112 Works

Scale modeling of dust capture through a flooded-bed dust scrubber integrated within a longwall shearer

Sampurna Arya, Ashish R. Kumar, Kozo Saito, Thomas Novak & Adam Levy
Meeting federal dust standards at a longwall mine face is among the more difficult challenges for a longwall mine operator. With recent changes in federal dust regulations requiring lower worker exposure, maintaining compliance has become increasingly difficult. The authors recommend the concept of controlling respirable and float dust, which is inherent in longwall mining, through the application of a flooded-bed dust scrubber to a longwall shearer. A full-scale physical model of a longwall shearer, modified...

Episodes of high recruitment buffer against climate-driven mass mortality events in a North Pacific seabird population

Michael Johns, Pete Warzybok, Jaime Jahncke, Patricia Doak, Mark Lindberg & Greg Breed
Longitudinal studies of marked animals provide an opportunity to assess the relative contributions of survival and reproductive output to population dynamics and change. Cassin’s auklets are a long-lived seabird that maximizes annual reproductive effort in resource-rich years through a behavior called double brooding, the initiation of a second breeding attempt following the success of the first during the same season. Our objective was to explore whether double brooding influenced population change by contributing a greater...

Data from: Of 11 candidate steroids, corticosterone concentration standardized for mass is the most reliable steroid-biomarker of nutritional stress across different feather types

Alexis Will, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Ruokun Zhou & Alexander Kitaysky
1. Measuring corticosterone in feathers has become an informative tool in avian ecology, enabling researchers to investigate carry-over effects and responses to environmental variability. Few studies have, however, explored whether corticosterone is the only hormone expressed in feathers, and is the most indicative of environmental stress. Essential questions remain as to how to compare hormone concentrations across different types of feathers and whether preening adds steroids, applied after feather growth. 2. We used liquid chromatography...

Data from: Skeletal microstructure of Stenopterygius quadriscissus (Reptilia, Ichthyosauria) from the Posidonienschiefer (Posidonia Shale, Lower Jurassic) of Germany

Katherine L. Anderson, Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Gregory M. Erickson & Erin E. Maxwell
Ichthyosaurians (Ichthyosauria) are a major clade of secondarily aquatic marine tetrapods that occupied several major predatory niches during the Mesozoic Era. Multiple lines of evidence including isotopic, body shape and swimming modality analyses suggest they exhibited elevated growth and metabolic rates, and body temperatures. However, applications of osteohistological methods to test hypotheses regarding their physiology are few. Previous studies focused on the humeri, vertebrae and ribs from a small number of taxa. Here, we use...

Data from: Spatial variability in size at maturity of golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) and implications for fisheries management

Andrew P. Olson, Chris E. Siddon & Ginny L. Eckert
Many crab fisheries around the world are managed by size, sex and season, where males are given at least one opportunity to reproduce before being harvested. Golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) supports a commercial fishery in Southeast Alaska and legal size is based on growth and maturity information from other parts of their range. Size at maturity estimates varied for crabs among seven management areas in Southeast Alaska, where male maturity estimates increased in size...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism modifies habitat‐associated divergence: evidence from beach and creek breeding sockeye salmon

Krista B. Oke, Elena Motivans, Thomas P. Quinn & Andrew P. Hendry
Studies of parallel or convergent evolution (the repeated, independent evolution of similar traits in similar habitats) rarely explicitly quantify the extent of parallelism (i.e., variation in the direction and/or magnitude of divergence) between the sexes; instead they often investigate both sexes together or exclude one sex. However, differences in male and female patterns of divergence could contribute to overall variation in the extent of parallelism among ecotype pairs, especially in sexually dimorphic traits. Failing to...

Data from: Species distribution models of an endangered rodent offer conflicting measures of habitat quality at multiple scales

William T. Bean, R. Stafford, H. Scott Butterfield, Laura R. Prugh, Michael Westphal & Justin S. Brashares
1. The high cost of directly measuring habitat quality has led ecologists to test alternate methods for estimating and predicting this critically important ecological variable. In particular, it is frequently assumed but rarely tested that models of habitat suitability (“species distribution models”, SDMs) may provide useful indices of habitat quality, either from an individual animal or manager’s perspective. Critically, SDMs are increasingly used to estimate species’ ranges, with an implicit assumption that areas of high...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Spatially anonymized data from: Novel step selection analyses on energy landscapes reveal how linear features alter migrations of soaring birds

Joseph Eisaguirre
This dataset consists of spatially anonymized movement data as well as environmental covariate data to estimate energy landscape step selection selections for migratory golden eagles that summer in Alaska. Human modification of landscapes includes extensive addition of linear features, such as roads and transmission lines. These can alter animal movement and space use and affect the intensity of interactions among species, including predation and competition. Effects of linear features on animal movement have seen relatively...

