14 Works

Phylogeny and floral character evolution of Mentzelia section Bicuspidaria (Loasaceae)

Joshua Brokaw, John Schenk, Jessica Devitt & Destiny Brokaw
Mentzelia section Bicuspidaria (Loasaceae) is a monophyletic group of desert ephemerals that inhabit the complex, heterogeneous landscapes of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. To investigate species circumscriptions and evolutionary relationships in Bicuspidaria, we employed phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequences from the plastid trnL-trnF, trnS-trnfM, ndhF-rpl32, and rpl32-trnL regions and the nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS regions. Due to evidence of discordant relationships reconstructed from the plastid and nuclear partitions, we used coalescent-based...

Cohen and Schenk (2021) Data from: Investigating phylogenetic placement and species-level relationships in a recent radiation of Mentzelia section Bartonia (Loasaceae) from the Mojave Desert

Dylan Cohen & John Schenk
Understanding species level relationships is a central goal in systematic botany; however complexes of closely related and morphologically similar species often pose considerable challenges to that goal. The North American west is home to many notable genera that notoriously have difficult species complexes (e.g., Astragalus, Eriogonum, Penstemon). Mentzelia section Bartonia (Loasaceae) is a recently evolved and diverse clade that occurs across the North American west. Phylogenetic studies have resolved many relationships, but the relationships within...

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Intense nocturnal warming alters growth strategies, coloration, and parasite load in a diurnal lizard

Alexis Rutschmann, Andréaz Dupoué, Donald Miles, Rodrigo Megía-Palma, Clémence Lauden, Murielle Richard, Arnaud Badiane, David Rozen-Rechels, Mathieu Brevet, Pauline Blaimont, Sandrine Meylan, Jean Clobert & Jean-François Le Galliard
1. In the past decades, nocturnal temperatures have been playing a disproportionate role in the global warming of the planet. Yet, they remain a neglected factor in studies assessing the impact of global warming on natural populations. In ectotherms, physiological performance is influenced by thermal conditions and an increase in body temperature of a few degrees during night-time is sufficient to induce a disproportionate increase in metabolic expenditure. 2. Here, we question whether an intense...

Soil resources mediate the strength of species but not trait convergence across grassland restorations

Christopher Catano, Tyler Basset, Jonathan Bauer, Emily Grman, Anna Groves, Chad Zirbel & Lars Brudvig
Ecological restoration is notoriously unpredictable because similar actions can result in different outcomes. Outcomes can also differ for species and functional components of communities depending on how restoration actions and abiotic conditions alter community assembly trajectories. Quantifying variation in community trajectories across restorations for both species and traits is rare, but can help to resolve underlying assembly processes and refine strategies to maximize restoration success. We quantified the importance of soil resources, seed mix richness,...

Post-Pleistocene Dispersal Explains the Rapoport Effect in North American Salamanders

Tom Radomski, Shawn Kuchta & Kenneth Kozak
Aims: In many taxa, the latitudinal span of species’ geographic ranges is positively correlated with median latitude (i.e., a Rapoport effect). This is frequently explained as adaptation to contemporary climate, however, variability in postglacial range expansion among species could also explain this pattern. Here, we analyze geographic data for North American salamanders to test the causes of Rapoport effects. Location: Temperate North America Taxon: Salamanders (order Caudata) Methods: Using range maps, we tested for a...

Data from: Nature versus nurture: Structural equation modeling indicates that parental care does not mitigate consequences of poor environmental conditions in Eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis)

Kelly Williams, Madeline Sudnick & Bekka Brodie
1. How organisms respond to variation in environmental conditions and whether behavioral responses can mitigate negative consequences on growth, condition and other fitness measures are critical to our ability to conserve populations in changing environments. Offspring development is affected by environmental conditions and parental care behavior. When adverse environmental conditions are present, parents may alter behaviors to mitigate the impacts of poor environmental conditions on offspring. 2. We determined if parental behavior (provisioning rates, attentiveness,...

