8 Works

Data from: Variable mesophyll conductance among soybean cultivars sets a tradeoff between photosynthesis and water-use-efficiency

Nicholas J. Tomeo & David M. Rosenthal
Photosynthetic efficiency is a critical determinant of crop yield potential, though it remains below the theoretical optimum in modern crop varieties. Enhancing mesophyll conductance, i.e. the rate of carbon dioxide diffusion from substomatal cavities to the sites of carboxylation, may increase photosynthetic and water use efficiencies. To improve water-use-efficiency mesophyll conductance should be increased without concomitantly increasing stomatal conductance. Here we partition variance in mesophyll conductance to within and among cultivar components across soybeans grown...

Data from: A basal lithostrotian titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) with a complete skull: implications for the evolution and paleobiology of Titanosauria

Rubén D. F. Martínez, Matthew C. Lamanna, Fernando E. Novas, Ryan C. Ridgely, Gabriel A. Casal, Javier E. Martínez, Javier R. Vita & Lawrence M. Witmer
We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of...

Data from: The loss of hemoglobin and myoglobin does not minimize oxidative stress in Antarctic icefishes

Kristin M. O'Brien, Elizabeth L. Crockett, Jacques Philip, Corey A. Oldham, Megan Hoffman, Donald E. Kuhn, Ronald Barry & Jessica McLaughlin
The unusual pattern of expression of hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) among Antarctic notothenioid fishes provides an exceptional model system for assessing the impact of these proteins on oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that the lack of oxygen-binding proteins may reduce oxidative stress. Levels and activity of pro-oxidants, small-molecule and enzymatic antioxidants, and levels of oxidized lipids and proteins in liver, oxidative skeletal muscle, and heart ventricle were quantified in five species of notothenioid...

Data from: The first Cenozoic spinicaudatans from North America

Alycia L. Stigall, Roy E. Plotnick & Lisa E. Park Bousch
A new spinicaudatan species, Estherites? jocelynae new species, is described from more than fiftyspecimens collected from the Medicine Lodge Formation (early Oligocene) of the Beaverhead Basin in southwestern Montana, USA. This is the first spinicaudatan species reported from Cenozoic strata of North America and is the second-youngest fossil clam shrimp described globally. The new species extends the range of the superfamily Estheriteoidea into the Paleogene. Carapaces of E.? jocelynae n. sp. are preserved as a...

Data from: Morphological diversification of ampullariid gastropods (Nsungwe Formation, late Oligocene, Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania) is coincident with onset of East African rifting

Y. Ranjeev Epa, Alycia L. Stigall, Eric M. Roberts, Haley D. O'Brien & Nancy J. Stevens
A new freshwater gastropod fauna is described from the late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania. Six new species of ampullariids are established including five species of Lanistes (L. microovum, L. nsungwensis, L. songwellipticus, L. songweovum and L. rukwaensis) and one species of Carnevalea (C. santiapillai). These taxa occupy a morphospace region comparable to nearly half of extant Lanistes, a common and widespread genus in Africa and Madagascar. Palaeoecological evidence indicates that...

Data from: 2b-RAD genotyping for population genomic studies of Chagas disease vectors: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in Ecuador

Luis Enrique Hernandez Castro, Marta Paterno, Anita G. Villacís, Björn Andersson, Jaime A. Costales, Michele De Noia, Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga, Cesar A. Yumiseva, Mario J. Grijalva, Martin S. Llewellyn & Luis E. Hernandez-Castro
Background: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the main triatomine vector of Chagas disease, American trypanosomiasis, in Southern Ecuador and Northern Peru. Genomic approaches and next generation sequencing technologies have become powerful tools for investigating population diversity and structure which is a key consideration for vector control. Here we assess the effectiveness of three different 2b restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) genotyping strategies in R. ecuadoriensis to provide sufficient genomic resolution to tease apart microevolutionary processes and undertake some...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance

Anthony L. Gilbert & Donald B. Miles
Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences...

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