37 Works

LeafByte: A mobile application that measures leaf area and herbivory quickly and accurately

Zoe Getman-Pickering, Adam Campbell, Julie Davis, Nicholas Aflitto, Ari Grele, Todd Ugine, Zoe L. Getman‐Pickering, Julie K. Davis & Todd A. Ugine
In both basic and applied studies, quantification of herbivory on foliage is a key metric in characterizing plant-herbivore interactions, which underpin many ecological, evolutionary, and agricultural processes. Current methods of quantifying herbivory are slow or inaccurate. We present LeafByte, a free iOS application for measuring leaf area and herbivory. LeafByte can save data automatically, read and record barcodes, handle both light and dark colored plant tissue, and be used non-destructively. We evaluate its accuracy and...

Pinus contorta landscape genetics and common garden data

Sarah Bisbing
Aim: Climate change poses significant challenges for tree species, which are slow to adapt and migrate. Insight into genetic and phenotypic variation under current landscape conditions can be used to gauge persistence potential to future conditions and determine conservation priorities, but landscape effects have been minimally tested in trees. Here, we use Pinus contorta, one of the most widely-distributed conifers in North America, to evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on genetic structure as well...

Seeds of success: a conservation and restoration investment in the future of US lands

Sarah Barga, Elizabeth Leger, Peggy Olwell, Fred Edwards & Leah Prescott
Seeds of Success (SOS) is a national seed collection program led by the Bureau of Land Management. SOS represents the most comprehensive native seed repository in the US, supporting native plant restoration, management, and research. Since inception in 2000, SOS has collected seeds from over 24,400 native plant populations from ~5,600 taxa from 43 states. Collections include species important to wildlife, pollinators, and indigenous people, and over 10,000 collections have been shared for restoration and...

Data from: Spatial phylogenetics of the North American flora

Brent Mishler, Robert Guralnick, Pamela Soltis, Stephen Smith, Douglas Soltis, Narayani Barve, Julie Allen & Shawn Laffan
North America is a large continent with extensive climatic, geological, soil, and biological diversity. That biota is under threat from habitat destruction and climate change, making a quantitative assessment of biodiversity of critical importance. Rapid digitization of plant specimen records and accumulation of DNA sequence data enable a much-needed broad synthesis of species occurrences with phylogenetic data. Here we attempted the first such synthesis of a flora from such a large and diverse part of...

Genomic variation in the American pika: signatures of geographic isolation and implications for conservation

Kelly B. Klingler, Joshua P. Jahner, Thomas L. Parchman, Chris Ray & Mary M. Peacock
Distributional responses by alpine taxa to repeated, glacial-interglacial cycles throughout the last two million years have significantly influenced the spatial genetic structure of populations. These effects have been exacerbated for the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a small alpine lagomorph constrained by thermal sensitivity and a limited dispersal capacity. As a species of conservation concern, long-term lack of gene flow has important consequences for landscape genetic structure and levels of diversity within populations. Here, we use...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Changes in tree community structures in defaunated forests are not driven only by dispersal limitation

Kirstie Hazelwood, C. E. Timothy Paine, Fernando H. Cornejo-Valverde, Elizabeth G. Pringle, Harald Beck & John Terborgh
1. Bushmeat hunting has reduced population sizes of large frugivorous vertebrates throughout the tropics, thereby reducing the dispersal of seeds. This is believed to affect tree population dynamics, and therefore community composition, because the seed dispersal of large-seeded trees depends upon large-bodied vertebrates. 2. We report on a long-running study of the effect of defaunation on a tropical tree community. In three censuses over 11 years, we compared sapling recruitment between a hunted and a...

Evaluating multiple historical climate products in ecological models under current and projected temperatures

Giancarlo Sadoti, Stephanie McAfee, E. Nicklen, Pamela Sousanes & Carl Roland
Gridded historical climate products (GHCPs) are employed with increasing frequency when modeling ecological phenomena across large scales and predicting ecological responses to projected climate changes. Concurrently, there is an increasing acknowledgement of the need to account for uncertainty when employing climate projections from ensembles of global circulation models (GCMs) and emissions scenarios. Despite the growing usage and documented differences among GHCPs, uncertainty characterization has primarily focused on the roles of GCM and emissions scenario choice,...

The promise and the perils of resurveying to understand global change impacts

Katharine Stuble, Sharon Bewick, Mark Fisher, Matthew Forister, Susan Harrison, Arthur Shapiro, Andrew Latimer & Laurel Fox
Historical datasets can be useful tools to aid in understanding the impacts of global change on natural ecosystems. Resampling of historically sampled sites (“snapshot resampling”) has often been used to detect long-term shifts in ecological populations and communities, because it allows researchers to avoid long-term monitoring costs and investigate a large number of potential trends. But recent simulation-based research has called the reliability of resampling into question, and its utility has not been comprehensively evaluated....

