110 Works

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Extreme Weather Events: The Case For an Alternative (Bayesian) Approach’ (Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, E.A. Lloyd & N. Oreskes
The conventional approach to detecting and attributing climate change impacts on extreme weather events is generally based on frequentist statistical inference wherein a null hypothesis of no influence is assumed, and the alternative hypothesis of an influence is accepted only when the null hypothesis can be rejected at a sufficiently high (e.g., 95% or p = 0.05) level of confidence. Using a simple conceptual model for the occurrence of extreme weather events, we show that...

Data from: Sexual, fecundity, and viability selection on flower size and number in a sexually dimorphic plant

Lynda F. Delph & Christopher R. Herlihy
The evolution of sexual dimorphism will depend on how sexual, fecundity and viability selection act within each sex, with the different forms of selection potentially operating in opposing directions. We examined selection in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia using planted arrays of selection lines that differed in flower size (small vs. large). In this species a flower size/number tradeoff exists within each sex, and males produce smaller and more numerous flowers than females. Moreover, floral...

Data from: In a variable thermal environment selection favors greater plasticity of cell membranes in Drosophila melanogaster

Brandon S. Cooper, Loubna A. Hammad, Nicholas P. Fisher, Jonathan A. Karty & Kristi L. Montooth
Theory predicts that developmental plasticity, the capacity to change phenotypic trajectory during development, should evolve when the environment varies sufficiently among generations, owing to temporal (e.g., seasonal) variation or to migration among environments. We characterized the levels of cellular plasticity during development in populations of Drosophila melanogaster experimentally evolved for over three years in either constant or temporally variable thermal environments. We used two measures of the lipid composition of cell membranes as indices of...

Data from: Resource and competitive dynamics shape the benefits of public goods cooperation in a plant pathogen

Thomas Gene Platt, Clay Fuqua & James D. Bever
Cooperative benefits depend on a variety of ecological factors. Many cooperative bacteria increase the population size of their groups by making a public good available. Increased local population size can alleviate the constraints of kin competition on the evolution of cooperation by enhancing the between-group fitness of cooperators. The cooperative pathogenesis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes infected plants to exude opines—resources that provide a nearly exclusive source of nutrient for the pathogen. We experimentally demonstrate that...

Incucyte data for infected cell colonized with Wolbachia or uncolonized

Irene Newton, Tamanash Bhattacharya & Richard Hardy
The ability of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis to restrict RNA viruses is presently being leveraged to curb global transmission of arbovirus-induced diseases. Past studies have shown that virus replication is limited early in arthropod cells colonized by the bacterium, although it is unclear if this phenomenon is replicated in mosquito cells that first encounter viruses obtained through a vertebrate blood meal. Furthermore, these cellular events neither explain how Wolbachia limits dissemination of viruses between mosquito...

Invasive species and biotic homogenization in temperate aquatic plant communities

Ranjan Muthukrishnan & Daniel Larkin
Aim: Biotic homogenization (BH), a reduction in the distinctness of species composition between geographically separated ecological communities in a region, is an important but underappreciated potential consequence of biological invasions. While BH theory has always considered invasions, it has generally been in a relatively narrow context, i.e., that the cosmopolitan nature of invasive species increases BH because of their shared presence across many locations. We sought to evaluate this component of BH as well as...

Intraspecific genetic variation underlying postmating reproductive barriers between species in the wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon)

Cathleen Jewell, Simo Zhang, Matthew Gibson, Alejandro Tovar-Mendez, Bruce McClure & Leonie Moyle
A goal of speciation genetics is to understand how the genetic components underlying interspecific reproductive barriers originate within species. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is a postmating prezygotic barrier in which pollen rejection in the female reproductive tract (style) occurs in only one direction of an interspecific cross. Natural variation in the strength of UI has been observed among populations within species in the wild tomato clade. In some cases, molecular loci underlying self-incompatibility (SI) are associated...

Data from: Validation of a rodent model of source memory

Jonathon Crystal, Wesley Alford, W. T. Alford & J. D. Crystal
Source memory represents the origin (source) of information. Recently, we proposed that rats (Rattus norvegicus) remember the source of information. However, an alternative to source memory is the possibility that rats selectively encoded some, but not all, information rather than retrieving an episodic memory. We directly tested this "encoding-failure" hypothesis. Here, we show that rats remember the source of information, under conditions that cannot be attributed to encoding failure. Moreover, source memory lasted at least...

