103 Works

North American Hard Yellow Liver Disease: An Old Problem Readdressed

Bryan L. Stegelmeier, Meredyth Jones, Christopher P. Womack, T. Zane Davis & Dale R. Gardner
Hard yellow liver disease or fatty cirrhosis periodically affects cattle, sheep, goats, pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) and whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) within several Texas counties in the United States. Clinically it presents as chronic liver disease with progressive hepatic necrosis and fibrosis, icterus and liver failure. The damaged livers are yellow and many have multiple firm, often gritty foci that are scattered throughout all lobes. Early investigations included feeding studies using potential toxic plants,...

Data from: Effect of pyric herbivory on source-sink dynamics in grassland birds

Craig A. Davis, Roy T. Churchwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, David M. Engle & Torre J. Hovick
Grasslands world-wide provide a host of ecosystem services. In particular, these grasslands serve as biodiversity repositories for a myriad of imperilled animal species. One such group is grassland birds, which have experienced significant declines, predominantly caused by extensive loss and degradation of native grasslands. Rangeland management that promotes increasing and sustaining livestock production through reducing the inherent, disturbance-driven variability that historically occurred in grasslands is considered a major contributing factor to these declines. An alternative...

Data from: Mismatch between dietary requirements for lipid by a predator and availability of lipid in prey

Will D. Wiggins & Shawn M. Wilder
Growth is an important factor in predicting an organism's overall success as an adult. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors influence body size is key to predicting how environmental changes will impact organisms and predicting optimal behaviors under varying conditions. Food items can vary widely in nutrient content and this variation can affect growth. We tested how the quantity and macronutrient content of live prey affected the growth of juvenile jumping spiders, Phiddipus audax, using...

Data from: Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, U.S.A. 50 years after translocation

Emily E. Puckett, Thea V. Kristensen, Clay M. Wilton, Sara B. Lyda, Karen V. Noyce, Paula M. Holahan, , Jeff Beringer, Jerrold L. Belant, , Lori S. Eggert & David M. Leslie
Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita...

Raw data for: No reproductive benefits of dear enemy recognition in a territorial songbird

Michael Reichert, Jodie Crane, Gabrielle Davidson, Eileen Dillane, Ipek Kulahci, James O'Neill, Kees Van Oers, Ciara Sexton & John Quinn
Territorial animals often learn to distinguish their neighbors from unfamiliar conspecifics. This cognitive ability facilitates the dear enemy effect, where individuals respond less aggressively to neighbors than to other individuals, and is hypothesized to be adaptive by reducing unnecessary aggressive interactions with individuals that are not a threat to territory ownership. A key prediction of this hypothesis, that individuals with better ability to learn to recognize neighbors should have higher fitness, has never been tested....

Sex-specific speed-accuracy tradeoffs shape neural processing of acoustic signals in a grasshopper

Jan Clemens, Bernhard Ronacher & Michael Reichert
Speed-accuracy tradeoffs – being fast at the risk of being wrong – are fundamental to many decisions and natural selection is expected to resolve these tradeoffs according to the costs and benefits of behavior. We here test the prediction that females and males should integrate information from courtship signals differently because they experience different payoffs along the speed-accuracy continuum. We fitted a neural model of decision making (a drift-diffusion model of integration to threshold) to...

Mucilage-binding to ground protects seeds of many plants from harvester ants: a functional investigation

Vincent Pan, Marshall McMunn, Richard Karban, Jake Goidell, Eric LoPresti & Marjorie Weber
The seeds of many plant species produce mucilage on their surfaces that when wetted and dried, firmly adheres seeds to surfaces and substrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that seed anchorage to the ground can reduce seed predation, though only a few species have thus far been tested. Here we investigated whether binding to the ground reduces seed removal by harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex subdentatus), an important granivore, for 53 species with mucilaginous seeds. We also explored...

Data from: Evolution in extreme environments: replicated phenotypic differentiation in livebearing fish inhabiting sulfidic springs

Michael Tobler, Maura Palacios, Lauren J Chapman, Igor Mitrofanov, David Bierbach, Martin Plath, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Francisco J García De León & Mariana Mateos
We investigated replicated ecological speciation in the livebearing fishes Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria (Poeciliidae), which inhabit freshwater habitats and have also colonized multiple sulfidic springs in southern Mexico. These springs exhibit extreme hypoxia and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, which is lethal to most metazoans. We used phylogenetic analyses to test whether springs were independently colonized, performed phenotypic assessments of body and gill morphology variation to identify convergent patterns of trait differentiation, and conducted...

