233 Works

Warming and CO2 effects under oligotrophication on temperate phytoplankton communities

Marco J. Cabrerizo, M. Inmaculada Álvarez-Manzaneda, Elizabeth León-Palmero, Gerardo Guerrero-Jiménez, Lisette N. De Senerpont Domis, Sven Teurlincx & Juan M. González-Olalla
Eutrophication, global warming, and rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are the three most prevalent pressures impacting the biosphere. Despite their individual effects are well-known, it remains untested how oligotrophication (i.e. nutrients reduction) can alter the planktonic community responses to warming and elevated CO2 levels. Here, we performed an indoor mesocosm experiment to investigate the warming × CO2 interaction under a nutrient reduction scenario (40%) mediated by an in-lake management strategy (i.e. addition of a commercial...

Data from: The epigenetic footprint of poleward range-expanding plants in apomictic dandelions

Veronica Preite, L. Basten Snoek, Carla Oplaat, Arjen Biere, Wim H. Van Der Putten & Koen J. F. Verhoeven
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation variation, can generate heritable phenotypic variation independent of the underlying genetic code. However, epigenetic variation in natural plant populations is poorly documented and little understood. Here, we test whether northward range expansion of obligate apomicts of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is associated with DNA methylation variation. We characterized and compared patterns of genetic and DNA methylation variation in greenhouse-reared offspring of T. officinale that were collected along a...

Data from: Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in a long-term non-weeded field experiment

Ciska G.F. Veen, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Martijn Bezemer, Wim H. Van Der Putten & G. F. Veen
Many grassland biodiversity experiments show a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, however, in most these experiments plant communities are established by sowing and natural colonization is prevented by selective weeding of non-sown species. During ecosystem restoration, for example on abandoned fields, plant communities start on bare soil, and diversity is often manipulated in a single sowing event. How such initial plant diversity manipulations influence plant biodiversity development and ecosystem functioning is not well...

Data from: Aquatic omnivores shift their trophic position towards increased plant consumption as plant stoichiometry becomes more similar to their body stoichiometry

Peiyu Zhang, Reinier F. Van Den Berg, Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Brigitte A. Blonk & Elisabeth S. Bakker
Human induced eutrophication has strongly altered aquatic ecosystems. With increasing eutrophication, plant nutrient concentrations increase, making them more attractive as food for herbivores. However, most aquatic consumers are omnivorous. Ecological stoichiometry theory predicts that animals prefer to consume food which has a similar nutrient (N and P) composition or C:nutrient ratio compared to their own bodies, hence omnivorous animals may prefer to eat animal prey instead of plants. We ask whether aquatic omnivores would shift...

Data from: Plant mutualisms with rhizosphere microbiota in introduced versus native ranges

Natasha Shelby, Richard P. Duncan, Wim H. Van Der Putten, Kevin J. McGinn, Carolin Weser & Philip E. Hulme
The performance of introduced plants can be limited by the availability of soil mutualists outside their native range, but how interactions with mutualists differ between ranges is largely unknown. If mutualists are absent, incompatible or parasitic, plants may compensate by investing more in root biomass, adapting to be more selective or by maximizing the benefits associated with the mutualists available. We tested these hypotheses using seven non-agricultural species of Trifolium naturalized in New Zealand (NZ)....

Data from: Balancing food and density-dependence in the spatial distribution of an interference-prone forager

Adriaan Dokter, E. Emiel Van Loon, Cornelis Rappoldt, Kees Oosterbeek, Martin J. Baptist, Willem Bouten, Bruno J. Ens & Adriaan M. Dokter
Foraging distributions are thought to be density-dependent, because animals not only select for a high availability and quality of resources, but also avoid conspecific interference. Since these processes are confounded, their relative importance in shaping foraging distributions remains poorly understood. Here we aimed to rank the contribution of density-dependent and density-independent effects on the spatio-temporal foraging patterns of eurasian oystercatchers. In our intertidal study area, tides caused continuous variation in oystercatcher density, providing an opportunity...

Data from: Highest plasticity of carbon concentrating mechanisms in earliest evolved phytoplankton

Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Karen M. Brandenburg, Joost Keuskamp, Scarlett Trimborn, Sebastian Rokitta, Sven Alexander Kranz & Björn Rost
Phytoplankton photosynthesis strongly relies on the operation of carbon‐concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to accumulate CO2 around their carboxylating enzyme ribulose‐1,5‐bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Earlier evolved phytoplankton groups were shown to exhibit higher CCM activities to compensate for their RuBisCO with low CO2 specificities. Here, we tested whether earlier evolved phytoplankton groups also exhibit a higher CCM plasticity. To this end, we collected data from literature and applied a Bayesian linear meta‐analytic model. Our results show that with...

Data from: Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole‐nesting birds

Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontin, André A. Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Rudi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson … & Ruedi G. Nager
Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole‐nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co‐occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across...

