175 Works

Data from: Stressful city sounds: glucocorticoid responses to experimental traffic noise are environmentally dependent

Scott Davies, Nicole Haddad & Jenny Q. Ouyang
A major challenge in urban ecology is to identify the environmental factors responsible for phenotypic differences between urban and rural individuals. However, the intercorrelation between the factors that characterise urban environments, combined with a lack of experimental manipulations of these factors in both urban and rural areas, hinder efforts to identify which aspects of urban environments are responsible for phenotypic differences. Among the factors modified by urbanisation, anthropogenic sound, particularly traffic noise, is especially detrimental...

Data from: The mismatch in distributions of vertebrates and the plants that they disperse

Jacob W. Dittel, Christopher M. Moore & Stephen B. Vander Wall
Little is known about how mutualistic interactions affect the distribution of species richness on broad geographic scales. Because mutualism positively affects the fitness of all species involved in the interaction, one hypothesis is that the richness of species involved should be positively correlated across their range, especially for obligate relationships. Alternatively, if mutualisms are facilitative (e.g., involving multiple mutualistic partners), the distribution of mutualists should not necessarily be related, and patterns in species distributions might...

Data from: Resource constraints highlight complex microbial interactions during lake biofilm development

Kevin H. Wyatt, Rody C. Seballos, Maria N. Shoemaker, Shawn P. Brown, Sudeep Chandra, Kevin A. Kuehn, Allison R. Rober & Steven Sadro
Abstract 1. This study evaluated how the availability of nutrients and organic carbon interact to influence the associations between autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms during lake biofilm development. Considering that decomposers are often better competitors for nutrients than producers in aquatic environments, we hypothesized that heterotrophs would outcompete autotrophs for available nutrients unless heterotrophs were limited by organic carbon provided by autotrophs. 2. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated autotrophic (algae) and heterotrophic (fungi, bacteria) biomass...

Data from: Reconstructing the evolutionary history of an endangered subspecies across the changing landscape of the Great Central Valley of California.

Marjorie D. Matocq, Patrick A. Kelly, Scott E. Phillips & Jesús E. Maldonado
Identifying historic patterns of population genetic diversity and connectivity is a primary challenge in efforts to re-establish the processes that have generated and maintained genetic variation across natural landscapes. The challenge of reconstructing pattern and process is even greater in highly altered landscapes where population extinctions and dramatic demographic fluctuations in remnant populations may have substantially altered, if not eliminated, historic patterns. Here, we seek to reconstruct historic patterns of diversity and connectivity in an...

Data from: Genetic source-sink dynamics among naturally structured and anthropogenically fragmented puma populations

Kyle D. Gustafson, Roderick B. Gagne, T. Winston Vickers, Seth P.D. Riley, Christopher C. Wilmers, Vernon C. Bleich, Becky M. Pierce, Marc Kenyon, Tracy L. Drazenovich, Jeff A. Sikich, Walter M. Boyce & Holly B. Ernest
Fragmentation of wildlife populations is increasing on a global scale and understanding current population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and genetic connectivity is key to informing wildlife management and conservation. We genotyped 992 pumas (Puma concolor) at 42 previously developed microsatellite loci and identified 10 genetic populations throughout the states of California and Nevada, USA. Although some genetic populations had large effective population sizes, others were small and inbred. Genetic diversity was extremely variable (heterozygosity, uHe...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Long-term research and hierarchical models reveal consistent fitness costs of being the last egg in a clutch

Cheyenne Acevedo, Thomas Riecke, Alan Leach, Madeleine Lohman, Perry Williams &
1. Maintenance of phenotypic heterogeneity in the face of strong selection is an important component of evolutionary ecology, as are the consequences of such heterogeneity. Organisms may experience diminishing returns of increased reproductive allocation as clutch or litter size increases, affecting current and residual reproductive success. Given existing uncertainty regarding trade-offs between the quantity and quality of offspring, we sought to examine the potential for diminishing returns on increased reproductive allocation in a long-lived species...

Estimating correlations among demographic parameters in population models

Thomas Riecke, Alan Leach, James Sedinger, Benjamin Sedinger & Perry Williams
Estimating correlations among demographic parameters is critical to understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution, where correlations among parameters can inform our understanding of life-history trade-offs, result in effective applied conservation actions, and shed light on evolutionary ecology. The most common approaches rely on the multivariate normal distribution, and its conjugate inverse Wishart prior distribtion. However, the inverse Wishart prior for the covariance matrix of multivariate normal distributions has a strong influence on posterior distributions. As...

Multilevel modeling of time-series cross-sectional data reveals the dynamic interaction between ecological threats and democratic development

Kodai Kusano
What is the relationship between environment and democracy? The framework of cultural evolution suggests that societal development is an adaptation to ecological threats. Pertinent theories assume that democracy emerges as societies adapt to ecological factors such as higher economic wealth, lower pathogen threats, less demanding climates, and fewer natural disasters. However, previous research confused within-country processes with between-country processes and erroneously interpreted between-country findings as if they generalize to within-country mechanisms. In this article, we...

