22 Works

Scale modeling of dust capture through a flooded-bed dust scrubber integrated within a longwall shearer

Sampurna Arya, Ashish R. Kumar, Kozo Saito, Thomas Novak & Adam Levy
Meeting federal dust standards at a longwall mine face is among the more difficult challenges for a longwall mine operator. With recent changes in federal dust regulations requiring lower worker exposure, maintaining compliance has become increasingly difficult. The authors recommend the concept of controlling respirable and float dust, which is inherent in longwall mining, through the application of a flooded-bed dust scrubber to a longwall shearer. A full-scale physical model of a longwall shearer, modified...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

rhinoceros auklet microsatellite data

Theresa Burg, Marie Prill, Katharine Studholme, Alice Domalik, Strahan Tucker, Catherine Jardine, Mark Maftei, Kenneth Wright, Jesse Beck, Russell Bradley, Ryan Carle, Thomas Good, Scott Hatch, Peter Hodum, Motohiro Ito, Scott Pearson, Nora Rojek, Leslie Slater, Yutaka Watanuki, Alexis Will, Aidan Bindoff, Glenn Crossin, Mark Drever & Mark Hipfner
We tested the hypothesis that segregation in wintering areas promotes population differentiation in a sentinel North Pacific seabird, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata). We collected tissue samples for genetic analyses on five breeding colonies in the western Pacific Ocean (Japan) and 13 in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California to Alaska), and deployed light-level geologgers on 12 eastern Pacific colonies to delineate wintering areas. Loggers were deployed previously on one colony in Japan. There was strong...

Spatially anonymized data from: Novel step selection analyses on energy landscapes reveal how linear features alter migrations of soaring birds

Joseph Eisaguirre
This dataset consists of spatially anonymized movement data as well as environmental covariate data to estimate energy landscape step selection selections for migratory golden eagles that summer in Alaska. Human modification of landscapes includes extensive addition of linear features, such as roads and transmission lines. These can alter animal movement and space use and affect the intensity of interactions among species, including predation and competition. Effects of linear features on animal movement have seen relatively...

Data from: Addressing incomplete lineage sorting and paralogy in the inference of uncertain salmonid phylogenetic relationships

Matthew Campbell, Thaddaeus Buser, Michael Alfaro & J. Andres Lopez
Recent and continued progress in the scale and sophistication of phylogenetic research has yielded substantial advances in knowledge of the tree of life; however, segments of that tree remain unresolved and continue to produce contradicting or unstable results. These poorly resolved relationships may be the product of methodological shortcomings or of an evolutionary history that did not generate the signal traits needed for its eventual reconstruction. Relationships within the euteleost fish family Salmonidae have proven...

Data from: Evaluating tooth strontium and barium as indicators of weaning age in Pacific walruses

Casey Clark, Lara Horstmann & Nicole Misarti
A dataset of calcium-normalized 88Sr and 137Ba concentrations from laser ablation transects across the cementum layer of 107 (female: n = 84, male: n = 23) Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) teeth. Dataset includes spreadsheets containing elapsed time of laser ablation transect in seconds (ElapsedTime_s; laser transect speed = 5μm/s), calcium-normalized strontium concentrations (Sr_ppm_m88; values below limit of detection replaced with 1/2*limit of detection, see methods), and calcium-normalized barium concentrations (Ba_ppm_m137; values below limit of...

Data from: Divergence of Arctic shrub growth associated with sea ice decline

Agata Buchwal, Patrick F. Sullivan, Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Julienne C. Stroeve, Daan Blok, Ken D. Tape, Bruce C. Forbes, Pascale Ropars, Esther Lévesque, Bo Elberling, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Joseph S. Boyle, Stéphane Boudreau, Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe, Cassandra Gamm, Martin Hallinger, Grzegorz Rachlewicz, Amanda Young, Pentti Zetterberg & Jeffrey M. Welker
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is declining at an accelerating rate with a wide range of ecological consequences. However, determining sea ice effects on tundra vegetation remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the universality or lack thereof in tundra shrub growth responses to changes in SIE and summer climate across the Pan-Arctic, taking advantage of 23 tundra shrub-ring chronologies from 19 widely distributed sites (56⁰-83⁰N).

