222 Works

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals enhanced growth of marine harmful algae from temperate regions with warming and elevated CO2 levels

Karen M. Brandenburg, Mandy Velthuis & Dedmer B. Van De Waal
Elevated pCO2 and warming may promote algal growth and toxin production, and thereby possibly support the proliferation and toxicity of HABs. Here, we tested whether empirical data supports this hypothesis using a meta-analytic approach and investigated the responses of growth rate and toxin content or toxicity of numerous marine and estuarine HAB species to elevated pCO2 and warming. Most of the available data on HAB responses towards the two tested climate change variables concerns dinoflagellates,...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Data from: Biological stoichiometry of oleaginous microalgal lipid synthesis: The role of N:P supply ratios and growth rate on microalgal elemental and biochemical composition

Dedmer Van De Waal, Baoyan Gao, Jing Liu & Chengwu Zhang
Biological Stoichiometry is an ecological framework connecting the balance of elements to the functioning of organisms. Here, we applied this framework to study the relationships between carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) ratios and synthesis of industrial high value biochemicals in the highly oleaginous alga Tetradesmus bernardii. We expected an increase in protein content with increasing cellular N content and decreasing C:N stoichiometry, and an increase in lipid content with increasing C:N and C:P stoichiometry. We tested these hypotheses...

Data from: Spatiotemporal variation in disturbance impacts derived from simultaneous tracking of aircraft and shorebirds

Henk-Jan Van Der Kolk, Andrew Allen, Bruno Ens, Kees Oosterbeek, Eelke Jongejans & Martijn Van De Pol
1. Assessing impacts of disturbance over large areas and long time periods is crucial for nature management, but also challenging since impacts depend on both wildlife responses to disturbance and on the spatiotemporal distribution of disturbance sources. Combined tracking of animals and disturbance sources enables quantification of wildlife responses as a function of the distance to a disturbance source. We provide a framework to derive such distance-response curves and combine those with disturbance source presence...

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Apparent breeding success drives long-term population dynamics of a migratory swan

Rascha Nuijten, Stefan Vriend, Kevin Wood, Trinus Haitjema, Eileen Rees, Eelke Jongejans & Bart Nolet
The ability of a species to adapt to environmental change is ultimately reflected in its vital rates – i.e., survival and reproductive success of individuals. Together, vital rates determine trends in numbers, commonly monitored using counts of species abundance. Rapid changes in abundance can give rise to concern, leading to calls for research into the biological mechanisms underlying variations in demography. For the NW European population of Bewick’s swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), there have been...

Data from: Fungal volatiles influence plant defence against aboveground and belowground herbivory

Kay Moisan, Marcela Aragón, Gerrit Gort, Marcel Dicke, Viviane Cordovez, Jos Raaijmakers & Dani Lucas-Barbosa
Plants have evolved resistance traits that negatively affect attackers, and tolerance traits that sustain plant growth despite herbivore damage. These mechanisms often co-occur in a mixed-defence strategy, balancing resistance and tolerance. These plant defences can be enhanced upon interaction with soil microorganisms. Here, we investigated the effects of volatiles emitted by soil-borne fungi on plant defence to insect herbivory, and on plant phenology. We exposed roots of Brassica rapa plants to volatiles emitted by four...

Volatiles of bacteria associated with parasitoid habitats elicit distinct olfactory responses in an aphid parasitoid and its hyperparasitoid

Tim Goelen, Islam S. Sobhy, Christophe Vanderaa, Jetske G. De Boer, Frank Delvigne, Frédéric Francis, Felix Wäckers, Hans Rediers, Kevin J. Verstrepen, Tom Wenseleers, Hans Jacquemyn & Bart Lievens
1. To locate mating partners and essential resources such as food, oviposition sites and shelter, insects rely to a large extent on chemical cues. While most research has focused on cues derived from plants and insects, there is mounting evidence that indicates that microorganisms emit volatile compounds that may play an important role in insect behaviour. 2. In this study, we assessed how volatile compounds emitted by phylogenetically diverse bacteria affected the olfactory response of...

Data from Soil chemistry turned upside down: a meta-analysis of invasive earthworm effects on soil chemical properties

Olga Ferlian, Madhav P. Thakur, Alejandra Castañeda González, Layla M. San Emeterio, Susanne Marr, Barbbara Da Silva Rocha & Nico Eisenhauer
Recent studies have shown that invasive earthworms can dramatically reduce native biodiversity, both above and below the ground. However, we still lack a synthetic understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind these changes, such as whether earthworm effects on soil chemical properties drive such relationships. Here, we investigated the effects of invasive earthworms on soil chemical properties (pH, water content, and the stocks and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) by conducting a meta-analysis. Invasive earthworms...

Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird

Davide M. Dominoni, Johan Kjellberg Jensen, Maaike De Jong, Marcel E. Visser & Kamiel Spoelstra
The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of...

Data from: Chemical structure predicts the effect of plant-derived low-molecular weight compounds on soil microbiome structure and pathogen suppression

Yian Gu, Xiaofang Wang, Tianjie Yang, Ville-Petri Friman, Stefan Geisen, Zhong Wei, Yangchun Xu, Alexandre Jousset & Qirong Shen
1. Plant-derived low molecular weight compounds play a crucial role in shaping soil microbiome functionality. While various compounds have been demonstrated to affect soil microbes, most data are case-specific and do not provide generalizable predictions on their effects. Here we show that the chemical structural affiliation of low molecular weight compounds typically secreted by plant roots – sugars, amino acids, organic acids and phenolic acids – can predictably affect microbiome diversity, composition and functioning in...

Data from: Experimental manipulation of food availability leads to short-term intra-clutch adjustment in egg mass but not in yolk androgen or thyroid hormones

Suvi Ruuskanen, Veerle M. Darras, Bonnie De Vries, Marcel E. Visser & Ton G. G. Groothuis
In birds, mothers can affect their offspring's phenotype and thereby survival via egg composition. It is not well known to what extent and time-scales environmental variation in resource availability, either via resource constrains or adaptive adjustment to predicted rearing conditions, influences maternal effects. We experimentally studied whether egg and yolk mass and yolk hormone levels respond to short-term changes in food availability during laying in wild great tits Parus major. Our treatment groups were: 1)...

Data from: Locomotion during digestion changes current estimates of seed dispersal kernels by fish

Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Rosanne Beukeboom, Bart A. Nolet, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Bart J. A. Pollux & Bart J.A. Pollux
Dispersal of seeds by animals is an important mechanism regulating plant diversity, range expansions and invasions. Many birds, mammals, fish, and reptiles regularly ingest, transport and excrete viable seeds (known as endozoochory). The effectiveness of endozoochory is modelled in dispersal kernels: functions that describe seed shadows in the landscape by combining movement of animals with experimentally obtained seed retention times and survival. Currently, dispersal kernels use experimental data from resting animals, yet only moving animals...

Data from: Weak phylogenetic signal in physiological traits of methane-oxidizing bacteria

Sascha Krause, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell & Paul L. E. Bodelier
The presence of phylogenetic signal is assumed to be ubiquitous. However, for microorganisms, this may not be true given that they display high physiological flexibility and have fast regeneration. This may result in fundamentally different patterns of resemblance, that is, in variable strength of phylogenetic signal. However, in microbiological inferences, trait similarities and therewith microbial interactions with its environment are mostly assumed to follow evolutionary relatedness. Here, we tested whether indeed a straightforward relationship between...

Data from: Can above-ground ecosystem services compensate for reduced fertilizer input and soil organic matter in annual crops?

Stijn Van Gils, Wim H. Van Der Putten & David Kleijn
Above-ground and below-ground environmental conditions influence crop yield by pollination, pest pressure, and resource supply. However, little is known about how interactions between these factors contribute to yield. Here, we used oilseed rape Brassica napus to test their effects on crop yield. We exposed potted plants to all combinations of high and low levels of soil organic matter (SOM) and fertilizer supply, and placed all treatments at a variety of field sites representing a gradient...

Data from: Direct and indirect genetic effects in life history traits of flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum)

Esther D. Ellen, Katrijn Peeters, Merel Verhoeven, Rieta Gols, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Michael J. Wade, Marcel Dicke & Piter Bijma
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are the basis of social interactions among conspecifics, and can affect genetic variation of non-social as well as social traits. We used flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) of two phenotypically distinguishable populations to estimate genetic (co)variances and the effect of IGEs on three life-history traits: development time (DT), growth rate (GR), and pupal body mass (BM). We found that GR was strongly affected by social environment with IGEs accounting for 18% of...

Data from: Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Eduardo J. Belda, Anne Charmantier, Mariusz Cichon, Eeva Tapio, Arnaud Gregoire, Camilla A. Hinde, Arild Johnsen, Jan Komdeur, Raivo Mand, Erik Matthysen, Ana Claudia Norte, Natalia Pitala, Ben C. Sheldon, Tore Slagsvold, Joost M. Tinbergen, Janos Torok, Richard Ubels, Kees Van Oers, Marcel E. Visser … & Tapio Eeva
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great...

