95 Works

Data from: Inbreeding effects on gene-specific DNA methylation among tissues of Chinook salmon

Clare J. Venney, Mattias L. Johansson & Daniel D. Heath
Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness resulting from the mating of genetically related individuals. Traditionally, the study of inbreeding depression focused on genetic effects, although recent research has identified DNA methylation as also having a role in inbreeding effects. Since inbreeding depression and DNA methylation change with age and environmental stress, DNA methylation is a likely candidate for the regulation of genes associated with inbreeding depression. Here, we use a targeted, multigene approach to...

Data from: Historical and anthropogenic factors affecting the population genetic structure of Ontario’s inland lake populations of walleye (Sander vitreus)

Ryan P. Walter, Christopher J. Cena, George C. Morgan & Daniel D. Heath
Populations existing in formerly glaciated areas often display composite historical and contemporary patterns of genetic structure. For Canadian freshwater fishes, population genetic structure is largely reflective of dispersal from glacial refugia and isolation within drainage basins across a range of scales. Enhancement of sport fisheries via hatchery stocking programs and other means has the potential to alter signatures of natural evolutionary processes. Using 11 microsatellite loci genotyped from 2182 individuals, we analyzed the genetic structure...

Data from: Evaluation of an acoustic telemetry transmitter designed to identify predation events

Edmund A. Halfyard, Dale Webber, Josh Del Papa, Todd Leadley, Steven T. Kessel, Scott F. Colborne & Aaron T. Fisk
The field of acoustic telemetry has evolved rapidly and now permits the remote sensing of animal behaviour, movement, physiology and survival in environments and species not previously possible. However, an inability to detect when a telemetered animal is consumed by a predator can complicate accurate interpretation of telemetry data. Here, we describe efforts to test two generations of a novel prototype acoustic telemetry transmitter designed specifically to detect predation. Testing involved either staged predation events...

Data from: Speciation with gene flow and the genetics of habitat transitions

Melania E. Cristescu, Anna Constantin, Dan G. Bock, Carla E. Cáceres & Teresa J. Crease
Whether speciation can advance to completion in the face of initially high levels of gene flow is a very controversial topic in evolutionary biology. Extensive gene exchange is generally considered to homogenize populations and counteract divergence. Moreover, the role of introgressive hybridization in evolution remains largely unexplored in animals, particularly in freshwater zooplankton in which allopatric speciation is considered to be the norm. Our work investigates the genetic structure of two young ecological species: the...

Data from: Effects of ovarian fluid and genetic differences on sperm performance and fertilization success of alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Ian A.E. Butts, Erin W. Flannery, Kia M. Peters, Daniel D. Heath, Trevor E. Pitcher & I. A. E. Butts
In many species, sperm velocity affects variation in the outcome of male competitive fertilization success. In fishes, ovarian fluid (OF) released with the eggs can increase male sperm velocity and potentially facilitate cryptic female choice for males of specific phenotypes and/or genotypes. Therefore, to investigate the role of OF on fertilization success, we measured sperm velocity and conducted in vitro competitive fertilizations with paired Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) males representing two alternative reproductive tactics, jacks...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in ecological opportunity and intraspecific competition indicates differences in niche variability and diet specialization of Arctic marine predators

David J. Yurkowski, Steve Ferguson, Emily S. Choy, Lisa L. Loseto, Tanya M. Brown, Derek C. G. Muir, Christina A. D. Semeniuk & Aaron T. Fisk
Individual specialization (IS), where individuals within populations irrespective of age, sex, and body size are either specialized or generalized in terms of resource use, has implications on ecological niches and food web structure. Niche size and degree of IS of near-top trophic-level marine predators have been little studied in polar regions or with latitude. We quantified the large-scale latitudinal variation of population- and individual-level niche size and IS in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and beluga...

Data from: Flexible mate choice may contribute to ecotype assortative mating in pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)

Will M.C. Jarvis, Shevon M. Comeau, Scott F. Colborne, Beren W. Robinson & W. M. C. Jarvis
Gene flow is expected to limit adaptive divergence but the ecological and behavioural factors that govern gene flow are still poorly understood, particularly at the earliest stages of population divergence. Reduced gene flow through mate choice (sexual isolation) can evolve even under conditions of subtle population divergence if intermediate phenotypes have reduced fitness. We indirectly tested the hypothesis that mate choice has evolved between coexisting littoral and pelagic ecotypes of polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)...

Reactions of Hydrazones and Hydrazides with Lewis Acidic Boranes - data

Theodore A Gazis, Ayan Dasgupta, Michael S Hill, Jeremy M Rawson, Thomas Wirth & Rebecca L Melen
The reaction of (diphenylmethylene)hydrazone or 1,4-bis-hydraQ4 zone-ylidene(phenyl)methyl)benzene with Lewis acidic boranes B(2,4,6-F3C6H2)3 or B(3,4,5-F3C6H2)3 generates the Lewis acid– base adducts. Alternatively, when (9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)hydrazone is employed then several products were isolated including 1,2-di(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)hydrazone, the 2 : 1 borane adduct of NH2–NH2 and the 1-(diarylboraneyl)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene) hydrazone in which one ArH group has been eliminated. The benzhydrazide starting material also initially gives an adduct when reacted with Lewis acidic boranes which upon heating eliminates ArH generating a CON2B...

