63 Works

Phylogeny and floral character evolution of Mentzelia section Bicuspidaria (Loasaceae)

Joshua Brokaw, John Schenk, Jessica Devitt & Destiny Brokaw
Mentzelia section Bicuspidaria (Loasaceae) is a monophyletic group of desert ephemerals that inhabit the complex, heterogeneous landscapes of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. To investigate species circumscriptions and evolutionary relationships in Bicuspidaria, we employed phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequences from the plastid trnL-trnF, trnS-trnfM, ndhF-rpl32, and rpl32-trnL regions and the nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS regions. Due to evidence of discordant relationships reconstructed from the plastid and nuclear partitions, we used coalescent-based...

Data from: Linkage and trade-off in trophic morphology and behavioral performance of birds

Clay E. Corbin, Lauren K. Lowenberger & Brandan L. Gray
1. Bill closing behaviour involves a complex suite of tissue types, kinematics, morphological states and muscle architectural arrangements that has been under the scrutiny of natural selection for millions of years. Hence, an evolutionary shift to specialize in closing force may come at a cost to closing velocity and vice versa. 2. Using field measurements on behavioural performance and morphological data from museum specimens, we tested predictions of the force–velocity trade-off hypothesis in 18 species...

Data from: Experience counts: the role of female age in morning incubation and brooding behavior in relation to temperature

Kelly Williams, Madeline Sudnick, Rachel Anderson & Meredith Fitschen-Brown
Reproductive experience can impact how individuals allocate time and energy to reproduction and generate differences in reproductive behavior that leads to experience dependent variation in reproductive success. In order to understand if individual variation in parental behavior is related to environmental temperature and breeding experience, we observed the timing and duration of the first morning off bout in a wild, open cup nesting passerine bird during the incubation and early nestling period. We compared incubation...

Data from: Water availability and temperature induce changes in oxidative status during pregnancy in a viviparous lizard

Andréaz Dupoué, Pauline Blaimont, David Rozen-Rechels, Murielle Richard, Sandrine Meylan, Jean Clobert, Donald Miles, Rémi Martin, Beatriz Decencière, Simon Agostini & Jean-François Le Galliard
Reproduction involves considerable reorganization in an organism’s physiology that incurs potential toxicity for cells (e.g., oxidative stress) and decrease in fitness. This framework has been the cornerstone of the so-called ‘oxidative cost of reproduction’, a theory that remains controversial and relatively overlooked in non-model ectotherms. Here, we used two complementary approaches in natural and controlled conditions to test whether altered access to climate conditions (water and temperature resources) alters oxidative status and mediates reproductive trade-offs...

Data from: Ontogeny of the middle-ear air-sinus system in Alligator mississippiensis (Archosauria: Crocodylia)

David L. Dufeau & Lawrence M. Witmer
Modern crocodylians, including Alligator mississippiensis, have a greatly elaborated system of pneumatic sinuses invading the cranium. These sinuses invade nearly all the bones of the chondrocranium and several bony elements of the splanchnocranium, but patterns of postnatal paratympanic sinus development are poorly understood and documented. Much of crocodylomorph—indeed archosaurian—evolution is characterized by the evolution of various paratympanic air sinuses, the homologies of which are poorly understood due in large part to the fact that individual...

Data from: Assembling the forest herb community after abandonment from agriculture: long-term successional dynamics differ with land-use history

Marion A. Holmes & Glenn R. Matlack
1. Cultivation and pasturing, both historically common forms of agriculture in eastern North America, differ in their long-term environmental legacies. We ask whether successional re-assembly of the forest herb community differs between second-growth stands with contrasting agricultural histories. We predicted that herb communities would diverge through a process of environmental filtering as colonist species responded to the agricultural histories of individual sites and to underlying edaphic gradients. 2. Thirty-five second-growth stands were grouped into a...

Data from: Ecological divergence among colour morphs mediated by changes in spatial network structure associated with disturbance

Matthew S. Lattanzio & Donald B. Miles
1. Differences in individual behaviour affect social interactions and contribute to the spatial structuring of animal populations. However, disturbance should also affect spatial networks by altering habitat heterogeneity and resource availability. Variation in resource availability should perturb the frequency and nature of social and ecological interactions within a population by affecting the spatial distribution of individuals. 2. In disturbed habitats where resources are limiting, spatial relationships should reflect behavioural differences among individuals, with higher-quality resources...

Data from: Variable mesophyll conductance among soybean cultivars sets a tradeoff between photosynthesis and water-use-efficiency

Nicholas J. Tomeo & David M. Rosenthal
Photosynthetic efficiency is a critical determinant of crop yield potential, though it remains below the theoretical optimum in modern crop varieties. Enhancing mesophyll conductance, i.e. the rate of carbon dioxide diffusion from substomatal cavities to the sites of carboxylation, may increase photosynthetic and water use efficiencies. To improve water-use-efficiency mesophyll conductance should be increased without concomitantly increasing stomatal conductance. Here we partition variance in mesophyll conductance to within and among cultivar components across soybeans grown...