Data from: A mummified Pleistocene gray wolf pup

Julie Meachen, Matthew Wooller, Benjamin Barst, Juliette Funck, Carley Crann, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Beth Shapiro, Elizabeth Hall, Susan Hewitson, Jess Heath & Grant Zazula
Here we describe the oldest, most complete wolf pup mummy discovered to date: “Zhùr”, as she was named by the local indigenous Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in community was discovered in 2016 in Yukon, Canada, and is complete with skin, fur, and other soft tissues. We infer that Zhùr died ~57,000 years ago and was ~7 weeks old at death. Her mitochondrial genome falls within a clade comprising ancient Beringian and Russian wolf mitochondrial genomes, and isotopic analyses...

rhinoceros auklet microsatellite data

Theresa Burg, Marie Prill, Katharine Studholme, Alice Domalik, Strahan Tucker, Catherine Jardine, Mark Maftei, Kenneth Wright, Jesse Beck, Russell Bradley, Ryan Carle, Thomas Good, Scott Hatch, Peter Hodum, Motohiro Ito, Scott Pearson, Nora Rojek, Leslie Slater, Yutaka Watanuki, Alexis Will, Aidan Bindoff, Glenn Crossin, Mark Drever & Mark Hipfner
We tested the hypothesis that segregation in wintering areas promotes population differentiation in a sentinel North Pacific seabird, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata). We collected tissue samples for genetic analyses on five breeding colonies in the western Pacific Ocean (Japan) and 13 in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California to Alaska), and deployed light-level geologgers on 12 eastern Pacific colonies to delineate wintering areas. Loggers were deployed previously on one colony in Japan. There was strong...

Data from: Characterization of the abiotic drivers of abundance of nearshore Arctic fishes

Noah Khalsa, Kyle Gatt, Trent Sutton & Amanda Kelley
Fish are critical ecologically and socioeconomically for subsistence economies in the Arctic, an ecosystem undergoing unprecedented environmental change. Our understanding of the responses of nearshore Arctic fishes to environmental change is inadequate because of limited research on the physicochemical drivers of abundance occurring at a fine scale. Here, high-frequency in-situ measurements of pH, temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were paired with daily fish catches in nearshore Alaskan waters of the Beaufort Sea. This dataset includes...

Data from: Genetic change for earlier migration timing in a population of pink salmon

Ryan P. Kovach, Anthony J. Gharrett & David A. Tallmon
To predict how climate change will influence populations it is necessary to understand the mechanisms, particularly microevolution and phenotypic plasticity, which allow populations to persist in novel environmental conditions. Although evidence for climate-induced phenotypic change in populations is widespread, evidence documenting that these phenotypic changes are due to microevolution is exceedingly rare. In this study we use 32 years of genetic data (17 complete generations) to determine whether there has been genetic change toward earlier...

Data from: Shifts and disruptions in resource-use trait syndromes during the evolution of herbaceous crops

Rubén Milla, Javier Morente-López, Jose Miguel Alonso-Rodrigo, Nieves Martín-Robles, , F. Stuart Chapin, N. Martin-Robles & J. Morente-Lopez
Trait-based ecology predicts that evolution in high-resource agricultural environments should select for suites of traits that enable fast resource acquisition and rapid canopy closure. However, crop breeding targets specific agronomic attributes rather than broad trait syndromes. Breeding for specific traits, together with evolution in high-resource environments, might lead to reduced phenotypic integration, according to predictions from the ecological literature. We provide the first comprehensive test of these hypotheses, based on a trait-screening programme of 30...

Data from: Effects of developmental conditions on growth, stress, and telomeres in black-legged kittiwake chicks

Rebecca C. Young, Jorg Welcker, Christopher P. Barger, Scott A. Hatch, Thomas Merkling, Evgenia V. Kitaiskaia, Mark F. Haussmann & Alexander S. Kitaysky
Early-life conditions can drive ageing patterns and life history strategies throughout the lifespan. Certain social, genetic, and nutritional developmental conditions are more likely to produce high-quality offspring: those with good likelihood of recruitment and productivity. Here we call such conditions “favored states” and explore their relationship with physiological variables during development in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). Two favored states were experimentally generated by manipulation of food availability and brood size, while...

Data from: A genetic discontinuity in moose (Alces alces) in Alaska corresponds with fenced transportation infrastructure

Robert E. Wilson, Sean D. Farley, Thomas J. McDonough, Sandra L. Talbot & Perry S. Barboza
The strength and arrangement of movement barriers can impact the connectivity among habitat patches. Anthropogenic barriers (e.g. roads) are a source of habitat fragmentation that can disrupt these resource networks and can have an influence on the spatial genetic structure of populations. Using microsatellite data, we evaluated whether observed genetic structure of moose (Alces alces) populations were associated with human activities (e.g. roads) in the urban habitat of Anchorage and rural habitat on the Kenai...

