156 Works

Expropriation Risk and FDI in Developing Countries: Does Return of Capital Dominate Return on Capital?

M. Akhtaruzzaman, Nathan Berg & Christopher Hajzler
Previously reported effects of institutional quality and political risks on foreign direct investment (FDI) are mixed and, therefore, difficult to interpret. We present empirical evidence suggesting a relatively clear, statistically robust, and intuitive characterization. Institutional factors that affect the likelihood of an abrupt and total loss of foreigners’ capital (i.e., return of capital) dominate those that affect rates of return conditional on a strictly positive terminal investment value (i.e., return on capital). A one-standarddeviation reduction...

Data from: On-shelf larval retention limits population connectivity in a coastal broadcast spawner

Peter R. Teske, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Erik Van Sebille, Jonathan Waters, Luciano B. Beheregaray, LB Beheregaray &
Broadcast-spawning marine organisms with long pelagic larval duration are often expected to be genetically homogeneous throughout their ranges. When genetic structure is found in such taxa, it may be in the form of chaotic genetic patchiness: i.e. patterns that might seem independent of any underlying environmental variation. The joint analysis of population genetic data and marine environmental data can elucidate factors driving such spatial genetic diversity patterns. Using meso-scale sampling (at a scale of 10s...

Data from: The scaling of parasite biomass with host biomass in lake ecosystems: are parasites limited by host resources?

Clément Lagrue & Robert Poulin
The standing crop biomass of different populations or trophic levels reflects patterns of energy flow through an ecosystem. The contribution of parasites to total biomass is often considered negligible; recent evidence suggests otherwise, although it comes from a narrow range of natural systems. Quantifying how local parasite biomass, whether that of a single species or an assemblage of species sharing the same host, varies across localities with host population biomass, is critical to determine what...

Data from: Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity loss

Joseph R. Bennett, Richard F. Maloney, Tammy E. Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P. Possingham & Phillip J. Seddon
There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and...

Data from: Maternal and nourishment factors interact to influence offspring developmental trajectories in social wasps

Jennifer M. Jandt, Sainath Suryanarayanan, John C. Hermanson, Robert L. Jeanne & Amy L. Toth
The social and nutritional environments during early development have the potential to affect offspring traits, but the mechanisms and molecular underpinnings of these effects remain elusive. We used Polistes fuscatus paper wasps to dissect how maternally controlled factors (vibrational signals and nourishment) interact to induce different caste developmental trajectories in female offspring, leading to worker or reproductive (gyne) traits. We established a set of caste phenotype biomarkers in P. fuscatus females, finding that gyne-destined individuals...

Data from: Top-down control by an aquatic invertebrate predator increases with temperature but does not depend on individual behavioural type

Travis Ingram & Zuri D. Burns
Variation in behavioural traits among individuals within a population can have implications for food webs and ecosystems. Temperature change also alters food web structure and function, but potential interactions between warming and intraspecific behavioural variation are largely unexplored. We aimed to test how increased temperature, individual activity level of a predatory backswimmer (Anisops assimilis), and their interaction influenced the strength of top-down control of zooplankton and phytoplankton. We used stable isotopes to support our assumption...

Data from: Testing the impact of calibration on molecular divergence times using a fossil-rich group: the case of Nothofagus (Fagales)

Hervé Sauquet, Simon Y. W. Ho, Maria A. Gandolfo, Gregory J. Jordan, Peter Wilf, David J. Cantrill, Michael J. Bayly, Lindell Bromham, Gillian K. Brown, Raymond J. Carpenter, Daphne M. Lee, Daniel J. Murphy, J. M. Kale Sniderman & Frank Udovicic
Although temporal calibration is widely recognized as critical for obtaining accurate divergence-time estimates using molecular dating methods, few studies have evaluated the variation resulting from different calibration strategies. Depending on the information available, researchers have often used primary calibrations from the fossil record or secondary calibrations from previous molecular dating studies. In analyses of flowering plants, primary calibration data can be obtained from macro- and mesofossils (e.g., leaves, flowers, and fruits) or microfossils (e.g., pollen)....

Data from: Shape variation in outline shapes

Brendan McCane
A general morphometric method for describing shape variation in a sample consisting of landmarks and multiple outline shapes is developed in this paper. A distance metric is developed for such data and is used to embed the data in a low-dimensional Euclidean space. The Euclidean space is used to generate summary statistics such as mean and principal shape variation which are implicitly represented in the original space using elements of the sample. A new distance...

Data from: The costs of parental care: a meta-analysis of the trade-off between parental effort and survival in birds

Eduardo S. A. Santos & Shinichi Nakagawa
A fundamental premise of life-history theory is that organisms that increase current reproductive investment suffer increased mortality. Possibly the most studied life-history phenotypic relationship is the trade-off between parental effort and survival. However, evidence supporting this trade-off is equivocal. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to test the generality of this tenet. Using experimental studies that manipulated parental effort in birds we show that: 1) the effect of parental effort on survival was similar across species...