Data from: Ecology shapes epistasis in a genotype-phenotype-fitness map for stick insect colour

Zachariah Gompert, Patrik Nosil, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Jeffrey Feder & Thomas Parchman
Genetic interactions such as epistasis are widespread in nature and can shape evolutionary dynamics. Epistasis occurs due to non-linearity in biological systems, which can arise via cellular processes that convert genotype to phenotype and via selective processes that connect phenotype to fitness. Few studies in nature have connected genotype to phenotype to fitness for multiple potentially interacting genetic variants. Thus, the causes of epistasis in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that epistasis...

Latitudinal gradients in population growth do not reflect demographic responses to climate

Megan Peterson, Graham Bailes, Lauren Hendricks, Laurel Pfeifer-Meister, Paul Reed, Scott Bridgham, Bart Johnson, Robert Shriver, Ellen Waddle, Hannah Wroton, Daniel Doak, Bitty Roy & William Morris
Spatial gradients in population growth, such as across latitudinal or elevational gradients, are often assumed to primarily be driven by variation in climate, and are frequently used to infer species’ responses to climate change. Here, we use a novel demographic, mixed model approach to dissect the contributions of climate variables vs. other latitudinal or local site effects on spatiotemporal variation in population performance in three perennial bunchgrasses. For all three species, we find that performance...

Artificial nightlight alters the predator-prey dynamics of an apex carnivore

Mark Ditmer, David Stoner, Clinton D. Francis, Jesse Barber, James Forester, David Choate, Kirsten Ironside, Kathleen Longshore, Kent Hersey, Randy Larsen, Brock McMillan, Daniel Olson, Alyson Andreasen, Jon Beckmann, Brandon Holton, Terry Messmer & Neil Carter
Artificial nightlight is increasingly recognized as an important environmental disturbance that influences the habitats and fitness of numerous species. However, its effects on wide-ranging vertebrates and their interactions remain unclear. Light pollution has the potential to amplify land-use change, and as such, answering the question of how this sensory stimulant affects behavior and habitat use of species valued for their ecological roles and economic impacts is critical for conservation and land-use planning. Here, we combined...

Thistle-down velvet ants in the Desert Mimicry Ring and the evolution of white coloration: Müllerian mimicry, camouflage, and thermal ecology

Joseph Wilson, Jeni Sidwell, Matthew Forister, Kevin Williams & James Pitts
Adaptive coloration among animals is one of the most recognizable outcomes of natural selection. Here we investigate evolutionary drivers of white coloration in velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), which has previously been considered camouflage with the fruit of creosote bush. Our analyses indicate instead that velvet ants evolved white coloration millions of years before creosote bush was widespread in North America’s hot deserts. Furthermore, velvet ants and the creosote fruit exhibit different spectral reflectance patterns, which...

Transcriptomics illuminate the phylogenetic backbone of tiger beetles

Harlan Gough, Julie Allen, Emmanuel Toussaint, Caroline Storer & Akito Kawahara
Phylogenomics is progressing rapidly, allowing large strides forward into our understanding of the tree of life. In this study, we generated transcriptomes from ethanol-preserved specimens of 13 tiger beetle species (Coleoptera: Cicindelinae) and one Scaritinae outgroup. From these 14 transcriptomes and seven publicly available transcriptomes, we recovered an average of 2538 loci for phylogenetic analysis. We constructed an evolutionary tree of tiger beetles to examine deep-level relationships and examined the extent to which the composition...

Sex linkage of the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A) explains apparent deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium of tetrodotoxin-resistance alleles in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)

Kerry Gendreau, Michael Hague, Chris Feldman, , & Joel McGlothlin
The arms race between tetrodotoxin-bearing Pacific newts (Taricha) and their garter snake predators (Thamnophis) in western North America has become a classic example of coevolution, shedding light on predator-prey dynamics, the molecular basis of adaptation, and patterns of convergent evolution. Newts are defended by tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neurotoxin that binds to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav proteins), arresting electrical activity in nerves and muscles and paralyzing would-be predators. However, populations of the common garter snake (T....

Diversification history of clown tree frogs in Neotropical rainforests (Anura, Hylidae, Dendropsophus leucophyllatus group)

Renata Pirani, Pedro Peloso, Joyce Prado, Érico Polo, Lacey Knowles, Santiago Ron, Miguel Rodrigues, Marcelo Sturaro & Fernanda Werneck
General consensus emphasizes that no single biological process can explain the patterns of species’ distributions and diversification in the Neotropics. Instead, the interplay of several processes across space and time must be taken into account. Here we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of tree frogs in the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group (Amphibia: Hylidae), which is distributed across Amazonia and the Atlantic rainforests. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and double digest restriction-site associated DNA...

How specialized is a soil specialist? Early life history responses of a rare Eriogonum to site-level variation in volcanic soils

Jamey McClinton, Elizabeth Leger, Thomas Parchman, Paul Verburg & Kathleen Torrence
Premise of the study: Understanding edaphic specialization is crucial for conserving rare plants that may need relocation due to habitat loss. Focusing on Eriogonum crosbyae, a rare soil specialist in the Great Basin, US, we asked how site-level variation among volcanic soil outcrops affected plant growth and population distribution. Methods: We measured emergence, survival, size, and biomass allocation of E. crosbyae seedlings planted into soils collected from forty-two outcrops of actual and potential habitat. We...