Data from: Introduced bees (Osmia cornifrons) collect pollen from both coevolved and novel host-plant species within their family-level phylogenetic preferences

Anthony Vaudo, David Biddinger, Wiebke Sickel, Alexander Keller & Margarita M Lopez-Uribe
Studying the pollen preferences of introduced bees allows us to investigate how species utilize host-plants when establishing in new environments. Osmia cornifrons is a solitary bee introduced into North America from East-Asia for pollination of crops in the Rosaceae. We investigated whether O. cornifrons 1) more frequently collected pollen from host-plant species they coevolved with from their geographic origin, or 2) prefer hosts-plant species of specific plant taxa independent of origin. To address this question,...

Genome-wide RAD sequencing resolves the evolutionary history of serrate leaf Juniperus and reveals discordance with chloroplast phylogeny

Kathryn Uckele, Robert Adams, Thomas Parchman & Andrea Schwarzbach
Juniper (Juniperus) is an ecologically important conifer genus of the Northern Hemisphere, the members of which are often foundational tree species of arid regions. The serrate leaf margin clade is native to topologically variable regions in North America, where hybridization has likely played a prominent role in their diversification. Here we use a reduced-representation sequencing approach (ddRADseq) to generate a phylogenomic data set for 68 accessions representing all 22 species in the serrate leaf margin...

Caterpillars on a phytochemical landscape: the case of alfalfa and the Melissa blue butterfly

Matthew Forister, Su'ad Yoon, Casey Philbin, Craig Dodson, Bret Hart, Joshua Harrison, Oren Shelef, James Fordyce, Zachary Marion, Chris Nice, Lora Richards, Alex Buerkle & Zach Gompert
Modern metabolomic approaches that generate more comprehensive phytochemical profiles than were previously available are providing new opportunities for understanding plant-animal interactions. Specifically, we can characterize the phytochemical landscape by asking how a larger number of individual compounds affect herbivores and how compounds covary among plants. Here we use the recent colonization of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa) to quantify plant metabolites and the performance of caterpillars as affected by both...

Recent hybrids recapitulate ancient hybrid outcomes

Zachariah Gompert, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, James Fordyce, Matthew Forister & Chris Nice
Genomic outcomes of hybridization depend on selection and recombination in hybrids. Whether these processes have similar effects on hybrid genome composition in contemporary hybrid zones versus ancient hybrid lineages is unknown. Here we show that patterns of introgression in a contemporary hybrid zone in Lycaeides butterflies predict patterns of ancestry in geographically adjacent, older hybrid populations. We find a particularly striking lack of ancestry from one of the hybridizing taxa, Lycaeides melissa, on the Z...

Correlated decision making across multiple phases of olfactory guided search in Drosophila

Floris Van Breugel
All motile organisms must search for food, often requiring the exploration of heterogeneous environments across a wide range of spatial scales. Recent field and laboratory experiments with the fruit fly, Drosophila, have revealed that they employ different strategies across these regimes, including kilometer scale straight-path flights between resource clusters, zig-zagging trajectories to follow odor plumes, and local search on foot after landing. However, little is known about the extent to which experiences in one regime...

Genetic data and niche differences suggest that disjunct populations of Diglossa brunneiventris are not sister lineages

Juan Luis Parra, Ana Maria Gutiérrez-Zuluaga, Catalina González-Quevedo, Jessica A. Oswald, Ryan S. Terrill & Jorge L. Pérez-Emán
Disjunct distributions within a species are of great interest in systematics and biogeography. This separation can function as a barrier to gene flow when the distance among populations exceeds the dispersal capacity of individuals, and depending on the duration of the barrier, it may eventually lead to speciation. Here we describe patterns of geographic differentiation of two disjunct populations of Diglossa brunneiventris separated by approximately 1000 km along the Andes. Diglossa brunneiventris vuilleumieri is isolated...

Opposing effects of Ceanothus velutinus phytochemistry on herbivore communities at multiple scales

Casey S. Philbin, Matthew Paulsen & Lora A. Richards
Identifying the interactions of functional, biotic, and abiotic factors that define plant–insect communities has long been a goal of community ecologists. Metabolomics approaches facilitate a broader understanding of how phytochemistry mediates the functional interactions among ecological factors. Ceanothus velutinus communities are a relatively unstudied system for investigating chemically mediated interactions. Ceanothus are nitrogen-fixing, fire-adapted plants that establish early post-fire, and produce antimicrobial cyclic peptides, linear peptides, and flavonoids. This study takes a metabolomic approach to...