Data from: Insect herbivory on seedlings of rainforest trees: effects of density and distance of conspecific and heterospecific neighbours

Harriet Downey, Owen T. Lewis, Michael B. Bonsall, D. Catalina Fernandez & Sofia Gripenberg
1. Natural enemies of plants such as insect herbivores can contribute to structuring and maintaining plant diversity in tropical forests. Most research in this area has focused on the role of specialised enemies and the extent to which herbivory on individual plant species is density-dependent. 2. Relatively few insect herbivores specialise on a single host plant species. Insect herbivores that feed on more than one plant species may link the regeneration dynamics of their host...

Data from: Residual eDNA detection sensitivity assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in a river ecosystem

Katherine D. Balasingham, Ryan P. Walter & Daniel D. Heath
Several studies have demonstrated that environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to detect the presence of aquatic species, days to weeks after the target species has been removed. However, most studies used eDNA analysis in lentic systems (ponds or lakes), or in controlled laboratory experiments. While eDNA degrades rapidly in all aquatic systems, it also undergoes dilution effects and physical destruction in flowing systems, complicating detection in rivers. However, some eDNA (i.e. residual eDNA) can...

Data from: Hot temperatures during the dry season reduce survival of a resident tropical bird

Brad K. Woodworth, D. Ryan Norris, Brendan A. Graham, Zachary A. Kahn, Daniel J. Mennill & Bradley K. Woodworth
Understanding how climate change will shape species distributions in the future requires a functional understanding of the demographic responses of animals to their environment. For birds, most of our knowledge of how climate influences population vital rates stems from research in temperate environments, even though most of the Earth’s avian diversity is concentrated in the tropics. We evaluated effects of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and local temperature and rainfall at multiple temporal scales on sex-specific...

Data from: Experimental trait mis-matches uncover specificity of evolutionary links between multiple signaling traits and their interactions in hummingbirds

Richard K. Simpson & Kevin J. McGraw
Many animal signals co-occur, and these signals may co-evolve due to their interactive properties. Previous work has demonstrated ecological drivers of evolutionary relationships between signals and the environment, which leads to questions about why specific signal pairs evolved among species that possess multiple signals. We asked whether the coloration of different species was optimized for presentation with its natural behavioral display. We investigated this in “bee” hummingbirds, where males exhibit angle-dependent structurally colored plumage and...

Data from: Human-mediated and natural dispersal of an invasive fish in the eastern Great Lakes

Mattias L. Johansson, Bradley A. Dufour, Kyle W. Wellband, Lynda D. Corkum, Hugh J. MacIsaac & Daniel D. Heath
The globally invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was introduced to the Great Lakes around 1990, spreading widely and becoming the dominant benthic fish in many areas. The speed and scope of this invasion is remarkable and calls into question conventional secondary spread models and scenarios. We utilized 9 microsatellites to identify large-scale genetic structure in Round Goby populations in the eastern Great Lakes, and assessed the role of colonization versus secondary transport and dispersal in...

Data from: Sperm competition, but not major histocompatibility divergence, drives differential fertilization success between alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Leila Helou, Trevor E. Pitcher, John W. Heath & Daniel D. Heath
Post-copulatory sexual selection processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can operate based on major histocompatibility (MH) genes. We investigated sperm competition between male alternative reproductive tactics [jack (sneaker) and hooknose (guard)] of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Using a full factorial design, we examined in vitro competitive fertilization success of paired jack and hooknose males at three time points after sperm activation (0, 15 and 60 s) to test for male competition, CFC...

Data from: Novel molecular approach demonstrates turbid river plumes reduce predation mortality on larval fish

Lucia B. Carreon-Martinez, Kyle W. Wellband, Timothy B. Johnson, Stuart A. Ludsin & Daniel D. Heath
Turbidity associated with river plumes is known to affect the search ability of visual predators and thus can drive “top-down” impacts on prey populations in complex ecosystems; however, traditional quantification of predator-prey relationships (i.e., stomach content analysis) often fail with larval fish due to rapid digestion rates. Herein, we use novel molecular genetic methods to quantify larval Yellow Perch (YP) in predator stomachs in western Lake Erie to test the hypothesis that turbidity drives variation...

Data from: Sperm allocation in relation to female size in a semelparous salmonid

Yuya Makiguchi, Masaki Ichimura, Takenori Kitayama, Yuuki Kawabata, Takashi Kitagawa, Takahito Kojima & Trevor E. Pitcher
To maximize reproductive success, males have to adaptively tailor their sperm expenditure in relation to the quality of potential mates because they require time to replenish their sperm supply for subsequent mating opportunities. Therefore, in mating contexts where males must choose among females in a short period of time, as is the case with semelparous species (which die after one intensely competitive short duration breeding season), selection on sperm allocation can be expected to be...