Data from: Evidence of widespread topoclimatic limitation for lower treelines of the Intermountain West, U.S.A.

Alexandra Urza, Peter Weisberg & Thomas Dilts
Many forests in dry mountain regions are characterized by a lower elevational treeline. Understanding the controls on the position of lower treeline is important for predicting future forest distributional shifts in response to global environmental change. Lower treelines currently at their climate limit are expected to be more sensitive to changing climate, whereas lower treelines constrained by non-climatic factors are less likely to respond directly to climate change but may be sensitive to other global...

Data from: Piping Plover population increase after Hurricane Sandy mediated by immigration and reproductive output

Samantha Robinson, Daniel Gibson, Thomas Riecke, James Fraser, Henrietta Bellman, Audrey DeRose-Wilson, Sarah Karpanty & Katie Walker
Evaluating population-level responses to conservation action following large-scale disturbance can improve the efficacy of future habitat conservation measures. In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy storm surges cleared vegetation and opened inlets through the barrier islands, Fire Island and Westhampton Island, New York, creating Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) habitat. Storm effects prompted an island-wide stabilization project, which had the potential to negatively affect novel Piping Plover habitat. Certain sections of Fire Island were designed to create and/or...

Predicting patch occupancy reveals the complexity of host range expansion

Matthew Forister
Specialized plant-insect interactions are a defining feature of life on earth, yet we are only beginning to understand the factors that set limits on host ranges in herbivorous insects. To better understand the recent adoption of alfalfa as a host plant by the Melissa blue butterfly, we quantified arthropod assemblages and plant metabolites across a wide geographic region, while controlling for climate and dispersal inferred from population genomic variation. The presence of the butterfly is...

Data for: Testing an invasion mechanism for Eucalyptus globulus: is there evidence of allelopathy?

Jenn Yost, Kristen Nelson, Dena Grossenbacher, Sarah Bisbing & Matt Ritter
Premise of study- Sparse understory communities, in association with non-native tree species, are often attributed to allelopathy, the chemical inhibition of one plant by another. However, allelopathy is a difficult ecological phenomenon to demonstrate with many studies showing conflicting results. Eucalyptus globulus, a native tree to Australia, is one of the most widely planted trees around the world. Sparse understories are common beneath E. globulusplantations and are often attributed to allelopathy, but the ecological impacts...

Data from: Montane meadows: a soil carbon sink or source?

Cody C. Reed, Amy G. Merrill, W. Mark Drew, Beth Christman, Rachel A. Hutchinson, Levi Keszey, Melissa Odell, Sherman Swanson, Paul S. J. Verburg, Jim Wilcox, Stephen C. Hart & Benjamin W. Sullivan
As the largest biogeochemically active terrestrial reserve of carbon (C), soils have the potential to either mitigate or amplify rates of climate change. Ecosystems with large C stocks and high rates of soil C sequestration, in particular, may have outsized impacts on regional and global C cycles. Montane meadows have large soil C stocks relative to surrounding ecosystems. However, anthropogenic disturbances in many meadows may have altered the balance of C inputs and outputs, potentially...

Extensive in situ radiation of feather lice on tinamous

Stephany Virrueta Herrera, Andrew Sweet, Julie Allen, Kimberly Walden, Jason Weckstein & Kevin Johnson
Tinamous host the highest generic diversity of lice of any group of birds, as well as hosting representatives of all four avian feather louse ecomorphs. Although the generic diversity of tinamou feather lice is well documented, few attempts have been made to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among these lice. To test whether tinamou feather lice form a monophyletic group as a whole, we used whole genome sequencing to estimate a higher-level phylogeny of tinamou feather...

Data from: Indirect genetic control of migration in a salmonid fish

Suzanne Kelson, Stephanie Carlson & Michael Miller
The paper titled "Indirect genetic control of migration in a salmonid fish" examines the genetic architecture of migration in a partially migratory salmonid fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss. We assess the shared genetic basis between early life growth and migration, and find a shared allelic basis on the Omy05 region of the genome. We then test if early life growth differs among resident/migratory genotype juvenile fish in streams in the South Fork Eel River watershed, in Northern...

Data from: Mate fidelity improves survival and breeding propensity of a long-lived bird

Alan Leach, Thomas Riecke, , David Ward & Sean Boyd
1. Evolutionary and behavioral ecologists have long been interested in factors shaping the variation in mating behavior observed in nature. Whereas, much of the research on this topic has focused on the consequences of mate choice and mate change on annual reproductive success, studies of a potential positive link between mate fidelity and adult demographic rates have been comparatively rare. This is particularly true for long-lived birds with multi-year, socially monogamous pair bonds. 2. We...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    37

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    37

Affiliations

  • University of Nevada Reno
    37
  • Utah State University
    7
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
    4
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    3
  • California Polytechnic State University
    2
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    2
  • University of Notre Dame
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Virginia
    2