Pygmy rabbit landscape genomics in the southern Great Basin

Nathan Byer, Matthew Holding, Miranda Crowell, Todd Pierson, Thomas Dilts, Eveline Larrucea, Kevin Shoemaker & Marjorie Matocq
Local adaptation can occur when spatially separated populations are subjected to contrasting environmental conditions. Historically, understanding the genetic basis of adaptation has been difficult, but increased availability of genome-wide markers facilitates studies of local adaptation in non-model organisms of conservation concern. The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is an imperiled lagomorph that relies on sagebrush for forage and cover. This reliance has led to widespread population declines following reductions in the distribution of sagebrush, leading to...

Optic flow and odometry data from intelrealsense camera

Floris Van Breugel
Insects rely on the perception of image motion, or optic flow, to estimate their velocity relative to nearby objects. This information provides important sensory input for avoiding obstacles. However, certain behaviors, such as estimating the absolute distance to a landing target, accurately measuring absolute distance travelled, and estimating the ambient wind speed require decoupling optic flow into its component parts: absolute ground velocity and distance to nearby objects. Behavioral experiments suggest that insects perform these...

Context-Dependent Effects of a Reintroduced Ungulate on Soil Properties are Driven by Soil Texture, Moisture and Herbivore Activity

J. Hall Cushman
Although there is considerable evidence that large mammalian herbivores influence ecosystem-level processes, studies have reported such widely varying results that generalizations have remained elusive. Here, we use an 18-year-old exclosure experiment – stratified across a landscape heterogeneous with respect to soil texture, moisture and herbivore activity – to understand the variable effects of tule elk (Cervus canadensis nannodes), a native reintroduced herbivore, on soil properties along the coast of northern California. Elk significantly increased soil...

Data from: The geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution is closely matched to prey population structure

Michael Hague, Amber Stokes, Chris Feldman, Edmund Brodie &
Reciprocal adaptation is the hallmark of arms race coevolution. Local coadaptation between natural enemies should generate a geographic mosaic pattern where both species have roughly matched abilities across their shared range. However, mosaic variation in ecologically relevant traits can also arise from processes unrelated to reciprocal selection, such as population structure or local environmental conditions. We tested whether these alternative processes can account for trait variation in the geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution between...

Data from: Long-term and interactive effects of different mammalian consumers on growth, survival and recruitment of dominant tree species

J. Hall Cushman, Vanessa Dodge & Valerie Eviner
Throughout the world, numerous tree species are reported to be in decline, either due to increased mortality of established trees or reduced recruitment. The situation appears especially acute for oaks, which are dominant features of many landscapes in the northern hemisphere. Although numerous factors have been hypothesized to explain reductions in tree performance, vertebrate herbivores and granivores may serve as important drivers of these changes. Here, using data from 8- and 14-year-old exclosure experiments, we...

Disentangling sources of gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets: testing ancient hybridizations in Amaranthaceae s.l.

Diego F. Morales-Briones, Gudrun Kadereit, Delphine Tefarikis, Michael Moore, Stephen Smith, Samuel Brockington, Alfonso Timoneda, Won Yim, John Cushman & Ya Yang
Gene tree discordance in large genomic datasets can be caused by evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization, as well as model violation, and errors in data processing, orthology inference, and gene tree estimation. Species tree methods that identify and accommodate all sources of conflict are not available, but a combination of multiple approaches can help tease apart alternative sources of conflict. Here, using a phylotranscriptomic analysis in combination with reference genomes, we...

Data from: Individual heterogeneity in fitness in a long-lived herbivore

Madeleine Lohman, Thomas Riecke, Perry Williams & James Sedinger
Heterogeneity in the intrinsic quality and nutritional condition of individuals affects reproductive success and consequently fitness. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are long-lived, migratory, specialist herbivores. Long migratory pathways and short summer breeding seasons constrain the time and energy available for reproduction, thus magnifying life-history trade-offs. These constraints, combined with long lifespans and trade-offs between current and future reproductive value, provide a model system to examine the role of individual heterogeneity in driving life-history strategies...

Relationships between avian malaria resilience and corticosterone, testosterone and prolactin in a Hawaiian songbird

Gabrielle Names, Jesse Krause, Elizabeth Schultz, Frédéric Angelier, Charline Parenteau, Cécile Ribout, Thomas Hahn & John Wingfield
Glucocorticoids, androgens, and prolactin regulate metabolism and reproduction, but they also play critical roles in immunomodulation. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of the Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) that have experienced strong selection by avian malaria have evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while high elevation populations that have undergone weak selection remain less resilient. We investigated how variation in malaria selection has affected...

Fish abundance data in forest steppe and grassland river networks in Mongolia

Alain Maasri, Mark Pyron, Emily Arsenault, James Thorp, Bud Mendsaikhan, Flavia Tromboni, Mario Minder, Scott Kenner, John Costello, Sudeep Chandra, Amarbat Otgonganbat & Bazartseren Boldgiv
Fish abundance data (fish per m) collected during the MACRO project in Mongolia. We collected fish assemblages in river networks of two different ecoregions, the Forest Steppe (FS) and Grassland (G), in 2017 and 2019.

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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • University of Nevada Reno
    175
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