100 Works

Reactions of Hydrazones and Hydrazides with Lewis Acidic Boranes - data

Theodore A Gazis, Ayan Dasgupta, Michael S Hill, Jeremy M Rawson, Thomas Wirth & Rebecca L Melen
The reaction of (diphenylmethylene)hydrazone or 1,4-bis-hydraQ4 zone-ylidene(phenyl)methyl)benzene with Lewis acidic boranes B(2,4,6-F3C6H2)3 or B(3,4,5-F3C6H2)3 generates the Lewis acid– base adducts. Alternatively, when (9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)hydrazone is employed then several products were isolated including 1,2-di(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)hydrazone, the 2 : 1 borane adduct of NH2–NH2 and the 1-(diarylboraneyl)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene) hydrazone in which one ArH group has been eliminated. The benzhydrazide starting material also initially gives an adduct when reacted with Lewis acidic boranes which upon heating eliminates ArH generating a CON2B...

Data from: Inbreeding effects on gene-specific DNA methylation among tissues of Chinook salmon

Clare J. Venney, Mattias L. Johansson & Daniel D. Heath
Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness resulting from the mating of genetically related individuals. Traditionally, the study of inbreeding depression focused on genetic effects, although recent research has identified DNA methylation as also having a role in inbreeding effects. Since inbreeding depression and DNA methylation change with age and environmental stress, DNA methylation is a likely candidate for the regulation of genes associated with inbreeding depression. Here, we use a targeted, multigene approach to...

Data from: Latitudinal and seasonal variation in space use by a large, predatory reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus

Molly E. Scott, Michelle R. Heupel, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Jordan K. Matley & Morgan S. Pratchett
1. Temperature directly affects the metabolic rate and resource requirements of ectothermic animals, which is likely to influence their movement and habitat use. Space use is a fundamental component of an animal’s ecology and the extent of an animal’s home range has consequences for individual distributions, community structure and ecosystem function. As ocean temperatures continue to rise as a result of global warming, determining the effects of temperature on space use and movement patterns of...

Divergence in plumage, voice, and morphology indicates speciation in Rufous-capped Warblers (Basileuterus rufifrons)

Alana Demko, Roberto Sosa-López, Richard Simpson, Stéphanie Doucet & Daniel Mennill
The biodiversity of the Neotropics is considerable, but it is likely underestimated owing to gaps in sampling effort and a focus on using morphological features of animals to determine species differences rather than divergence in their mating signals and behavior. Recent multi-trait analyses incorporating morphological, plumage, and vocal data have allowed for more accurate quantification of tropical biodiversity. We present a comprehensive study of morphological features, plumage, and vocalizations of the Neotropical resident Rufous-capped Warbler...

Rearing environment affects the genetic architecture and plasticity of DNA methylation in Chinook salmon

Clare Venney, Kyle Wellband & Daniel Heath
Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity are important considerations when studying trait variation within and among populations. Since environmental change can induce shifts in the genetic architecture and plasticity of traits, it is important to consider both genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation. While there is overwhelming evidence for environmental effects on phenotype, the underlying mechanisms are less clear. Variation in DNA methylation is a potential mechanism mediating environmental effects on phenotype due to its...

Data from: Flexible mate choice may contribute to ecotype assortative mating in pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)

Will M.C. Jarvis, Shevon M. Comeau, Scott F. Colborne, Beren W. Robinson & W. M. C. Jarvis
Gene flow is expected to limit adaptive divergence but the ecological and behavioural factors that govern gene flow are still poorly understood, particularly at the earliest stages of population divergence. Reduced gene flow through mate choice (sexual isolation) can evolve even under conditions of subtle population divergence if intermediate phenotypes have reduced fitness. We indirectly tested the hypothesis that mate choice has evolved between coexisting littoral and pelagic ecotypes of polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)...

Data from: Evaluation of an acoustic telemetry transmitter designed to identify predation events

Edmund A. Halfyard, Dale Webber, Josh Del Papa, Todd Leadley, Steven T. Kessel, Scott F. Colborne & Aaron T. Fisk
The field of acoustic telemetry has evolved rapidly and now permits the remote sensing of animal behaviour, movement, physiology and survival in environments and species not previously possible. However, an inability to detect when a telemetered animal is consumed by a predator can complicate accurate interpretation of telemetry data. Here, we describe efforts to test two generations of a novel prototype acoustic telemetry transmitter designed specifically to detect predation. Testing involved either staged predation events...

Data from: Historical and anthropogenic factors affecting the population genetic structure of Ontario’s inland lake populations of walleye (Sander vitreus)

Ryan P. Walter, Christopher J. Cena, George C. Morgan & Daniel D. Heath
Populations existing in formerly glaciated areas often display composite historical and contemporary patterns of genetic structure. For Canadian freshwater fishes, population genetic structure is largely reflective of dispersal from glacial refugia and isolation within drainage basins across a range of scales. Enhancement of sport fisheries via hatchery stocking programs and other means has the potential to alter signatures of natural evolutionary processes. Using 11 microsatellite loci genotyped from 2182 individuals, we analyzed the genetic structure...