Data from: Cell signaling-based classifier predicts response to induction therapy in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia

Alessandra Cesano, Cheryl L. Willman, Kenneth J. Kopecky, Urte Gayko, Santosh Putta, Brent Louie, Matt Westfall, Norman Purvis, David C. Spellmeyer, Carol Marimpietri, Aileen C. Cohen, James Hackett, Jing Shi, Michael G. Walker, Zhuoxin Sun, Elisabeth Paietta, Martin S. Tallman, Larry D. Cripe, Susan Atwater, Frederick R. Appelbaum & Jerald P. Radich
Single-cell network profiling (SCNP) data generated from multi-parametric flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) samples collected from patients >55 years old with non-M3 AML were used to train and validate a diagnostic classifier (DXSCNP) for predicting response to standard induction chemotherapy (complete response [CR] or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery [CRi] versus resistant disease [RD]). SCNP-evaluable patients from four SWOG AML trials were randomized between Training (N = 74 patients...

Data from: Community functional trait composition at the continental scale: the effects of non-ecological processes

A. Michelle Lawing, Jussi T. Eronen, Jessica L. Blois, Catherine H. Graham & P. David Polly
Ecological communities and their response to environmental gradients are increasingly being described by measures of trait composition at the community level – the trait-based approach. Whether ecological or non-ecological processes influence trait composition between communities has been debated. Understanding the processes that influence trait composition is important for reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions from fossil deposits and for understanding changes in community functionality through time. Here, we assess the influence of ecological and non-ecological processes on the...

Sequencing data and normalized counts for tripartite RNAseq of Drosophila, Wolbachia, and SINV virus

Irene Newton
Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted bacterium that manipulates arthropod and nematode biology in myriad ways. The Wolbachia strain colonizing Drosophila melanogaster creates sperm-egg incompatibilities and protects its host against RNA viruses, making it a promising tool for vector control. Despite successful trials using Wolbachia-transfected mosquitoes for Dengue control, knowledge of how Wolbachia and viruses jointly affect insect biology remains limited. Using the Drosophila melanogaster model, transcriptomics and gene expression network analyses revealed pathways with altered...

Experimentally elevated testosterone shortens telomeres across years in a free-living songbird

Britt Heidinger, Samuel Slowiniski, Aubrey Sirman, Nicole Gerlach & Ellen Ketterson
Reproductive investment often comes at a cost to longevity, but the mechanisms that underlie these long-term effects are not well understood. In male vertebrates, elevated testosterone has been shown to increase reproductive success, but simultaneously decrease survival. One factor that may contribute to or serve as a biomarker of these long-term effects of testosterone on longevity is telomeres, which are often positively related to lifespan and have been shown to shorten in response to reproduction....

Modeling Hospital-Wide Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Pros and Cons

Shiksha Joshi, Sandipan Shringi, Manpreet Sira & Maya Guglin
Background We aimed to analyze the potential benefits of implementing a hospital-wide extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) protocol. Methods We analyzed in-hospital cardiac arrests in a large, academic hospital for two consecutive years. For this model, we assumed that ECPR would be started in all adults, with no upper age limit, who have a full code status. We excluded codes lasting <15 minutes, arrests with asystole as an initial rhythm, and patients with hemorrhagic shock or...

Data from: Surprising complexity of the ancestral apoptosis network

Christian M. Zmasek, Qing Zhang, Yuzhen Ye & Adam Godzik
Apoptosis, one of the main types of programmed cell death, is regulated and performed by a complex protein network. Studies in model organisms, mostly in the nematode C. elegans, identified a relatively simple apoptotic network consisting of only a few proteins. However, analysis of several recently sequenced invertebrate genomes, ranging from the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, representing one of the morphologically simplest metazoans, to the deuterostomes sea urchin and amphioxus, contradicts the current paradigm...

Data from: Longitudinal cognitive and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease

Eric McDade, Guoqiao Wang, Brian Andrew Gordon, Jason Hassenstab, Tammie L.S. Benzinger, Virginia Buckles, Anne M. Fagan, David M. Holtzman, Nigel J. Cairns, Alison M. Goate, Daniel S. Marcus, John C. Morris, Katrina Paumier, Chengjie Xiong, Ricardo Allegri, Sarah B. Berman, William Klunk, James Nobel, John Ringman, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin Farlow, Reisa Anne Sperling, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Stephen Salloway, Neil R. Graff-Radford … & Randall J. Bateman
Objective: To assess the onset, sequence and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. Methods: We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 (+/- 1.1) visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals’ estimated years...