Data from: Effects of plant diversity on the concentration of secondary plant metabolites and the density of arthropods on focal plants in the field

Olga Kostenko, Patrick P. J. Mulder, Matthijs Courbois & T. Martijn Bezemer
1. The diversity of the surrounding plant community can directly affect the abundance of insects on a focal plant as well as the size and quality of that focal plant. However, to what extent the effects of plant diversity on the arthropod community on a focal plant are mediated by host plant quality or by the diversity of the surrounding plants remains unresolved. 2. In the field, we sampled arthropod communities on focal Jacobaea vulgaris...

Data from: Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Elizabeth T. Borer, Jonathan M. Chase, John Downing, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Christopher T. Filstrup, W. Stanley Harpole, Dorothee Hodapp, Stefano Larsen, Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Eric W. Seabloom, Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Alexey B. Ryabov & John A. Downing
1. Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is far from trivial, however, as recently documented by meta-analyses which report little if any net change of local species richness through time. 2. Here, we summarize several limitations of species richness as a metric...

Data from: Individuality in northern lapwing migration and its link to timing of breeding

Götz Eichhorn, Willem Bil & James W. Fox
We tracked eight adult northern lapwings, Vanellus vanellus, (six females and two males) from a Dutch breeding colony by light-level geolocation year-round, three of them for multiple years. We show that birds breeding virtually next to each other may choose widely separated wintering grounds, stretching from nearby the colony west towards the UK and Ireland, and southwest through France into Iberia and Morocco. However, individual lapwings appeared relatively faithful to a chosen wintering area, and...

Data from: Intergenerational environmental effects: functional signals in offspring transcriptomes and metabolomes after parental jasmonic acid treatment in apomictic dandelion

Koen J. F. Verhoeven, Eline H. Verbon, Thomas P. Van Gurp, Carla Oplaat, Julie Ferreira De Carvalho, Alison M. Morse, Mark Stahl, Mirka Macel & Lauren M. McIntyre
Parental environments can influence offspring traits. However, the magnitude of the impact of parental environments on offspring molecular phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we test the direct effects and intergenerational effects of jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, which is involved in herbivory-induced defense signaling, on transcriptomes and metabolomes in apomictic common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). In a full factorial crossed design with parental and offspring JA and control treatments, we performed leaf RNA-seq gene expression analysis, LC-MS...

Data from: Impact of native and non-native aquatic plants on methane emission and phytoplankton growth

Bart M. C. Grutters, Ralf C. H. Aben, Sarian Kosten, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Bart Grutters & Elisabeth Bakker
Freshwater plants affect the ecosystem functioning of shallow aquatic ecosystems. However, because native plants are threatened by environmental change such as eutrophication, global warming and biological invasions, continued ecosystem functioning may be at risk. In this study, we explored how the growth of native and non-native plant species in eutrophic, warm conditions impacts two plant ecosystem functions: regulation of phytoplankton growth and methane emission. We expected that plants would inhibit phytoplankton growth, while for methane...

Data from: Living apart together—bacterial volatiles influence methanotrophic growth and activity

Annelies Veraart, Paolina Garbeva, Femke Van Beersum, Adrian Ho, Cornelis A. Hordijk, Marion Meima-Franke, A. J. Zweers & Paul Bodelier
Volatile organic compounds play an important role in microbial interactions. However, little is known about how volatile-mediated interactions modulate biogeochemical processes. In this study, we show the effect of volatile-mediated interaction on growth and functioning of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria, grown in co-culture with five different heterotrophs. Both growth and methane oxidation of Methylobacter luteus were stimulated by interaction with specific heterotrophs. In Methylocystis parvus, we observed significant growth promotion, while methane oxidation was inhibited. Volatolomics...

Data from: High intra-specific variation in avian body condition responses to climate limits generalisation across species

Nina McLean, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd & Martijn Van De Pol
It is generally assumed that populations of a species will have similar responses to climate change, and thereby that a single value of sensitivity will reflect species-specific responses. However, this assumption is rarely systematically tested. High intraspecific variation will have consequences for identifying species- or population-level traits that can predict differences in sensitivity, which in turn can affect the reliability of projections of future climate change impacts. We investigate avian body condition responses to changes...

Data from: Impact of temperature and nutrients on carbon: nutrient tissue stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants: an experiment and meta-analysis

Mandy Velthuis, Emma Van Deelen, Ellen Van Donk, Peiyu Zhang & Elisabeth S. Bakker
Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1–5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability. We...

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