Data from: Conservation implications of a lack of relationship between baseline glucocorticoids and fitness in a wild passerine

Christine L. Madliger & Oliver P. Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs: cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or...

Data from: Post-spawning sexual selection in red and white Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Sarah J. Lehnert, Daniel D. Heath, Robert H. Devlin & Trevor E. Pitcher
Post-copulatory processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can play important roles in the maintenance of polymorphisms. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), color morphs (red and white) exist due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition in flesh, skin, and gametes. We investigated the role of post-spawning sexual selection in maintaining the polymorphism in a mixed population. First, we compared sperm velocity differences in water between morphs. Next, we measured color-based CFC via 2...

Data from: Immigrant song: males and females learn songs post-dispersal in a tropical bird

Brendan A. Graham, Daniel D. Heath, Ryan P. Walter & Daniel J. Mennill
A fundamental hypothesis about vocal learning is that young animals learn vocalizations in their natal areas and, following post-natal dispersal, they may introduce new types of vocalizations into their breeding areas. We tested this hypothesis in a tropical bird, the Rufous-and-white Wren (Thryophilus rufalbus), a species in which both sexes produce learned songs. We collected blood samples and acoustic recordings from 146 adult wrens from three populations in northwestern Costa Rica. We genotyped individuals at...

Data from: Hierarchical analysis of genetic structure in the habitat-specialist Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)

Robert Ginson, Ryan P. Walter, Nicholas E. Mandrak, Courtney L. Beneteau & Daniel D. Heath
Quantifying spatial genetic structure can reveal the relative influences of contemporary and historic factors underlying localized and regional patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow – important considerations for the development of effective conservation efforts. Using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci, we characterize genetic variation among populations across the range of the Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida), a small riverine percid that is highly dependent on sandy substrate microhabitats. We tested for fine scale, regional, and...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in ecological opportunity and intraspecific competition indicates differences in niche variability and diet specialization of Arctic marine predators

David J. Yurkowski, Steve Ferguson, Emily S. Choy, Lisa L. Loseto, Tanya M. Brown, Derek C. G. Muir, Christina A. D. Semeniuk & Aaron T. Fisk
Individual specialization (IS), where individuals within populations irrespective of age, sex, and body size are either specialized or generalized in terms of resource use, has implications on ecological niches and food web structure. Niche size and degree of IS of near-top trophic-level marine predators have been little studied in polar regions or with latitude. We quantified the large-scale latitudinal variation of population- and individual-level niche size and IS in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and beluga...

Data from: Speciation with gene flow and the genetics of habitat transitions

Melania E. Cristescu, Anna Constantin, Dan G. Bock, Carla E. Cáceres & Teresa J. Crease
Whether speciation can advance to completion in the face of initially high levels of gene flow is a very controversial topic in evolutionary biology. Extensive gene exchange is generally considered to homogenize populations and counteract divergence. Moreover, the role of introgressive hybridization in evolution remains largely unexplored in animals, particularly in freshwater zooplankton in which allopatric speciation is considered to be the norm. Our work investigates the genetic structure of two young ecological species: the...

Data from: Effects of ovarian fluid and genetic differences on sperm performance and fertilization success of alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Ian A.E. Butts, Erin W. Flannery, Kia M. Peters, Daniel D. Heath, Trevor E. Pitcher & I. A. E. Butts
In many species, sperm velocity affects variation in the outcome of male competitive fertilization success. In fishes, ovarian fluid (OF) released with the eggs can increase male sperm velocity and potentially facilitate cryptic female choice for males of specific phenotypes and/or genotypes. Therefore, to investigate the role of OF on fertilization success, we measured sperm velocity and conducted in vitro competitive fertilizations with paired Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) males representing two alternative reproductive tactics, jacks...

Data from: The adaptive capacity of lake food webs: from individuals to ecosystems

Bailey C. McMeans, Kevin S. McCann, Tyler D. Tunney, Aaron T. Fisk, Andrew M. Muir, Nigel Lester, Brian Shuter & Neil Rooney
Aquatic ecosystems support size structured food webs, wherein predator-prey body sizes span orders of magnitude. As such, these food webs are replete with extremely generalized feeding strategies, especially among the larger bodied, higher trophic position taxa. The movement scale of aquatic organisms also generally increases with body size and trophic position. Together, these body size, mobility, and foraging relationships suggest that organisms lower in the food web generate relatively distinct energetic pathways by feeding over...

