15 Works

Data from: Are 2D space-use analyses adapted to animals living in 3D environments? A case study on a fish shoal

Aurélien Vivancos, Gerry Closs & Cédric Tentelier
Methodologies enabling the monitoring of animal movement and behavior in 3-dimensions (3D; x, y, z, the latter accounting for the vertical dimension) are becoming increasingly accessible and can be deployed on entire groups of animals inhabiting 3D habitats. When 2-dimensional (2D; x, y) space-use analyses are used on such groups, their spatial organization is represented as a planar projection of individuals’ space-use. Movement on the vertical dimension is ignored and could biased ecological inference made...

Data from: Comparative tests of the role of dewlap size in Anolis lizard speciation

Travis Ingram, Alexis Harrison, D. Luke Mahler, María Del Rosario Castañeda, Richard E. Glor, Anthony Herrel, Yoel E. Stuart & Jonathan B. Losos
Phenotypic traits may be linked to speciation in two distinct ways: character values may influence the rate of speciation or diversification in the trait may be associated with speciation events. Traits involved in signal transmission, such as the dewlap of Anolis lizards, are often involved in the speciation process. The dewlap is an important visual signal with roles in species recognition and sexual selection, and dewlaps vary among species in relative size as well as...

Data from: Cryptic female choice enhances fertilization success and embryo survival in chinook salmon

Patrice Rosengrave, Robert Montgomerie & Neil Gemmell
In this study we investigated two potentially important intersexual postcopulatory gametic interactions in a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): (i) the effect of female ovarian fluid (OF) on the behaviour of spermatozoa during fertilisation, and (ii) the effects of multilocus heterozygosity (as an index of male quality) and female-male genetic relatedness on sperm behaviour and male fertilisation success when there is sperm competition in the presence of that ovarian fluid. To do this, we...

Data from: Global analysis reveals that cryptic diversity is linked with habitat but not mode of life

Robert Poulin & Gerardo Perez-Ponce De Leon
The ubiquity of genetically distinct, cryptic species is limiting any attempt to estimate local or global biodiversity as well as impeding efforts to conserve species or control pests and diseases. Environmental factors or biological traits promoting rapid diversification into morphologically similar species remain unclear. Here, using a meta-analysis of 1230 studies using DNA sequences to search for cryptic diversity in metazoan taxa, we test two hypotheses regarding the frequency of cryptic taxa based on mode...

Data from: Population characteristics, mechanisms of primary care and premature mortality in England: a cross-sectional study

Richard Baker, Kate Honeyford, Louis S. Levene, , David R. Jones, M. John Bankart & Tim Stokes
Objectives. Health systems with strong primary care tend to have better population outcomes, but in many countries demand for care is growing. We sought to identify mechanisms of primary care that influence premature mortality. Design. We developed a conceptual model of the mechanisms by which primary care influences premature mortality, and undertook a cross-sectional study in which population and primary care variables reflecting the model were used to explain variations in mortality under aged 75...

Data from: Building strong relationships between conservation genetics and primary industry leads to mutually beneficial genomic advances

Stephanie J. Galla, Thomas R. Buckley, Rob Elshire, Marie L. Hale, Michael Knapp, John McCallum, Roger Moraga, Anna W. Santure, Phillip Wilcox & Tammy E. Steeves
Several reviews in the past decade have heralded the benefits of embracing high-throughput sequencing technologies to inform conservation policy and the management of threatened species, but few have offered practical advice on how to expedite the transition from conservation genetics to conservation genomics. Here, we argue that an effective and efficient way to navigate this transition is to capitalize on emerging synergies between conservation genetics and primary industry (e.g., agriculture, fisheries, forestry and horticulture). Here,...

Data from: Low spatial genetic differentiation associated with rapid recolonization in the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri

Nicolas Dussex, Bruce C. Robertson, Alexander T. Salis, Aleksandr Kalinin, Hugh Best & Neil J. Gemmell
Population declines resulting from anthropogenic activities are of major consequence for the long-term survival of species because the resulting loss of genetic diversity can lead to extinction via the effects of inbreeding depression, fixation of deleterious mutations, and loss of adaptive potential. Otariid pinnipeds have been exploited commercially to near extinction with some species showing higher demographic resilience and recolonization potential than others. The New Zealand fur seal (NZFS) was heavily impacted by commercial sealing...