Data from: Development of epithelial tissues: how are cleavage planes chosen?

Ying Xin, Chathuri Madubhashini Karunarathna Mudiyanselage & Winfried Just
The cross-section of a cell in a monolayer epithelial tissue can be modeled mathematically as a k-sided polygon. Empirically studied distributions of the proportions of k-sided cells in epithelia show remarkable similarities in a wide range of evolutionarily distant organisms. A variety of mathematical models have been proposed for explaining this phenomenon. The highly parsimonious simulation model of (Patel et al., PLoS Comput. Biol., 2009) that takes into account only the number of sides of...

Biogeographic parallels in thermal tolerance and gene expression variation under temperature stress in a widespread bumble bee

Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Herndon, Jason Jackson, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeff Lozier
Global temperature changes have emphasized the need to understand how species adapt to thermal stress across their ranges. Genetic mechanisms may contribute to variation in thermal tolerance, providing evidence for how organisms adapt to local environments. We determine physiological thermal limits and characterize genome-wide transcriptional changes at these limits in bumble bees using laboratory-reared Bombus vosnesenskii workers. We analyze bees reared from latitudinal (35.7–45.7°N) and altitudinal (7–2154 m) extremes of the species’ range to correlate...

Scaling between macro- to microscale climatic data reveals strong phylogenetic inertia in niche evolution in plethodontid salamanders

Vincent Farallo, Martha Muñoz, Josef Uyeda & Donald Miles
Macroclimatic niches are indirect and potentially inadequate predictors of the realized environmental conditions that many species experience. Consequently, analyses of niche evolution based on macroclimatic data alone may incompletely represent the evolutionary dynamics of species niches. Yet, understanding how an organisms’ climatic (Grinnellian) niche responds to changing macroclimatic conditions is of vital importance for predicting their potential response to global change. In this study, we integrate microclimatic and macroclimatic data across 26 species of plethodontid...

A study of tactical and sexual dimorphism in cognition with insights for sexual conflict

Hannah Griebling, Oscar Rios-Cardenas, Jessica Abbott & Molly Morris
The sexes may have different optima in cognitive traits due to differences in life history strategies and the expense of investing in metabolically costly brain tissue. However, given genetic correlations, each sex could be constrained from reaching its cognitive optimum due to intralocus sexual conflict. We compared learning performance of two male alternative reproductive tactics and females from known genotypes (both sire and dam) in the livebearing fish Xiphophorus multilineatus. We predicted that females’ learning...

Data from: Growth hormone deficiency and excess alter the gut microbiome in adult male mice

Elizabeth Jensen, Jonathan Young, Zachary Jackson, Joshua Busken, Edward List, Ronan Carroll, John Kopchick, Erin Murphy & Darlene Berryman
The gut microbiome has been implicated in host metabolism, endocrinology, and pathophysiology. Furthermore, several studies have shown that gut bacteria impact host growth, partially mediated through the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Yet, no study to date has examined the specific role of GH on the gut microbiome. Our study thus characterized the adult gut microbial profile and intestinal phenotype in GH gene-disrupted (GH-/-) mice (a model of GH deficiency) and bovine GH...

The impact of learning modality on team-based learning (TBL) outcomes in anatomical sciences education

Avery Hlousek & Bentley Krause
Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional methodology that has been increasingly used in anatomy and physiology education in recent years. The appropriateness of TBL methods for students with diverse preferred sensory learning modalities has not been adequately examined. This study aimed to show the influence of students preferred sensory modality for learning on TBL and traditional academic outcome measures (tests, assignments, etc.). 157 American undergraduate Communication Sciences and Disorders students taking anatomy and physiology courses...

Data from: Maternal effects are long lasting and influence female offspring’s reproductive strategy in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus

Alexander D. Murphy, Debora Goedert & Molly R. Morris
The adaptive benefits of maternal investment into individual offspring (inherited environmental effects) will be shaped by selection on mothers as well as their offspring, often across variable environments. We examined how a mother’s nutritional environment interacted with her offspring’s nutritional and social environment in Xiphophorus multilineatus, a livebearing fish. Fry from mothers reared on two different nutritional diets (HQ = high quality, and LQ = low quality) were all reared on a LQ diet in...

Data from: A basal lithostrotian titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) with a complete skull: implications for the evolution and paleobiology of Titanosauria

Rubén D. F. Martínez, Matthew C. Lamanna, Fernando E. Novas, Ryan C. Ridgely, Gabriel A. Casal, Javier E. Martínez, Javier R. Vita & Lawrence M. Witmer
We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of...

Data from: The loss of hemoglobin and myoglobin does not minimize oxidative stress in Antarctic icefishes

Kristin M. O'Brien, Elizabeth L. Crockett, Jacques Philip, Corey A. Oldham, Megan Hoffman, Donald E. Kuhn, Ronald Barry & Jessica McLaughlin
The unusual pattern of expression of hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) among Antarctic notothenioid fishes provides an exceptional model system for assessing the impact of these proteins on oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that the lack of oxygen-binding proteins may reduce oxidative stress. Levels and activity of pro-oxidants, small-molecule and enzymatic antioxidants, and levels of oxidized lipids and proteins in liver, oxidative skeletal muscle, and heart ventricle were quantified in five species of notothenioid...