Snow bunting respirometry data

Ryan O'Connor, Audrey Le Pogam, Kevin Young, Francis Robitaille, Emily Choy, Oliver Love, Kyle Elliott, Anna Hargreaves, Dominique Berteaux, Andrew Tam & François Vézina
1. Arctic animals inhabit some of the coldest environments on the planet and have evolved physiological mechanisms for minimizing heat loss under extreme cold. However, the Arctic is warming faster than the global average and how well Arctic animals tolerate even moderately high air temperatures (Ta) is unknown. 2. Using flow-through respirometry we investigated the heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis; ≈ 31g, N = 42), a cold specialist, Arctic...

Sympatry drives colour and song divergence in wood-warblers (Parulidae)

Richard Simpson, David Wilson, Allison F. Mistakidis, Daniel Mennill & Stéphanie M. Doucet
Closely related species often exhibit similarities in appearance and behaviour, yet when related species exist in sympatry, signals may diverge to enhance species recognition. Prior comparative studies provided mixed support for this hypothesis, but the relationship between sympatry and signal divergence is likely non-linear. Constraints on signal diversity may limit signal divergence, especially when large numbers of species are sympatric. We tested the effect of sympatric overlap on plumage colour and song divergence in wood-warblers...

Data from: Predator-free space, functional responses and biological invasions

Daniel Barrios-O'Neill, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Mark C. Emmerson, Anthony Ricciardi & Hugh J. MacIsaac
Predator-prey interactions are mediated by the structural complexity of habitats, but disentangling the many facets of structure that contribute to this mediation remains elusive. In a world replete with altered landscapes and biological invasions, determining how structure mediates the interactions between predators and novel prey will contribute to our understanding of invasions and predator-prey dynamics in general. Here, using simplified experimental arenas, we manipulate predator-free space, whilst holding surface area and volume constant, to quantify...

Data from: Effect of temperature on oviposition behavior and egg load of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Krystal Rae Hans, Rebecca LeBouthillier & Sherah L. VanLaerhoven
Making optimal oviposition decisions is especially important for female carrion colonizing insects whose larvae often depend on ephemeral resources. Oviposition can be influenced by a variety of factors, including temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on the oviposition behavior and egg load of two blow fly species native to southern Ontario: Phormia regina Meigen and Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Using fetal pig carcasses as an oviposition substrate,...

Data from: Origins of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus): impacts of ice-olation and introgression

Ryan P. Walter, Denis Roy, Nigel E. Hussey, Björn Stelbrink, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bailey C. McMeans, Jörundur Svavarsson, Steven T. Kessel, Sebastian Biton Porsmoguer, Sharon Wildes, Cindy A. Tribuzio, Steven E. Campana, Stephen D. Petersen, R. Dean Grubbs, Daniel D. Heath, Kevin J. Hedges & Aaron T. Fisk
Herein, we use genetic data from 277 sleeper sharks to perform coalescent-based modeling to test the hypothesis of early Quaternary emergence of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) from ancestral sleeper sharks in the Canadian Arctic-Subarctic region. Our results show that morphologically cryptic somniosids S. microcephalus and Somniosus pacificus can be genetically distinguished using combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Our data confirm the presence of genetically admixed individuals in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic, and...

Data from: Environmental and genetic determinants of transcriptional plasticity in Chinook salmon

Kyle W. Wellband, John W. Heath & Daniel D. Heath
Variation in gene transcription is widely believed to be the mechanistic basis of phenotypically plastic traits; however, comparatively little is known about the inheritance patterns of transcriptional variation that would allow us to predict its response to selection. In addition, acclimation to different environmental conditions influences acute transcriptional responses to stress and it is unclear if these effects are heritable. To address these gaps in knowledge, we assayed levels of messenger RNA for 14 candidate...

Data from: Possible ballast water transfer of lionfish to the eastern Pacific Ocean

Hugh J. MacIsaac, Emma M. De Roy, Brian Leung, Alice Grgicak-Mannion & Gregory M. Ruiz
The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from...

Data from: Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries

Katherine D. Balasingham, Ryan P. Walter, Nicholas E. Mandrak & Daniel D. Heath
The extraction and characterization of DNA from aquatic environmental samples offers an alternative, non-invasive approach for the detection of rare species. Environmental DNA, coupled with PCR and next-generation sequencing (“metabarcoding”), has proven to be very sensitive for the detection of rare aquatic species. Our study used a custom designed group-specific primer set and next-generation sequencing for the detection of three species at risk; (Eastern Sand Darter, Ammocrypta pellucida; Northern Madtom, Noturus stigmosus; and Silver Shiner,...

Data from: Neutral genetic variation in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affects brain-to-body trade-off and brain laterality

Mallory L. Wiper, Sarah J. Lehnert, Daniel D. Heath & Dennis M. Higgs
Low levels of heterozygosity can have detrimental effects on life history and growth characteristics of organisms but more subtle effects such as those on trade-offs of expensive tissues and morphological laterality, especially of the brain, have not been explicitly tested. The objective of the current study was to investigate how estimated differences in heterozygosity may potentially affect brain-to-body trade-offs and to explore how these heterozygosity differences may affect differential brain growth, focusing on directional asymmetry...

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