aufgeklärte Theologie muss im Namen...

Materiality of Writing

Christian Wessely & Daria Pezzoli-Olgiati

Indicators of educator-child-interaction quality in early childhood education

Mailina Petritsch & Catherine Walter-Laager
Out-of-home childcare is now commonplace. Numerous studies have shown that the quality of interaction between child and educator is decisive for child development. As part of the EIK study in Austria, detailed data on 'interaction quality' was collected for 55 early childhood educators (N = 29 nurseries in Austria). The results show that the level of interaction quality is clearly capable of improvement in most nurseries. In four of the facilities examined, only a minimum...

Language is an “activity of the whole body”: A memorial to Franz Dotter

Sherman Wilcox & Andrea Lackner
Franz Dotter was a world recognized linguist and sign language scholar. His tragic passing in 2018 deprived the field of sign linguistics from a pioneering voice. In this paper we ask several questions concerning sign language and Dotter’s approach to sign linguistics and reflect on Franz Dotter’s contributions to the field of sign linguistics. Dotter turned his expertise and analytic skill to questioning the common approach to sign languages which assumed that theories developed to...

Vordienstzeitenanrechnung in Österreich aus unionsrechtlicher Sicht

Denise Posch
Das Thema der Vordienstzeitenanrechnung in Österreich ist ein schier endloses. Bereits rund 20 Vorabentscheidungsverfahren wurden durch österreichische Gerichte initiiert – immer wieder liefen nationale Regelungen in Gesetzen oder Kollektivverträgen hinsichtlich der Anrechnung von in vorangehenden Arbeitsverhältnissen erbrachten Dienstzeiten dem Unionsrecht zuwider. Die Aktualität des Themas ebbt durch neue Vorlagen und teils weitreichende Entscheidungen des EuGH nicht ab, neue Perspektiven führen zu weiteren Fragen. Der durch den vorliegenden Beitrag versuchte Blick auf die Urteile aus der...

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