Data from: Resting and daily energy expenditures during reproduction are adjusted in opposite directions in free-living birds

Jorg Welcker, John R. Speakman, Kyle H. Elliott, Scott A. Hatch & Alexander S. Kitaysky
1. Reproduction is energetically expensive, and daily energy expenditure (DEE) often peaks during the period of rearing young. The “potentiation” hypothesis predicts that high DEE needs to be sustained by a corresponding up-regulation of metabolic machinery, thus a concomitant increase of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) is expected. Alternatively, the “compensation” hypothesis predicts that DEE and RMR are regulated independently and animals may maintain low RMR to maximize the energy available for reproduction. This might...

Data from: Humpback whales feed on hatchery-released juvenile salmon

Ellen M. Chenoweth, Janice M. Straley, Megan V. McPhee, Shannon Atkinson, Steve Reifenstuhl & Ellen Chenoweth
Humpback whales are remarkable for the behavioural plasticity of their feeding tactics and the diversity of their diets. Within the last decade at hatchery release sites in Southeast Alaska, humpback whales have begun exploiting juvenile salmon, a previously undocumented prey. The anthropogenic source of these salmon and their important contribution to local fisheries makes the emergence of humpback whale predation a concern for the Southeast Alaska economy. Here, we describe the frequency of observing humpback...

Data from: Evaluating tooth strontium and barium as indicators of weaning age in Pacific walruses

Casey Clark, Lara Horstmann & Nicole Misarti
A dataset of calcium-normalized 88Sr and 137Ba concentrations from laser ablation transects across the cementum layer of 107 (female: n = 84, male: n = 23) Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) teeth. Dataset includes spreadsheets containing elapsed time of laser ablation transect in seconds (ElapsedTime_s; laser transect speed = 5μm/s), calcium-normalized strontium concentrations (Sr_ppm_m88; values below limit of detection replaced with 1/2*limit of detection, see methods), and calcium-normalized barium concentrations (Ba_ppm_m137; values below limit of...

Data from: Divergence of Arctic shrub growth associated with sea ice decline

Agata Buchwal, Patrick F. Sullivan, Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Julienne C. Stroeve, Daan Blok, Ken D. Tape, Bruce C. Forbes, Pascale Ropars, Esther Lévesque, Bo Elberling, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Joseph S. Boyle, Stéphane Boudreau, Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe, Cassandra Gamm, Martin Hallinger, Grzegorz Rachlewicz, Amanda Young, Pentti Zetterberg & Jeffrey M. Welker
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is declining at an accelerating rate with a wide range of ecological consequences. However, determining sea ice effects on tundra vegetation remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the universality or lack thereof in tundra shrub growth responses to changes in SIE and summer climate across the Pan-Arctic, taking advantage of 23 tundra shrub-ring chronologies from 19 widely distributed sites (56⁰-83⁰N).

Terrestrial lichen data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Merritt Turetsky & Jill Johnstone
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Data from: Addressing incomplete lineage sorting and paralogy in the inference of uncertain salmonid phylogenetic relationships

Matthew Campbell, Thaddaeus Buser, Michael Alfaro & J. Andres Lopez
Recent and continued progress in the scale and sophistication of phylogenetic research has yielded substantial advances in knowledge of the tree of life; however, segments of that tree remain unresolved and continue to produce contradicting or unstable results. These poorly resolved relationships may be the product of methodological shortcomings or of an evolutionary history that did not generate the signal traits needed for its eventual reconstruction. Relationships within the euteleost fish family Salmonidae have proven...

Data from: Walrus teeth as biomonitors of trace elements in Arctic marine ecosystems

Casey Clark, Lara Horstmann & Nicole Misarti
Effective biomonitoring requires an understanding of the factors driving concentrations of the substances or compounds of interest in the tissues of studied organisms. Biomonitoring of trace elements, and heavy metals in particular, has been the focus of much research; however, the complex roles many trace elements play in animal and plant tissues can make it difficult to disentangle environmental signals from physiology. This study examined the concentrations of 15 trace elements in the teeth of...

Gene tree discord, simplex plots, and statistical tests under the coalescent

John Rhodes, Elizabeth Allman, Jonathan Mitchell & John Rhodes
A simple graphical device, the simplex plot of quartet concordance factors, is introduced to aid in the exploration of a collection of gene trees on a common set of taxa. A single plot summarizes all gene tree discord, and allows for visual comparison to the expected discord from the multispecies coalescent model (MSC) of incomplete lineage sorting on a species tree. A formal statistical procedure is described that can quantify the deviation from expectation for...

Data from: Population structure over a broad spatial scale driven by non-anthropogenic factors in a wide-ranging migratory mammal, Alaskan caribou

Karen H. Mager, Kevin E. Colson, Pamela Groves, Kris J. Hundertmark & Pam Groves
Wide-ranging mammals face significant conservation threats, and knowledge of the spatial scale of population structure and its drivers is needed to understand processes that maintain diversity in these species. We analysed DNA from 655 Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) from 20 herds that vary in population size, used 19 microsatellite loci to document genetic diversity and differentiation in Alaskan caribou, and examined the extent to which genetic differentiation was associated with hypothesized drivers of population...

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