Data from: The first Cenozoic spinicaudatans from North America

Alycia L. Stigall, Roy E. Plotnick & Lisa E. Park Bousch
A new spinicaudatan species, Estherites? jocelynae new species, is described from more than fiftyspecimens collected from the Medicine Lodge Formation (early Oligocene) of the Beaverhead Basin in southwestern Montana, USA. This is the first spinicaudatan species reported from Cenozoic strata of North America and is the second-youngest fossil clam shrimp described globally. The new species extends the range of the superfamily Estheriteoidea into the Paleogene. Carapaces of E.? jocelynae n. sp. are preserved as a...

Data from: Inferring species networks from gene trees in high-polyploid North American and Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae)

Thomas Marcussen, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Jiří Danihelka, Harvey E. Ballard, Kim Blaxland, Anne K. Brysting & Bengt Oxelman
The phylogenies of allopolyploids take the shape of networks and cannot be adequately represented as bifurcating trees. Especially for high-polyploids (i.e., organisms with more than six sets of nuclear chromosomes), the signatures of gene homoeolog loss, deep coalescence and polyploidy may become confounded, with the result that gene trees may be congruent with more than one species network. Herein, we obtained the most parsimonious species network by objective comparison of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and...

Soil resources mediate the strength of species but not trait convergence across grassland restorations

Christopher Catano, Tyler Basset, Jonathan Bauer, Emily Grman, Anna Groves, Chad Zirbel & Lars Brudvig
Ecological restoration is notoriously unpredictable because similar actions can result in different outcomes. Outcomes can also differ for species and functional components of communities depending on how restoration actions and abiotic conditions alter community assembly trajectories. Quantifying variation in community trajectories across restorations for both species and traits is rare, but can help to resolve underlying assembly processes and refine strategies to maximize restoration success. We quantified the importance of soil resources, seed mix richness,...

Intense nocturnal warming alters growth strategies, coloration, and parasite load in a diurnal lizard

Alexis Rutschmann, Andréaz Dupoué, Donald Miles, Rodrigo Megía-Palma, Clémence Lauden, Murielle Richard, Arnaud Badiane, David Rozen-Rechels, Mathieu Brevet, Pauline Blaimont, Sandrine Meylan, Jean Clobert & Jean-François Le Galliard
1. In the past decades, nocturnal temperatures have been playing a disproportionate role in the global warming of the planet. Yet, they remain a neglected factor in studies assessing the impact of global warming on natural populations. In ectotherms, physiological performance is influenced by thermal conditions and an increase in body temperature of a few degrees during night-time is sufficient to induce a disproportionate increase in metabolic expenditure. 2. Here, we question whether an intense...

Data from: Multilocus species delimitation in a complex of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus)

Jordan D. Satler, Bryan C. Carstens & Marshal Hedin
Species are a fundamental unit for biological studies, yet no uniform guidelines exist for determining species limits in an objective manner. Given the large number of species concepts available, defining species can be both highly subjective and biased. Although morphology has been commonly used to determine species boundaries, the availability and prevalence of genetic data has allowed researchers to use such data to make inferences regarding species limits. Genetic data also have been used in...

Data from: Climate and habitat interacts to shape the thermal reaction norms of breeding phenology across lizard populations

Alexis Rutschmann, Donald B. Miles, Jean-François Le Galliard, Murielle Richard, Sylvain Moulhérat, Barry Sinervo & Jean Clobert
1. Substantial plastic variation in phenology in response to environmental heterogeneity through time in the same population has been uncovered in many species. However, our understanding of differences in reaction norms of phenology among populations from a given species remains limited. 2. Since the plasticity of phenological traits is often influenced by local thermal conditions, we expect local temperature to generate variation in the reaction norms between populations. 3. Here, we explored temporal variation in...

Data from: A combined morphometric and phylogenetic revision of the late Ordovician brachiopod genera Eochonetes and Thaerodonta

Jennifer E. Bauer & Alycia L. Stigall
Systematic revision of the Late Ordovician brachiopod genera Eochonetes Reed, 1917 and Thaerodonta Wang, 1949 was conducted utilizing specimen-based morphometric and species-level phylogenetic analyses. Previous studies had recognized Thaerodonta and Eochonetes as either distinct taxonomic entities or synonyms. New multivariate and phylogenetic analyses confirm the synonymy of Thaerodonta with Eochonetes and provide a framework to assess evolutionary and ecological patterns within the clade. Multivariate analyses were employed to delineate species in morphospace and provided information...

Data from: Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange

William Ruger Porter, Jayc C. Sedlmayr & Lawrence M. Witmer
Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is endothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated...

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