Data from: Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity loss

Joseph R. Bennett, Richard F. Maloney, Tammy E. Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P. Possingham & Phillip J. Seddon
There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and...

Data from: Defining functional biomes and monitoring their change globally

Steven I. Higgins, Robert Buitenwerf, Glenn Moncrieff & Glenn R. Moncrieff
Biomes are important constructs for organizing understanding of how the worlds’ major terrestrial ecosystems differ from one another and for monitoring change in these ecosystems. Yet existing biome schemes have been criticized for being overly subjective and for explicitly or implicitly invoking climate. We propose a new biome map and classification scheme that uses information on (i) an index of vegetation productivity, (ii) whether the minimum of vegetation activity is in the driest or coldest...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Data from: Human-mediated extirpation of the unique Chatham Islands sea lion and implications for the conservation management of remaining New Zealand sea lion populations

Nicolas J. Rawlence, Catherine J. Collins, Christian N. K. Anderson, Justin J. Maxwell, Ian W. G. Smith, Bruce C. Robertson, Michael Knapp, Katherine Ann Horsburgh, Jo-Ann L. Stanton, R. Paul Scofield, Alan J. D. Tennyson, Elizabeth A. Matisoo-Smith & Jonathan M. Waters
While terrestrial megafaunal extinctions have been well characterized worldwide, our understanding of declines in marine megafauna remains limited. Here, we use ancient DNA analyses of prehistoric (<1450–1650 AD) sea lion specimens from New Zealand's isolated Chatham Islands to assess the demographic impacts of human settlement. These data suggest there was a large population of sea lions, unique to the Chatham Islands, at the time of Polynesian settlement. This distinct mitochondrial lineage became rapidly extinct within...

Data from: Fire increases genetic diversity of populations of Six-lined Racerunner

Alexandria K. Ragsdale, Bridget M. Frederick, David W. Dukes, Andrea L. Liebl, Kyle G. Ashton, Earl D. McCoy, Henry R. Mushinsky & Aaron W. Schrey
Wildfires are highly variable and can disturb habitats, leading to direct and indirect effects on the genetic characteristics of local populations. Florida scrub is a fire-dependent, highly fragmented, and severely threatened habitat. Understanding the effect of fire on genetic characteristics of the species that use this habitat is critically important. We investigated one such lizard, the Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineata), which has a strong preference for open areas. We collected Six-lined Racerunners (n=154) from 11...

Data from: Cohort feasibility study of an intermittent pneumatic compression device within a below-knee cast for the prevention of venous thromboembolism

Irene Braithwaite, Bernadette De Ruyter, Alex Semprini, Stefan Ebmeier, Grant Kiddle, Nigel Willis, John Carter, Mark Weatherall & Richard Beasley
Objectives: To determine the likely enrolment rate of eligible participants into a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in which a within-cast intermittent pneumatic compression device using Jet Impulse Technology (IPC/JIT) is 1 of 3 possible interventions in a RCT for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the clinical setting of isolated lower limb cast immobilisation. Design: A prospective, open-label feasibility study of the IPC/JIT device placed within a lower limb cast. Setting: Wellington Regional Hospital...

Data from: Parasitic infection: a buffer against ocean acidification?

Colin D. MacLeod & Robert Poulin
Recently, there has been a concerted research effort by marine scientists to quantify the sensitivity of marine organisms to ocean acidification (OA). Empirical data generated by this research have been used to predict changes to marine ecosystem health, biodiversity and productivity that will be caused by continued acidification. These studies have also found that the effects of OA on marine organisms can be significantly modified by additional abiotic stressors (e.g. temperature or oxygen) and biotic...

Data from: The power and promise of RNA-seq in ecology and evolution

Erica Todd, Michael Black, Neil Gemmell, Erica V. Todd, Neil J. Gemmell & Michael A. Black
Reference is regularly made to the power of new genomic sequencing approaches. Using powerful technology, however, is not the same as having the necessary power to address a research question with statistical robustness. In the rush to adopt new and improved genomic research methods, limitations of technology and experimental design may be initially neglected. Here, we review these issues with regard to RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq adds large-scale transcriptomics to the toolkit of ecological and...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    15

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    15

Affiliations

  • University of Otago
    15
  • University of Canterbury
    3
  • Department of Conservation
    2
  • CIUDAD
    1
  • University of Kansas
    1
  • Keele University
    1
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1
  • University of Aberdeen
    1