Data from: Evidence for Bergmann's rule and not allopatric subspeciation in the threatened kaka (Nestor meridionalis)

Nic Dussex, James Sainsbury, Ron Moorhouse, Ian G. Jamieson & Bruce C. Robertson
Species of conservation concern characterized by small and declining populations greatly benefit from proactive management approaches such as population translocations. Because they often show intra-specific genetic and phenotypic variation, which can result from drift or differential selective pressures between habitats, understanding the distribution of such variation and its underlying processes is a prerequisite to develop effective management guidelines. Indeed, translocations among genetically differentiated populations potentially locally adapted are discouraged in order to avoid outbreeding depression,...

Data from: Heterogeneity in individual quality and reproductive trade-offs within species

Jiahui N. Lim, Alistair Mcnair Senior & Shinichi Nakagawa
Interspecifically, a reasonable body of evidence supports a trade-off between offspring size and number. However, at the intraspecific level, a whole manner of phenotypic correlations between offspring size and number are observed. These correlations may be predicted when heterogeneity in resource availability, or quality, is considered. Making the assumption that maternal size is a proxy for resource availability, we meta-analytically quantified four phenotypic reproductive correlations within numerous species: (1) maternal size and offspring size, (2)...

Data from: Defining functional biomes and monitoring their change globally

Steven I. Higgins, Robert Buitenwerf, Glenn Moncrieff & Glenn R. Moncrieff
Biomes are important constructs for organizing understanding of how the worlds’ major terrestrial ecosystems differ from one another and for monitoring change in these ecosystems. Yet existing biome schemes have been criticized for being overly subjective and for explicitly or implicitly invoking climate. We propose a new biome map and classification scheme that uses information on (i) an index of vegetation productivity, (ii) whether the minimum of vegetation activity is in the driest or coldest...

Data from: Heterozygote advantage at MHC DRB may influence response to infectious disease epizootics

Amy J. Osborne, John Pearson, Sandra S. Negro, B. Louise Chilvers, Martin A. Kennedy & Neil J. Gemmell
The effect of MHC polymorphism on individual fitness variation in the wild remains equivocal; however, much evidence suggests that heterozygote advantage is a major determinant. To understand the contribution of MHC polymorphism to individual disease resistance or susceptibility in natural populations, we investigated two MHC class II B loci, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri). The NZSL is a threatened species which is unusually susceptible to death by bacterial...

Data from: Are molecular markers useful predictors of adaptive potential?

Elizabeth A. Mittell, Shinichi Nakagawa & Jarrod D. Hadfield
Estimates of molecular genetic variation are often used as a cheap and simple surrogate for a population's adaptive potential, yet empirical evidence suggests they are unlikely to be a valid proxy. However, this evidence is based on molecular genetic variation poorly predicting estimates of adaptive potential rather than how well it predicts true values. As a consequence, the relationship has been systematically underestimated and the precision with which it could be measured severely overstated. By...

Data from: Kinetic estimation of GFR improves prediction of dialysis and recovery after kidney transplantation

Timothy J. Pianta, Zoltan H. Endre, John W. Pickering, Nicholas A. Buckley & Philip W. Peake
Background: The early prediction of delayed graft function (DGF) would facilitate patient management after kidney transplantation. Methods: In a single-centre retrospective analysis, we investigated kinetic estimated GFR under non-steady-state conditions, KeGFR, in prediction of DGF. KeGFRsCr was calculated at 4h, 8h and 12h in 56 recipients of deceased donor kidneys from initial serum creatinine (sCr) concentrations, estimated creatinine production rate, volume of distribution, and the difference between consecutive sCr values. The utility of KeGFRsCr for...

Pioneering polyploids: the impact of whole-genome duplication on biome shifting in New Zealand Coprosma (Rubiaceae) and Veronica (Plantaginaceae)

Luke Liddell, William Lee, Esther Dale, Heidi Meudt & Nick Matzke
The role of whole-genome duplication in facilitating shifts into novel biomes remains unknown. Focusing on two diverse woody plant groups in New Zealand, Coprosma (Rubiaceae) and Veronica (Plantaginaceae), we investigate how biome occupancy varies with ploidy level, and test the hypothesis that whole-genome duplication increases the rate of biome shifting. Ploidy levels and biome occupancy (forest, open, and alpine) were determined for indigenous species in both clades. The distribution of low ploidy (Coprosma: 2x, Veronica:...

Data from: Integrating climate and host richness as drivers of global parasite diversity

Paulo M. Martins, Robert Poulin & Thiago Gonçalves-Souza
Aim: Climate and host richness are essential drivers of global gradients in parasite diversity, and the few existing studies on parasites have mostly investigated their effects separately. The advantages of combining these factors into a single analytical framework include unravelling the relative roles of abiotic and biotic drivers of parasite diversity. We compiled a dataset of helminths of amphibians to investigate the direct and indirect effects of temperature seasonality, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and host...

