The hidden potential of saprotrophic fungi in arable soil: Patterns of short-term stimulation by organic amendmentsAnna Clocchiatti, Emilia Hannula, Marlies Van Den Berg, Gerard Korthals & Wietse De Boer
Saprotrophic fungi are abundant in soils of (semi-)natural ecosystems, where they play a major role in ecosystem functioning. On the contrary, saprotrophic fungal biomass is remarkably low in intensively managed soils and this can have a negative impact on soil functioning. Nevertheless, arable soils harbour a diverse pool of fungi, which can be stimulated by organic amendments. Management targeted towards increasing soil organic matter often coincides with an increase of fungal biomass, but it can...
Animals can alter their foraging behavior through associative learning, where an encounter with an essential resource (e.g. food or a reproductive opportunity) is associated with nearby environmental cues (e.g. volatiles). This can subsequently improve the animal’s foraging efficiency. However, when these associated cues are encountered again, the anticipated resource is not always present. Such an unrewarding experience, also called a memory-extinction experience, can change an animal’s response to the associated cues. Although some studies are...
1. Dynamic conditions in nature have led to the evolution of behavioural traits that allow animals to use information on local circumstances and adjust their behaviour accordingly, for example through learning. Although learning can improve foraging efficiency, the learned information can become unreliable as the environment continues to change. This could lead to potential fitness costs when memories holding such unreliable information persist. Indeed, persistent unreliable memory was found to reduce the foraging efficiency of...
Enhancing ecological integrity while preserving ecosystem services: constructing soft-sediment islands in a shallow lakeCasper Van Leeuwen, Ralph Temmink, Hui Jin, Yvonne Kahlert, Bjorn Robroek, Matty Berg, Leon Lamers, Marloes Van Den Akker, Roel Posthoorn, Annemiek Boosten, Han Olff &
1. Ecosystems are increasingly managed to provide multiple benefits to humans, which often degrades their ecological integrity. This strongly applies to aquatic ecosystems, in which engineering can enhance flood protection, drinking water supply, fisheries and recreation. Although these activities typically increase ecosystem functionality to humans, they often impair key aspects of biodiversity and natural functioning. 2. Classical restoration of such degrading freshwater ecosystems can lead to societal opposition, if returning to a former ecosystem state...
Data from: Experimental evidence of rapid heritable adaptation in the absence of initial standing genetic variationKimberley Lemmen, Koen Verhoeven & Steven Declerck
The success of genetically depauperate populations in the face of environmental change is contrary to the expectation that high genetic diversity is required for rapid adaptation. Alternative pathways such as environmentally induced genetic modifications and non-genetic heritable phenotypes have been proposed mechanisms for heritable adaptation within an ecologically relevant timeframe. However, experimental evidence is currently lacking to establish if, and to what extent, these sources of phenotypic variation can produce a response. To test if...
Recent natural variability in global warming weakened phenological mismatch and selection on seasonal timing in great tits (Parus major)Marcel E. Visser, Melanie Lindner, Phillip Gienapp, Matthew Long & Stephanie Jenouvrier
Climate change has led to phenological shifts in many species, but with large variation in magnitude among species and trophic levels. The poster child example of the resulting phenological mismatches between the phenology of predators and their prey is the great tit (Parus major), where this mismatch led to directional selection for earlier seasonal breeding. Natural climate variability can obscure the impacts of climate change over certain periods, weakening phenological mismatching and selection. Here, we...
Chitin, a biopolymer present in fungi and arthropods, is a compound of interest for various applications, such as in the agricultural and medical fields. With the recently growing interest in the development of insect farming, the availability of chitin-containing residual streams, particularly the molting skins (exuviae), is expected to increase in the near future. For application purposes, accurate quantification of chitin in these insect sources is essential. Previous studies on chitin extraction and quantification often...
Netherlands Institute of Ecology18
Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie17
University of Groningen4
Radboud University Nijmegen3
Wageningen University & Research3
Dutch Centre for Field Ornithology2
Estación Biológica de Doñana1
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1
University of Antwerp1