Data from: Intraspecific trait variation and trade-offs within and across populations of a toxic dinoflagellate

Karen M. Brandenburg, Sylke Wohlrab, Uwe John, Anke Kremp, Jacqueline Jerney, Bernd Krock & Dedmer B. Van De Waal
Intraspecific trait diversity can promote the success of a species, as complementarity of functional traits within populations may enhance its competitive success and facilitates resilience to changing environmental conditions. Here, we experimentally determined the variation and relationships between traits in 15 strains of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii derived from two populations. Measured traits included growth rate, cell size, elemental composition, nitrogen uptake kinetics, toxin production and allelochemical potency. Our results demonstrate substantial variation in...

Data from: Nematode community responses to range-expanding and native plant communities in original and new range soils

Rutger A. Wilschut, Olga Kostenko, Kadri Koorem & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Many plant species expand their range to higher latitudes in response to climate change. However, it is poorly understood how biotic interactions in the new range differ from interactions in the original range. Here, in a mesocosm experiment, we analyze nematode community responses in original and new range soils to plant communities with either 1) species native in both the original and new range, 2) range-expanding species related to these natives (related range-expanders), or 3)...

Data from: Haplotype structure, adaptive history and associations with exploratory behaviour of the DRD4 gene region in four great tit (Parus major) populations

Jakob C. Mueller, Peter Korsten, Christine Hermannstädter, Thomas Feulner, Niels J. Dingemanse, Erik Matthysen, Kees Van Oers, Thijs Van Overveld, Samantha C. Patrick, John L. Quinn, Matthias Riemenschneider, Joost M. Tinbergen, Bart Kempenaers & Christine Hermannstaedter
The assessment of genetic architecture and selection history in genes for behavioural traits is fundamental to our understanding of how these traits evolve. The dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene is a prime candidate for explaining genetic variation in novelty seeking behaviour, a commonly assayed personality trait in animals. Previously we showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 3 of this gene is associated with exploratory behaviour in at least one of four Western European...

Data from: Predicting effects of water regime changes on waterbirds: insights from staging swans

Bart A. Nolet, Abel Gyimesi, Roderick R.D. Van Krimpen, Willem F. De Boer, Richard A. Stillman & Roderick R. D. Van Krimpen
Predicting the environmental impact of a proposed development is notoriously difficult, especially when future conditions fall outside the current range of conditions. Individual-based approaches have been developed and applied to predict the impact of environmental changes on wintering and staging coastal bird populations. How many birds make use of staging sites is mostly determined by food availability and accessibility, which in the case of many waterbirds in turn is affected by water level. Many water...

Data from: Inter-annual variability and long-term trends in breeding success in a declining population of migratory swans

Kevin A. Wood, Julia L. Newth, Geoff M. Hilton, Bart A. Nolet & Eileen C. Rees
Population declines among migratory Arctic-breeding birds are a growing concern for conservationists. To inform the conservation of these declining populations, we need to understand how demographic rates such as breeding success are influenced by combinations of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In this study we examined inter-annual variation and long-term trends in two aspects of the breeding success of a migratory herbivore, the Bewick's swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii, which is currently undergoing a population decline: 1)...

Data from: Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird

Marcel E. Visser, Phillip Gienapp, Arild Husby, Michael Morrisey, Iván De La Hera, Francisco Pulido & Christiaan Both
Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first...

Data from: Stressful colors: corticosterone concentrations in a free-living songbird vary with the spectral composition of experimental illumination

Jenny Q. Ouyang, Maaike De Jong, Michaela Hau, Marcel E. Visser, Roy H. A. Van Grunsven & Kamiel Spoelstra
Organisms have evolved under natural daily light/dark cycles for millions of years. These cycles have been disturbed as night-time darkness is increasingly replaced by artificial illumination. Investigating the physiological consequences of free-living organisms in artificially lit environments is crucial to determine whether nocturnal lighting disrupts circadian rhythms, changes behaviour, reduces fitness and ultimately affects population numbers. We make use of a unique, large-scale network of replicated field sites which were experimentally illuminated at night using...

Data from: Context-dependent effects of radio transmitter attachment on a small passerine

Lysanne Snijders, Lydia E. Nieuwe Weme, Piet De Goede, James L. Savage, Kees Van Oers & Marc Naguib
Biotelemetry devices provide unprecedented insights into the spatial behaviour and ecology of many animals. Quantifying the potential effects of attaching such devices to animals is essential, but certain effects may appear only in specific or particularly stressful contexts. Here we analyse the effects of radio transmitter attachment on great tits Parus major tagged over three environmentally dissimilar years, as part of a project studying social- and communication networks. When we radio-tagged birds before breeding, only...