Microsite conditions in retrogressive thaw slumps may facilitate increased seedling recruitment in the Alaskan Low Arctic

Diane Christine Huebner & Marion Syndonia Bret-Harte
In Low Arctic tundra, thermal erosion of ice‐rich permafrost soils (thermokarst) has increased in frequency since the 1980s. Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTS) are thermokarst disturbances forming large open depressions on hillslopes through soil wasting and vegetation displacement. Tall (>0.5 m) deciduous shrubs have been observed in RTS a decade after disturbance. RTS may provide conditions suitable for seedling recruitment, which may contribute to Arctic shrub expansion. We quantified in situ seedling abundance, and size and...

The allometry of daily energy expenditure in hummingbirds: an energy budget approach

Anusha Shankar, Donald R Powers, Liliana M Dávalos & Catherine H Graham
1. Within-clade allometric relationships represent standard laws of scaling between energy and size, and their outliers provide new avenues for physiological and ecological research. According to the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, metabolic rates as a function of mass are expected to scale closer to 0.67 when driven by surface-related processes (e.g., heat or water flux), while volume-related processes (e.g., activity) generate slopes closer to one. 2. In birds, daily energy expenditure (DEE) scales with body...

Impact of calving dynamics on Kangilernata Sermia, Greenland

Emily Kane, Eric Rignot, Jeremie Mouginot, Romain Millan, Xin Li, Bernd Scheuchl & Mark Fahnestock
Iceberg calving is a major component of glacier mass ablation that is not well understood due to a lack of detailed temporal and spatial observations. Here, we measure glacier speed and surface elevation at 3-minute interval, 5 meter spacing, using a portable radar interferometer at Kangilernata Sermia, Greenland in July 2016. We detect a 20% diurnal variation in glacier speed peaking at high spring tide when basal drag is high and lowering at neap tide....

Confronting assumptions about prey selection by lunge-feeding whales using a process-based model

Ellen Chenoweth, Kevin Boswell, Ari Friedlaender, Megan McPhee, Julia Burrows, Ron Heintz & Jan Straley
The relative energetic benefits of foraging on one type of prey rather than another are not easily measured, particularly for large free-ranging predators. Nonetheless, assumptions about preferred and alternative prey are frequently made when predicting how a predator may impact its environment, adapt to environmental change, or interact with human activities. We developed and implemented a process-based model to investigate the potential energetic benefit (PEB) of in situ foraging opportunities in rorqual whales. The model...

Data from: Montane regions shape patterns of diversification in small mammals and reptiles from Madagascar’s moist evergreen forest

Kathryn Everson, Sharon Jansa, Steven Goodman & Link Olson
Aim Madagascar is renowned for its exceptional species diversity and endemism. The island’s mountainous regions are thought to have played a role in lineage and species diversification, but this has yet to be explored across taxonomic groups and a temporal context has not yet been identified. We tested whether montane regions have promoted population divergence in Madagascar’s vertebrate fauna and, if so, whether these divergence events were contemporaneous. Location Moist evergreen forests of Madagascar. Taxa...

Direction and magnitude of natural selection on body size differs among age classes of seaward migrating Pacific salmon

Marta Ulaski, Heather Finkle & Peter Westley
Due to the mediating role of body size in determining fitness, the ‘bigger is better’ hypothesis still pervades evolutionary ecology despite evidence that natural selection on phenotypic traits varies in time and space. For Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus), most individual studies quantify selection across a narrow range of sizes and ages; therefore, uncertainties remain concerning how selection on size may differ among diverse life-histories. Here, we quantify the direction and magnitude of natural selection on...

Bayesian stable isotope mixing models effectively characterize the diet of an Arctic raptor

Devin Johnson, Michael Henderson, Travis Booms, Cory Williams & David Anderson
1. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models (BSIMMs) for δ13C and δ15N can be a useful tool to reconstruct diets, characterize trophic relationships, and assess spatiotemporal variation in food webs. However, use of this approach typically requires a priori knowledge on the level of enrichment occurring between the diet and tissue of the consumer being sampled (i.e., a trophic discrimination factor or TDF). 2. TDFs derived from captive feeding studies are highly variable, and it is...

Identifying drivers of forest resilience in long-term records from the Neotropics

Carole Adolf, Carolina Tovar, Nicola Kühn, Hermann Behling, Juan Carlos Berrío, Gabriela Dominguez-Vázquez, Blanca Figueroa-Rangel, Zaire Gonzalez-Carranza, Gerald Alexander Islebe, Henry Hooghiemstra, Hector Neff, Miguel Olvera-Vargas, Bronwen Whitney, Matthew J. Wooller & Kathy J. Willis
Here we use 30 long-term, high-resolution palaeoecological records from Mexico, Central and South America to address two hypotheses regarding possible drivers of resilience in tropical forests as measured in terms of recovery rates from previous disturbances. First, we hypothesise that faster recovery rates are associated with regions of higher biodiversity, as suggested by the insurance hypothesis. And second, that resilience is due to intrinsic abiotic factors that are location specific, thus regions presently displaying resilience...