Data from: Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests

Michelle Kalamandeen, Emanuel Gloor, Isaac Johnson, Shenelle Agard, Martin Katow, Ashmore Vanbrooke, David Ashley, Sarah A. Batterman, Guy Ziv, Kaslyn Collins-Holder, Oliver L. Phillips, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Ima Vieira & David Galbraith
Gold mining has rapidly increased across the Amazon Basin in recent years, especially in the Guiana shield, where it is responsible for >90% of total deforestation. However, the ability of forests to recover from gold mining activities remains largely unquantified. Forest inventory plots were installed on recently abandoned mines in two major mining regions in Guyana, and re-censused 18 months later, to provide the first ground-based quantification of gold mining impacts on Amazon forest biomass...

Recombination data for Wolbachia and Spiroplasma infected flies

Irene Newton & Kaeli Bryant
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular alphaproteobacterium that infects 40-60% of insect species and is well known for host reproductive manipulations. Although Wolbachia are primarily maternally transmitted, evidence of horizontal transmission can be found in incongruent host-symbiont phylogenies and recent acquisitions of the same Wolbachia strain by distantly related species. Parasitoids and predator-prey interactions may indeed facilitate the transfer of Wolbachia between insect lineages but it is likely that Wolbachia are acquired via introgression in many...

Data from: Conspecific sperm precedence is reinforced, but postcopulatory sexual selection weakened, in sympatric populations of Drosophila

Dean M. Castillo & Leonie C. Moyle
Sexual selection can accelerate speciation by driving the evolution of reproductive isolation, but forces driving speciation could also reciprocally feedback on sexual selection. This might be particularly important in the context of ‘reinforcement’, where selection acts directly to increase prezygotic barriers to reduce the cost of heterospecific matings. Using assays of sperm competition within and between two sister species, we show a signature of reinforcement where these species interact: populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that co-occur...

Data from: Differential changes in bone strength of two inbred mouse strains following administration of a sclerostin-neutralizing antibody during growth

Noah J. Mathis, Emily N. Adaniya, Lauren M. Smith, Alexander G. Robling, Karl J. Jepsen & Stephen H. Schlecht
Administration of sclerostin-neutralizing antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment has been shown to elicit an anabolic bone response in growing and adult mice. Prior work characterized the response of individual mouse strains but did not establish whether the impact of Scl-Ab on whole bone strength would vary across different inbred mouse strains. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that two inbred mouse strains (A/J and C57BL/6J (B6)) will show different whole bone strength outcomes following sclerostin-neutralizing antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment...

Does Collaboration in Teaching Situations Help in Enhancing Teacher’s Job Satisfaction?

Pavneet Bharaj
Collaboration dismantles the compartmentalized structure of educational organizations and creates a safe and supportive environment for its teachers. This helps them to share valuable knowledge related to content or pedagogy, with the common interest of creating a better learning environment for the students. Collaboration supports teachers in instructional practices as well as contributes to their job satisfaction. The structure of this paper is guided by theoretical frameworks by DuFour, Eaker, and DuFour’s (2005) on collaboration,...

The Conceptualization of Sisterhood Within the Collegiate Sorority: An Exploration

Joshua Shutts, Gentry McCreary & Sarah Cohen

Operationalizing Organizational Change Theory: Implications for Practice in the Fraternity/Sorority Movement

Tim Reuter & Steve Backer

Manduca sexta experience high parasitoid pressures in the field but minor fitness costs of consuming plant secondary compounds

Deidra Jacobsen
Plant-herbivore co-evolutionary interactions have led to a range of plant defenses that minimize insect damage and a suite of counter-adaptations that allow herbivores to feed on defended plants. Consuming plant secondary compounds results in herbivore growth and developmental costs but can have beneficial effects such as deterrence or harm of parasitoid enemies. Therefore, the role of secondary compounds on herbivore fitness must be considered in the context of the abundance and level of harm from...

Warming during maternal generations delays offspring germination in native and nonnative species

Meredith Zettlemoyer & Jennifer Lau
As environmental conditions shift due to global warming and other human-caused environmental changes, plastic responses in phenological traits like germination or flowering time may become increasingly important. While phenological plasticity is a common response to global warming, with many populations exhibiting earlier germination or flowering in warmer years, warming may also result in transgenerational plasticity, especially on early life stages. In other words, seeds produced by mothers inhabiting warmer environments may germinate faster (or slower)...

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