Data for: Psychological distress, anxiety, suicidality, and wellbeing in New Zealand during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study

Susanna Every-Palmer, Matthew Jenkins, Philip Gendall, Janet Hoek, Ben Beaglehole, Caroline Bell, Jonathan Williman, Charlene Rapsey & James Stanley
Dataset for following paper. Introduction New Zealand’s early response to the novel coronavirus pandemic included a strict lockdown which eliminated community transmission of COVID-19. However, this success was not without cost, both economic and social. In our study, we examined the psychological wellbeing of New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown when restrictions reduced social contact, limited recreation opportunities, and resulted in job losses and financial insecurity. Methods We conducted an online panel survey of a...

A framework for mapping the distribution of seabirds by integrating tracking, demography and phenology

Ana P. B. Carneiro, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Steffen Oppel, Thomas A. Clay, Richard A. Phillips, Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Ross M. Wanless, Edward Abraham, Yvan Richard, Joel Rice, Jonathan Handley, Tammy E. Davies, Ben J. Dilley, Peter G. Ryan, Cleo Small, Javier Arata, John P. Y. Arnould, Elizabeth Bell, Leandro Bugoni, Letizia Campioni, Paulo Catry, Jaimie Cleeland, Lorna Deppe, Graeme Elliott, Amanda Freeman … & Maria P. Dias
1. The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other life-history stages even though they can represent a substantial proportion of the total population. 2. Here we develop a methodological framework for...

Heat and water loss vs shelter: a dilemma in thermoregulatory decision-making for a retreat-dwelling nocturnal gecko

Christian Chukwuka, Joanne M. Monks & Alison Cree
Understanding the interaction between upper voluntary thermal limit (VTmax) and water loss may aid in predicting responses of ectotherms to increasing temperatures within microhabitats. However, the temperature (VTmax) at which climate heating will force cool-climate, nocturnal lizards to abandon daytime retreats remains poorly known. Here, we developed a new laboratory protocol for determining VTmax in the retreat-dwelling, viviparous Woodworthia Otago/Southland gecko, based on escape behaviour (abandonment of heated retreat). We compared the body temperature (Tb)...

Phylogenomics resolves the invasion history of Acacia auriculiformis in Florida

Graham McCulloch
Aim: Understanding the genetic structure of plants in their native range is crucial when reconstructing the invasion history of weeds. This information allows researchers to pin-point the provenance of invasive plants, and to test the importance of genetic admixture in facilitating invasion success. We assessed genetic structuring across the native range of A. auriculiformis, to determine whether genetic admixture contributes to the success of this weed in its introduced range, and test for rapid adaptation...

Paternal exposure to a common herbicide alters the behavior and serotonergic system of zebrafish offspring

Simon Lamb, Jolyn Chia & Sheri Johnson
Increasingly, studies are revealing that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter animal behavior. Early life exposure to EDCs may permanently alter phenotypes through to adulthood. In addition, the effects of EDCs may not be isolated to a single generation − offspring may indirectly be impacted, via non-genetic processes. Here, we analyzed the effects of paternal atrazine exposure on behavioral traits (distance moved, exploration, bottom-dwelling time, latency to enter the top zone, and interaction with a...

SNP analyses reveal a diverse pool of potential colonists to earthquake‐uplifted coastlines

Johnette Peters, Jonathan Waters, Ludovic Dutoit & Ceridwen Fraser
In species that form dense populations, major disturbance events are expected to increase the chance of establishment for immigrant lineages. Real-time tests of the impact of disturbance on patterns of genetic structure are, however, scarce. Central to testing these concepts is determining the pool of potential immigrants dispersing into a disturbed area. In 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake occurred on the South Island of New Zealand. Affecting approximately 100 km of coastline, this quake caused...

Data from: Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine

Isabel S. Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre J. Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli & Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and...

Data from: Save your host, save yourself? caste-ratio adjustment in a parasite with division of labor and snail host survival following shell damage

Colin MacLeod, Robert Poulin & Clément Lagrue
Shell damage and parasitic infections are frequent in gastropods, influencing key snail host life-history traits such as survival, growth, and reproduction. However, their interactions and potential effects on hosts and parasites have never been tested. Host–parasite interactions are particularly interesting in the context of the recently discovered division of labor in trematodes infecting marine snails. Some species have colonies consisting of two different castes present at varying ratios; reproductive members and nonreproductive soldiers specialized in...

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  • University of Otago
  • University of Sydney
  • Department of Conservation
  • UNSW Sydney
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • Australian National University
  • Flinders University
  • University of Canterbury
  • University of Sao Paulo
  • University of Western Australia