Data from: MycoDB, a global database of plant response to mycorrhizal fungi

V. Bala Chaudhary, Megan A. Rúa, Anita Antoninka, James D. Bever, Jeffery Cannon, Ashley Craig, Jessica Duchicela, Alicia Frame, Monique Gardes, Catherine Gehring, Michelle Ha, Miranda Hart, Jacob Hopkins, Baoming Ji, Nancy Collins Johnson, Wittaya Kaonongbua, Justine Karst, Roger T. Koide, Louis J. Lamit, James Meadow, Brook G. Milligan, John C. Moore, , Bridget Piculell, Blake Ramsby … & Jason D. Hoeksema
Plants form belowground associations with mycorrhizal fungi in one of the most common symbioses on Earth. However, few large-scale generalizations exist for the structure and function of mycorrhizal symbioses, as the nature of this relationship varies from mutualistic to parasitic and is largely context-dependent. We announce the public release of MycoDB, a database of 4,010 studies (from 438 unique publications) to aid in multi-factor meta-analyses elucidating the ecological and evolutionary context in which mycorrhizal fungi...

Data from: Immunoglobulin detection in wild birds: effectiveness of three secondary anti-avian IgY antibodies in direct ELISAs in 41 avian species

Carol A. Fassbinder-Orth, Travis E. Wilcoxen, Tiffany Tran, Raoul K. Boughton, Jeanne M. Fair, Erik K. Hofmeister, Jennifer L. Grindstaff & Jen C. Owen
1.Immunological reagents for wild, non-model species are limited or often non-existent for many species. 2. In this study, we compare the reactivity of a new anti-passerine IgY secondary antibody with existing secondary antibodies developed for use with birds. Samples from 41 species from the following six avian orders were analysed: Anseriformes (1 family, 1 species), Columbiformes (1 family, 2 species), Galliformes (1 family, 1 species), Passeriformes (16 families, 34 species), Piciformes (1 family, 2 species)...

Data from: Asymmetric energetic costs in reciprocal-cross hybrids between carnivorous mice (Onychomys)

J. Ryan Shipley, Polly Campbell, Jeremy B. Searle & Bret Pasch
Aerobic respiration is a fundamental physiological trait dependent on coordinated interactions between gene products of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Mitonuclear mismatch in interspecific hybrids may contribute to reproductive isolation by inducing reduced viability (or even complete inviability) due to increased metabolic costs. However, few studies have tested for effects of mitonuclear mismatch on respiration at the whole organism level. We explored how hybridization affects metabolic rates in closely related species of grasshopper mice (genus...

Data from: Invasion facilitates hybridization with introgression in the Rattus rattus species complex

Justin B. Lack, Daniel U. Greene, Chris John Conroy, Meredith J. Hamilton, Janet K. Braun, Michael A. Mares & Ronald A. Van Den Bussche
Biological invasions result in novel species interactions, which can have significant evolutionary impacts on both native and invading taxa. One evolutionary concern with invasions is hybridization among lineages that were previously isolated, but make secondary contact in their invaded range(s). Black rats, consisting of several morphologically very similar but genetically distinct taxa that collectively have invaded six continents, are arguably the most successful mammalian invaders on the planet. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, two...

Data from: A generalist bird exhibits site-dependent resource selection

Samantha M. Cady, Craig A. Davis, Dwayne R. Elmore, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Cameron Duquette, Evan P. Tanner & Matthew J. Carroll
Quantifying resource selection (an organism’s disproportionate use of available resources) is essential to infer habitat requirements of a species, develop management recommendations, predict species responses to changing conditions, and improve our understanding of the processes that underlie ecological patterns. Because study sites, even within the same region, can differ in both the amount and the arrangement of cover types, our objective was to determine whether proximal sites can yield markedly different resource selection results for...

Data for: PickMe: sample selection for species tree reconstruction using coalescent weighted quartets

Joseph Rusinko, Yu Cai, Allison Doherty, Katherine Thompson, Julien Boutte, Mark Fishbein & Shannon Straub
After collecting large data sets of many genes for many species for phylogenomics studies, researchers may make ad hoc decisions about which genes or samples to include in a species tree reconstruction analysis based on various parameters, including the amount of missing data. Optimally, sampling would be maximized, but it can be difficult for empiricists to determine where to draw the line for sample inclusion when data sets are incomplete. Under the multispecies coalescent model,...

Quantitative Assessment of Sun Louver Design Performance

Alexis Severson, Khaled Mansy, Tom Spector, John Phillips & Jeanne Homer
Conventional wisdom holds that carefully designed exterior louver systems tuned to a building’s earth latitude and its glass wall’s compass orientations do a better job of regulating sunlight than interior louver systems due to the intuition-friendly observation that exterior systems reflect or shade the sunlight before it ever enters the building. A multi-criteria, multi-variable analysis performed on a 3600 SF multipurpose space came to different conclusions. The results showed that when accounting for such design...

Data from: Does prey encounter and nutrient content affect prey selection in wolf spiders inhabiting Bt cotton fields?

Dalila Rendon, Phillip W. Taylor, Shawn M. Wilder & Mary E.A. Whitehouse
Wolf spiders are abundant and voracious predators at the soil-plant interface in cotton crops. Among other prey, they attack late-instar larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa spp., an economically important pest. Consequently, wolf spiders in transgenic Bt cotton could provide significant biological control of Bt-resistant Helicoverpa larvae that descend to the soil to pupate. The predator-prey interactions between wolf spiders and Helicoverpa could, however, be constrained by the presence of alternative prey and intraguild predators....

