11 Works

Data from: Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition between two larval salamanders

Thomas Anderson, Howard H. Whiteman & Thomas L. Anderson
1) Assessment of the relative strengths of intra- and interspecific competition has increased in recent years, and is critical to understanding the importance of competition. Yet, whether intra- and interspecific competition can have non-additive effects has rarely been tested. The resulting fitness consequences of such non-additive interactions are important to provide the context necessary to advance our understanding of competition theory. 2) We compared the strength of additive and non-additive intra- and interspecific competition by...

Data from: Fuels and fires influence vegetation via above- and below-ground pathways in a high-diversity plant community

Paul R. Gagnon, Heather A. Passmore, Matthew Slocum, Jonathan A. Myers, Kyle E. Harms, William J. Platt & C. E. Timothy Paine
1. Fire strongly influences plant populations and communities around the world, making it an important agent of plant evolution. Fire influences vegetation through multiple pathways, both above- and belowground. Few studies have yet attempted to tie these pathways together in a mechanistic way through soil heating even though the importance of soil heating for plants in fire-prone ecosystems is increasingly recognized. 2. Here we combine an experimental approach with structural equation modelling (SEM) to simultaneously...

Data from: Specialist insect herbivore and light availability do not interact in the evolution of an invasive plant

Zhijie Zhang, Xiaoyun Pan, Ziyan Zhang, Kate S. He & Bo Li
Release from specialist insect herbivores may allow invasive plants to evolve traits associated with decreased resistance and increased competitive ability. Given that there may be genetic trade-off between resistance and tolerance, invasive plants could also become more tolerant to herbivores. Although it is widely acknowledged that light availability affects tolerance to herbivores, little information is available for whether the effect of light availability on tolerance differ between the introduced and native populations. We conducted a...

Data from: Male-male aggression is unlikely to stabilize a poison frog polymorphism

Yusan Yang, Matthew B. Dugas, Houston J. Sudekum, Sean N. Murphy & Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Phenotypic polymorphism is common in animals, and the maintenance of multiple phenotypes in a population requires forces that act against homogenizing drift and selection. Male-male competition can contribute to the stability of a polymorphism when males compete primarily with males of the same phenotype. In and around a contact zone between red and blue lineages of the poison frog Oophaga pumilio, we used simulated territorial intrusions to test the non-exclusive predictions that males would direct...

Data from: Evolution of reproductive isolation in stickleback fish

Alycia C. R. Lackey & Janette Wenrick Boughman
To understand how new species form and what causes their collapse, we examined how reproductive isolation evolves during the speciation process, considering species pairs with little to extensive divergence, including a recently collapsed pair. We estimated many reproductive barriers in each of five sets of stickleback fish species pairs using our own data and decades of previous work. We found that the types of barriers important early in the speciation process differ from those important...

Relative size underlies alternative morph development in a salamander

Michael Moore, Joseph Pechmann & Howard Whiteman
Size thresholds commonly underlie the induction of alternative morphological states. However, the respective importance of absolute and relative size to such thresholds remains uncertain. If absolute size governs expression, morph frequency should differ among environments that influence absolute sizes (e.g. resources, competition), and individuals of the same morph should have similar average sizes across environments. If relative size determines expression, the frequency of each morph may not differ among environments, but morphs within each environment...

Cricetodontine character state matrix

Robert Martin, Thomas Kelly & Patricia Holroyd
In this study we appraised the dental morphology and potential origin of two Neogene cricetodontine-like muroids, Pliotomodon primitivus from sediments in northern California and an undescribed muroid from central Oregon. Dental features of Pliotomodon are similar to those of Eurasian genera such as Byzantinia, Hispanomys and Ruscinomys, but the unusual morphology of M3/m3, with continuous enamel connections across their lingual surfaces closing the hypoflexus and posteroflexid, respectively, plus retention of only three roots on M1,...

Data from: Assessing faculty professional development in STEM higher education: sustainability of outcomes

Terry L. Derting, Heather A. Passmore, Timothy P. Henkel, Bryan Arnold, Jessica Middlemis Maher & Diane Ebert-May
We tested the effectiveness of Faculty Institutes for Reforming Science Teaching IV (FIRST), a professional development program for postdoctoral scholars, by conducting a study of program alumni. Faculty professional development programs are critical components of efforts to improve teaching and learning in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, but reliable evidence of the sustained impacts of these programs is lacking. We used a paired design in which we matched a FIRST alumnus employed...

Data from: Using geography to infer the importance of dispersal for the synchrony of freshwater plankton

Thomas L. Anderson, Jonathan A. Walter, Todd D. Levine, Susan P. Hendricks, Karla L. Johnston, David S. White & Daniel C. Reuman
Spatial synchrony in population dynamics is a ubiquitous ecological phenomenon that can result from predator-prey interactions, synchronized environmental variation (Moran effects), or dispersal. Of these, dispersal historically has been the least well studied in natural systems, partly because of the difficulty in quantifying dispersal in situ. We hypothesized that dispersal routes of plankton were based on the major and consistent water current movements in Kentucky Lake, a large reservoir in western Kentucky, USA. Then, using...

Data from: Ground squirrels (Rodentia, Sciuridae) of the late Cenozoic Meade Basin sequence: diversity and paleoecological implications

H. Thomas Goodwin & Robert A. Martin
The Meade Basin, SW Kansas, yields a rich vertebrate fossil record from the late Cenozoic. Here, we review fossil ground squirrels (Sciuridae) from the region as a contribution to the broader Meade Basin Rodent Project. We recognize 14 species in seven genera: two species of giant ground squirrels (Paenemarmota Hibbard and Schultz, 1948) from the early Pliocene, and at least 12 species in six extant genera (Ammospermophilus Merriam, 1892; Otospermophilus Brandt, 1844; Ictidomys Allen, 1877;...

Thermal adaptations to extreme freeze-thaw cycles in the high tropical Andes

Kelsey Reider
Temperature plays a key role in the biology of ectotherms, including anurans, which are found at higher elevations in the tropics than anywhere in the temperate zone. High-elevation tropical environments are characterized by extreme daily thermal fluctuation including high daily maxima and nightly freezing. Our study investigated the contrasting operative temperatures of the anurans Telmatobius marmoratus and Pleurodema marmoratum in different environmental contexts at the same elevation and biome above 5200 meters. Telmatobius marmoratus avoids...

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