Access to Health Care in Appalachia

Michele Morrone, Cory E. Cronin, Kristin Schuller & Shannon E. Nicks
Introduction: Health disparities such as cancer and diabetes are well documented in Appalachia. These disparities contribute to health status, and by many indicators, Appalachian people are less healthy than those who live in other parts of the country. Access to health care is one factor that contributes to health disparities. Access to care is complex and involves both intrinsic and extrinsic aspects, including satisfaction with quality of care. This research sought to compare Appalachian to...

Anthropogenic noise alters parental behavior and nestling development, but not fledging condition

Meelyn Mayank Pandit, James Eapen, Gabriela Pineda-Sabilon, Margaret Caulfield, Alexander Moreno, Jay Wilhelm, Jessica Ruyle, Eli Bridge & Darren Proppe
Anthropogenic noise is a ubiquitous feature of the American landscape, and is a known stressor for many bird species, leading to negative effects in behavior, physiology, reproduction, and ultimately fitness. While a number of studies have examined how anthropogenic noise affects avian fitness, there are few that simultaneously examine how anthropogenic noise impacts the relationship between parental care behavior and nestling fitness. We conducted Brownian noise playbacks for six hours a day during the nesting...

Selection data: Reproductive success and morphology

Melissa Liotta, Jessica Abbott, Molly Morris & Oscar Rios-Cardenas
Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) have provided valuable insights into how sexual selection and life history tradeoffs can lead to variation within a sex. However, the possibility that tactics may constrain evolution through intralocus tactical conflict is rarely considered. In addition, when intralocus conflict has been considered, the focus has often been on the genetic correlations between the ARTs, while evidence that the ARTs have different optima for associated traits and that at least one of...

Thermal profiles reveal stark contrasts in properties of biological membranes from heart among Antarctic notothenioid fishes which vary in expression of hemoglobin and myoglobin

Elizabeth R. Evans, Amir M. Farnoud, Kristin M. O'Brien & Elizabeth L. Crockett
Antarctic notothenioids are noted for extreme stenothermy, yet underpinnings of their thermal limits are not fully understood. We hypothesized that properties of ventricular membranes could explain previously observed differences among notothenioids in temperature onset of cardiac arrhythmias and persistent asystole. Microsomes were prepared using ventricles from six species of notothenioids, including four species from the hemoglobin-less (Hb−) family Channichthyidae (icefishes), which also differentially express cardiac myoglobin (Mb), and two species from the (Hb+) Nototheniidae. We...

Data from: Genetic and ecogeographic controls on species cohesion in Australia’s most diverse lizard radiation

Ivan Prates, Sonal Singhal, M. Raquel Marchán-Rivadeneira, Maggie R. Grundler, Craig C. Moritz, Steve Donnellan & Daniel L. Rabosky
Species vary extensively in geographic range size and climatic niche breadth. If range limits are primarily determined by climatic factors, species with broad climatic tolerances and those that track geographically widespread climates should have large ranges. However, large ranges might increase the probability of population fragmentation and adaptive divergence, potentially decoupling climatic niche breadth and range size. Conversely, ecological generalism in widespread species might lead to higher gene flow across climatic transitions, increasing species’ cohesion...

Little brown myotis social networks

Joseph Johnson
Bats are a group of mammals well known for forming dynamic social groups. Studies of bat social structures are often based upon the frequency at which bats occupy the same roosts because observing bats directly is not always possible. However, it is not always clear how closely bats occupying the same roost associate with each other, obscuring whether associations result from social relationships or factors such as shared preferences for roosts. Our goal was to...

Cucurbit[7]uril as a Supramolecular Artificial Enzyme for Diels-Alder Reactions

Aniello Palma, Markus Artelsmair, Guanglu Wu, Xiaoyong Lu, Steven J. Barrow, Najib Uddin, Edina Rosta, Eric Masson & Oren Scherman
Copycat.: Cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) is able to catalyse DielsâAlder reactions for substituted and otherwise unreactive N-allyl-2-furfurylamines, thus imitating the role of a DielsâAlderase enzyme. Desp...

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