Scale and numerical modeling to determine operating points of a non-clogging Vortecone filter in mining operation

Ashish R. Kumar, Sampurna Arya, Adam Levy, Steven Schafrik, William C. Wedding & Kozo Saito
Numerical and scale modeling studies of Vortecone, a pressure-driven wet-scrubber device for the efficient capture of over-sprayed paint in the automobile industry, are presented. In this manuscript, Vortecone was tested for removing dust particles from underground mining operations. The pressures required to operate Vortecone and the airflow rates through the Vortecone are the two most important factors for mine ventilation systems. This study used dry, no-particle conditions to obtain relationship between these two parameters and...

What Peer-review Experiences Can Offer To Early Career Scientists And To The Scientific Community

Gwenaëlle Gremion, Mathieu Casado, Kelsey Aho, Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Nicolas Champollion, Emily Choy, Sarah L. Connors, Rahul Dey, Alfonso Fernandez, Gerlis Fugmann, Juan Höfer, Shridhar Jawak, Martine Lizotte, Sarah Maes, Kyle Mayers, Katja Mintenbeck, Jhon Fredy Mojica Moncada, Prashant H. Pandit, Elvira Poloczanska, Paul Rosenbaum, Elisa Seyboth, Sarah Shakil & Maud van Soest

Divergence, gene flow, and speciation in eight lineages of trans-Beringian birds

Kevin Winker, Jessica McLaughlin, Travis Glenn & Brant Faircloth
Determining how genetic diversity is structured between populations that span the divergence continuum from populations to biological species is key to understanding the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. We investigated genetic divergence and gene flow in eight lineages of birds with a trans-Beringian distribution, where Asian and North American populations have likely been split and reunited through multiple Pleistocene glacial cycles. Our study transects the speciation process, including eight pairwise comparisons in three orders (ducks,...

Vascular plant community data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Nicola Day, Alison White, Kirsten Reid, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Steve Cumming, Michelle Mack, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jill Johnstone
Climate change is altering disturbance regimes outside of historical norms, which can impact biodiversity by selecting for plants with particular traits. The relative impact of disturbance characteristics on plant traits and community structure may be mediated by environmental gradients. We aimed to understand how wildfire impacted understory plant communities and plant regeneration strategies along gradients of environmental conditions and wildfire characteristics in boreal forests. We established 207 plots (60m2) in recently burned stands and 133...

Code and data from: A mobile sex-determining region, male-specific haplotypes, and rearing environment influence age at maturity in Chinook salmon.

Garrett McKinney
Variation in age at maturity is an important contributor to life history and demographic variation within and among species. The optimal age at maturity can vary by sex, and the ability of each sex to evolve towards its fitness optimum depends on the genetic architecture of maturation. Using GWAS of RAD sequencing data, we show that age at maturity in Chinook salmon exhibits sex-specific genetic architecture, with age at maturity in males governed by large...

Spatially anonymized data for: Multistate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck approach for practical estimation of movement and resource selection around central places

Joseph Eisaguirre
1. Home range dynamics and movement are central to a species' ecology and strongly mediate both intra- and interspecific interactions. Numerous methods have been introduced to describe animal home ranges, but most lack predictive ability and cannot capture effects of dynamic environmental patterns, such as the impacts of air and water flow on movement. 2. Here, we develop a practical, multi-stage approach for statistical inference into the behavioral mechanisms underlying how habitat and dynamic energy...

Investigating the morphological and genetic divergence of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in lakes of arctic Alaska

Stephen L. Klobucar, Jessica Rick, Elizabeth Mandeville, Catherine Wagner & Phaedra Budy
Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Arctic char (Salvelinus sp.) are a Holarctic fish often forming morphologically, and sometimes genetically, divergent morphs. In this study, we assessed the morphological and genetic diversity and divergence of 263 individuals from seven populations of arctic char with varying length-frequency distributions across two distinct groups of lakes in northern Alaska. Despite close geographic proximity,...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    22

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    19
  • Text
    3

Affiliations

  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
    22
  • Grenoble Alpes University
    3
  • Université Laval
    3
  • University of Kentucky
    2
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game
    2
  • University of British Columbia
    2
  • Université du Québec à Rimouski
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • University of California, Davis
    2
  • California State University, Long Beach
    1