Data from: Perinatal and juvenile social environments interact to shape cognitive behaviour and neural phenotype in prairie voles

George S. Prounis, Lauren Foley, Asad Rehman & Alexander G. Ophir
Social environments experienced at different developmental stages profoundly shape adult behavioural and neural phenotypes, and may have important interactive effects. We asked if social experience before and after weaning influenced adult social cognition in male prairie voles. Animals were raised either with or without fathers and then either housed singly or in sibling pairs. Males that were socially deprived before (fatherless) and after (singly housed) weaning did not demonstrate social recognition or dissociate spatial from...

Data from: Restoring fire to grasslands is critical for migrating shorebird populations

Torre J. Hovick, J. Matthew Carroll, R. Dwayne Elmore, Craig A. Davis & Samuel D. Fuhlendorf
Fire is a disturbance process that maintains the structure and function of grassland ecosystems while sustaining grassland biodiversity. Conversion of grasslands to other land uses coupled with altered disturbance regimes have greatly diminished the habitat available to many grassland dependent species. These changes have been linked to declines in breeding bird populations, but may also be critical for migrating bird populations such as those shorebird species that depend on mesic grasslands during migration. We examined...

Data from: Effect of microsatellite selection on individual and population genetic inferences: an empirical study using cross-specific and species-specific amplifications

Joao Queiros, Raquel Godinho, Susana Lopes, Christian Gortazar, Jose De La Fuente & Paulo C. Alves
Although whole-genome sequencing is becoming more accessible and feasible for nonmodel organisms, microsatellites have remained the markers of choice for various population and conservation genetic studies. However, the criteria for choosing microsatellites are still controversial due to ascertainment bias that may be introduced into the genetic inference. An empirical study of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations, in which cross-specific and species-specific microsatellites developed through pyrosequencing of enriched libraries, was performed for this study. Two different...

Data from: Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote

Gerald Schönknecht, Wei-Hua Chen, Chad M. Ternes, Guillaume G. Barbier, Roshan P. Shrestha, Mario Stanke, Andrea Bräutigam, Brett J. Baker, Jillian F. Banfield, R. Michael Garavito, Kevin Carr, Curtis Wilkerson, Stefan A. Rensing, David Gagneul, Nicholas E. Dickenson, Christine Oesterhelt, Martin J. Lercher & Andreas P. M. Weber
Some microbial eukaryotes, such as the extremophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria, can live in hot, toxic metal-rich, acidic environments. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptation, we sequenced the 13.7 Mb genome of G. sulphuraria. This alga shows an enormous metabolic flexibility, growing either photoautotrophically or heterotrophically on more than 50 carbon sources. Environmental adaptation seems to have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer from various bacteria and archaea, often followed by gene family...

Data from: Systems biology of tissue-specific response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals differentiated apoptosis in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis

Nieves Ayllón, Margarita Villar, Ruth C. Galindo, Katherine M. Kocan, Radek Sima, Juan A. López, Jesús Vázquez, Pilar Alberdi, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Petr Kopáček & José De La Fuente
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection...

Data from: Eutrophication and predation risk interact to affect sexual trait expression and mating success

Rickey Duane Cothran, Andy R Stiff, Punidan D Jeyasingh & Rick A Relyea
Sexual traits are especially sensitive to low food resources. Other environmental parameters (e.g., predation) should also affect sexual trait expression by favoring investment in viability traits rather than sexual traits. We know surprisingly little about how predators alter investment in sexual traits, or how predator and resource environments interact to affect sexual trait investment. We explored how increasing phosphorous (P) availability, at a level mimicking cultural eutrophication, affects the development of sexual, non-sexual, and viability...

Data from: Selection from parasites favors immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations

Michael Tobler, Martin Plath, Rüdiger Riesch, Ingo Schlupp, Anna Grasse, Gopi K. Munimanda, Claudia Setzer, Dustin J. Penn & Yoshan Moodley
The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and...

Data from: Predicting bird-window collisions with weather radar

Jared Elmore, Corey Riding, Timothy O'Connell & Scott Loss
This is the data archive for all recorded bird species and carcass counts used to predict bird window collisions using weather radar in Stillwater, Oklahoma.

Phenotypic and genomic diversification with isolation by environment along elevational gradients in a neotropical treefrog

Ricardo Medina, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez, Guinevere O.U. Wogan, Ke Bi, Flavia Termignoni-García, Manuel Hernando Bernal, Juan P. Jaramillo-Correa & Ian J. Wang
Understanding how geographic and environmental heterogeneity drive local patterns of genetic variation is a major goal of ecological genomics and a key question in evolutionary biology. The tropical Andes and inter-Andean valleys are shaped by markedly heterogeneous landscapes, where species experience strong selective processes. We examined genome-wide SNP data together with behavioral and ecological traits (mating calls and body size) known to contribute to genetic isolation in anurans in the emerald-eyed treefrog, Boana platanera, distributed...

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