Data from: Low abundant soil bacteria can be metabolically versatile and fast growing

Viola Kurm, Wim H. Van Der Putten, Wietse De Boer, Suzanne Naus-Wiezer & W. H. Gera Hol
The abundance of species is assumed to depend on their life history traits, such as growth rate and resource specialization. However, this assumption has not been tested for bacteria. Here we investigate how abundance of soil bacteria relates to slow growth and substrate specialization (oligotrophy) versus fast growth and substrate generalization (copiotrophy). We collected 47 saprotrophic soil bacterial isolates of differing abundances and measured their growth rate and the ability to use a variety of...

Data from: Adaptive plasticity and epigenetic variation in response to warming in an Alpine plant

Adrienne B. Nicotra, Deborah L. Segal, Gemma L. Hoyle, Aaron W. Schrey, Koen J. F. Verhoeven & Christina L. Richards
Environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity may be a critical component of response to changing environments. We examined local differentiation and adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to elevated temperature in half-sib lines collected across an elevation gradient for the alpine herb, Wahlenbergia ceracea. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), we found low but significant genetic differentiation between low- and high-elevation seedlings, and seedlings originating from low elevations grew faster and showed stronger temperature responses (more plasticity) than...

Data from: Bird-mediated seed dispersal: reduced digestive efficiency in active birds modulates the dispersal capacity of plant seeds

Erik Kleyheeg, Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Mary A. Morison, Bart A. Nolet & Merel B. Soons
Plant populations in fragmented ecosystems rely largely on internal dispersal by animals. To unravel the mechanisms underlying this mode of dispersal, an increasing number of experimental feeding studies is carried out. However, while physical activity is known to affect vertebrate digestive processes, almost all current knowledge on mechanisms of internal seed dispersal has been obtained from experiments with resting animals. We investigated how physical activity of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, probably the quantitatively most important...

Data from: Range expansion in asexual dandelions: selection for general-purpose genotypes?

Carla Oplaat & Koen J. F. Verhoeven
Phenotypic plasticity and broad ecological tolerance are hypothesized as important traits in the range expansion of asexual species, because individual asexual lineages have to face spatial and temporal environmental variation with limited opportunity for genetic adaptation. The hypothesis that asexual lineages are general-purpose genotypes (GPG) has been previously tested, with mixed results, in species that have both sexual and asexual variants. Such comparisons can be confounded with intra-specific ploidy level differences that are often observed...

Data from: Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor

Ivar Herfindal, Martijn Van De Pol, Jan T. Nielsen, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Anders P. Møller & Bernt-Erik Saether
1. Environmental variation can induce life-history changes that can last over a large part of the lifetime of an organism. If multiple demographic traits are affected, expected changes in climate may influence environmental covariances among traits in a complex manner. Thus, examining the consequences of environmental fluctuations requires that individual information at multiple life stages is available, which is particularly challenging in long-lived species. 2. Here, we analyse how variation in climatic conditions occurring in...

Data from: Soil microbiome responses to the short-term effects of Amazonian deforestation

Acácio A. Navarrete, Siu M. Tsai, Lucas W. Mendes, Karoline Faust, Mattias De Hollander, Noriko A. Cassman, Johannes A. Van Veen, Eiko E. Kuramae & Jeroen Raes
Slash-and-burn clearing of forest typically results in increase in soil nutrient availability. However, the impact of these nutrients on the soil microbiome is not known. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic DNA, we compared the structure and the potential functions of bacterial community in forest soils to deforested soils in the Amazon region and related the differences to soil chemical factors. Deforestation decreased soil organic matter content and factors linked...

Data from: Peatland vascular plant functional types affect methane dynamics by altering microbial community structure

Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Vincent E. J. Jassey, Martine A. R. Kox, Roeland L. Berendsen, Robert T. E. Mills, Lauric Cécillon, Jéremy Puissant, Marion Meima–Franke, Peter A. H. M. Bakker, Paul L. E. Bodelier & Marion Meima-Franke
1. Peatlands are natural sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. It is established that peatland methane dynamics are controlled by both biotic and abiotic conditions, yet the interactive effect of these drivers is less studied and consequently poorly understood. 2. Climate change affects the distribution of vascular plant functional types (PFTs) in peatlands. By removing specific PFTs, we assessed their effects on peat organic matter chemistry, microbial community composition and on potential...

Data from: Assembly mechanisms determining high species turnover in aquatic communities over regional and continental scales

Duarte S. Viana, Jordi Figuerola, Klaus Schwenk, Marina Manca, Anders Hobæk, Marit Mjelde, Christopher D. Preston, Richard J. Gornall, Jane M. Croft, Robert A. King, Andy J. Green & Luis Santamaría
Niche and neutral processes drive community assembly and metacommunity dynamics, but their relative importance might vary with the spatial scale. The contribution of niche processes is generally expected to increase with increasing spatial extent at a higher rate than that of neutral processes. However, the extent to what community composition is limited by dispersal (usually considered a neutral process) over increasing spatial scales might depend on the dispersal capacity of composing species. To investigate the...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate & J.-M. Kim
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

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