Data from: Divergence in mating signals correlates with genetic distance and behavioural responses to playback

J. Roberto Sosa-López, Juan E. Martinez Gomez & Daniel J. Mennill
Animals use acoustic signals to defend resources against rivals and attract breeding partners. As with many biological traits, acoustic signals may reflect ancestry; closely related species often produce more similar signals than do distantly related species. Whether this similarity in acoustic signals is biologically relevant to animals is poorly understood. We conducted a playback experiment to measure the physical and vocal responses of male songbirds to the songs of both conspecific and allopatric-congeneric animals that...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Evidence for hearing loss in amblyopsid cavefishes

Matthew L. Niemiller, Dennis M. Higgs & Daphne Soares
The constant darkness of caves and other subterranean habitats imposes sensory constraints that offer a unique opportunity to examine evolution of sensory modalities. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well explored, and here we show that cavefishes in the family Amblyopsidae are not only blind but have also lost a significant portion of their hearing range. Our results showed that cave and surface amblyopsids shared the same audiogram profile at low frequencies but only surface...

Data from: Genetic population structure and demography of an apex predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier

Agathe Pirog, Sebastien Jaquemet, Virginie Ravigné, Geremy Cliff, Eric Clua, Bonnie J. Holmes, Nigel E. Hussey, John E.G. Nevill, Andrew J. Temple, Per Berggren, Laurent Vigliola & Hélène Magalon
Population genetics have been increasingly applied to study large sharks over the last decade. Whilst large shark species are often difficult to study with direct methods, improved knowledge is needed for both population management and conservation, especially for species vulnerable to anthropogenic and climatic impacts. The tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, is an apex predator known to play important direct and indirect roles in tropical and sub-tropical marine ecosystems. While the global and Indo-West Pacific population...

Data for: Spatial and temporal genetic variation in an exploited reef fish: The effects of exploitation on cohort genetic structure

Zahra Taboun, Ryan Walter, Jennifer Ovenden & Daniel Heath
Many coral reef fishes are fished, often resulting in detrimental genetic effects; however, reef fishes often show unpredictable patterns of genetic variation, which potentially mask the effects of fishing. Our goals were to characterize spatial and temporal genetic variation and determine the effects of fishing on an exploited reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus, Lacepède (the common coral trout). To determine population structure, we genotyped 417 Great Barrier Reef coral trout from four populations sampled in two...

Data from: Predator abundance drives the association between exploratory personality and foraging habitat risk in a wild marine meso-predator.

Félicie Dhellemmes, Matthew Smukall, Tristan Guttridge, Jens Krause & Nigel Hussey
1. In recent years, the incorporation of lower levels of organization to the understanding of population ecology, has led to an increase in interest for animal personality and individual foraging specialization. Despite these topics investigating comparable phenomena, i.e. individual consistency in behavior and in food resource use respectively, they have rarely been investigated together. 2. Food resource use is thought to be at the interface between personality and life-history. More explorative individuals in a population,...

Global port environmental data used for environmental distance calculations

Sarah Bailey, Johanna Bradie, Dawson Ogilvie & Paul Mudroch
This dataset contains a list of 8392 global commerical shipping ports, with geographic coordinates and four environmental variables (i.e. salinity, mean temperature during the warmest month, mean temperature during the coldest month and annual average temperature (all at water surface)). Data were primarily sourced from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration World Ocean Atlas. Data for estuarine and riverine ports has been corrected, where better information was available, with particular focus on Canadian port...

Density dependence mediates the ecological impact of an invasive fish

Emma DeRoy, Ryan Scott, Nigel Hussey & Hugh MacIsaac
Aim: The way in which habitat heterogeneity and predator density affect predator-prey dynamics, space use, and prey risk are understudied aspects of foraging ecology, particularly for invasive species. Likewise, how an invasive species’ impact scales with its abundance is poorly understood. We used a model invasive species, lionfish (Pterois volitans), to understand effects of multiple predators on consumption rate and prey mortality risk, foraging among multiple patches. Location Florida, USA Methods We considered effects of...

Complementary genomic and epigenomic adaptation to environmental heterogeneity

Yangchun Gao, Yiyong Chen, Shiguo Li, Xuena Huang, Juntao Hu, Dan G. Bock, Hugh J. MacIsaac & Aibin Zhan
While adaptation is commonly thought to result from selection on DNA sequence-based variation, recent studies have highlighted an analogous epigenetic component as well. However, the relative roles of these mechanisms in facilitating population persistence under environmental heterogeneity remain unclear. To address the underlying genetic and epigenetic mechanisms and their relationship during environmental adaptation, we screened the genomes and epigenomes of nine global populations of a predominately sessile marine invasive tunicate, Botryllus schlosseri. We detected clear...

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